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Preparation of Yogurt Added with Green Tea and Mugwort Tea and Quality Characteristics (녹차와 쑥차를 첨가한 요구르트이 제조와 품질 특성)

  • 방병호;박홍현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.854-859
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    • 2000
  • A functional yogurt was prepared from whole milk (12%) and skim milk (2%) added with green tea and mugwort tea at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for 24 hors. The yogurt product were evaluated for acid production (pH, titratable acidity), number of viable cell, viscosity, sensory property and quality-keeping property. Addition of green tea and mugwort tea remarkably accelerated acid production of yogurt. After 24 hrs incubation, titratabel acidity of green tea and mugwort tea yogurt was 1.46% and 1.62%, respectively and was higher than that (1.30%) of yogurt made with only milk. The propagation of lactic acid bacteria was not stimulated by green tea and mugwort tea and then the number of viable cell in normal (milk) yogurt green tea yogurt and mugwort tea yogurt groups, after 24 hrs incubation, was about 7.2$\times$$10^{8}$, 7.1$\times$$10^{8}$ and 7.0$\times$$10^{8}$/mL, respectively, Viscosity of green tea yogurt was slightly lower than that of milk yogurt (1,840 cps) and viscosity of mugwort tea yogurt was slightly higher than that of mild yogurt. The overall sensory score of green tea yogurt was the best of tested yogurt. When yogurt with green tea and mugwort tea was kept at 5$^{\circ}C$ for 15 days, its quality-keeping property was relatively good.

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Antioxidative Effect of Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea (녹차, 오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 항산화효과)

  • 김선봉;여생규;안철우;이용우;이태기;박영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 1995
  • Antioxidative effect of tea extracts from green tea(steamed, roasted), oolong tea and black tea was investigated. Antioxidative activities of the crude catechin fraction were the most effective in oolong tea which contained the highest level of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCg). The water-soluble fraction obtained from oolong tea exhibited binding with more ferrous than copper ions. It showed a synergistic effect when used with an antioxidant such as BHT(0.5mg) and $\alpha$-tocopherol(2mg). Especially, this synergistic effect was exhibited more with BHT than with $\alpha$-tocopherol. Also steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea showed remarkable free radical scavenging action. The SC50(the concentration of a water-soluble fraction which is required to scavenge 50% of 100$\mu$M 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals) of steamed and roasted green tea, oolong tea and black tea extracts were 11.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, 11.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, 12.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 14.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively. It is assumed that the antioxidative activity of tea extracts is due to inhibition of peroxidation free radical scavenging and binding action of ferrous ions by mainly tea polyphenol compounds.

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Inhibitin of Xanthine Oxidase by Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea (녹차, 오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 Xanthine Oxidase 억제작용)

  • 김선봉;여생규;박영범;김인수;박영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.154-159
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    • 1995
  • Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by tea extracts obtained from non-fermented tea(steamed green tea and roasted green tea), semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea) were investigated. The crude catechin fraciton had a hgher inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase, and the effect was increased with the addition of tea extracts. Their inhibitory effect were hardly influenced until extracted three times with hot water. According to the investigation of catechins in the crude catechin fraction obtained from tea extracts, (-)-epicatechin-(EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate(ECg). (-)-epigallocatechin(EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCg) were 80.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg 113.5$\mu\textrm{g}$ /mg, 186.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 367.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in steamed green tea, and 75.6$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 114.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 193.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 381.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in roasted green tea, and 69.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 110.0$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 127.1$\mu\textrm{g}$.mg and 464.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in oolong tea, and 78.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 171.8$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 80.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 51.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in black tea, respectively. Order of the content of these catechins was (-)-EGCg>(-)-EGC>(-)-ECg>(-)-EC in steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea, and was (-)-ECg>(-)-EGC>(-)-EC>(-)-EGCg in black tea. Also the concentration of catechins was hardly influeced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by autherntic catechins was hardly influenced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by authentic catechins was 94.9% and 87.6% by addition of 5.0$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of (-)-EGCg and (-)-ECg, respectively. the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase were supposed to be due to (-)-ECg and (-)-EGCg in tea polyphenol compounds.

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A Study on the Tea Culture Space in Korea (한국차문화 공간에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Il Hee;Choi Nam Sook
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.61-84
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    • 2004
  • This thesis attempted to generate ideal tea culture space that connects environment and culture. Therefore, this examines: First, history of tea and the characteristics of tea culture space from Gochosun to modern times was reviewed Second, psychological factors (spirit of tea) of Korea tea culture space were reviewed. Third, the connection between the concept of tea culture space and Human Ecosystem Model by was analyzed. Also, this thesis examined how the culture of ecosystem and why tea culture space is needed. because tea includes varieties of ingredients for protecting environmental pollution. Finally, tea culture spaces were reviewed each region during Chosun dynasty, and tea culture space of recent tea users. In order to study tea culture space, complex residential area and single residential areas were compared. The useful of tea culture space as a ecological space was also examined. To achieve the purpose of this study, related literatures were reviewed, and investigations of museums and a survey on modern living space were also conducted. The results show that the space of our tea culture were affected by nature worshipping of Gochosun, Buddhism of Koryo, and Confusianism of Chosun with 'Pungryu', the idea that enjoys nature, thereby applying environment-friendly ecological beauty to their living space and life. The cultyral space in Korea is composed of natural environment such as mountain, sea, rock, or trees and artificial environment such as pond or pavilion. In the future, oriental culture with metaphysical value will lead the world culture, and especially, tea culture would play an important role regardless of nationality, race, religion, and ideology. Therefore, establishing a tea culture space in a living space would be the fundamental methods that would be able to settle down such tea life into our daily life. Our attempts to create ecological tea culture space as a integrated cultural space of natural, artificial, and human behavioral environment will contribute to enhance our quality of life.

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The Nitrite-Scavenging Effects by Component of Oolong and Black Tea Extracts (오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 아질산염 분해작용)

  • 안철우;여생규
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 1996
  • The present study was conducted to elucidate the functional property of tea extract obtained from tea extracts, semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea). Tea extracts exhibited remarkable nitrite-scavenging actions, and the action increased with the increased of the amount of tea extracts. The nitrite-scavenging actionof tea extracts showed pH dependent, highest at pH 1.2 and lowest at pH6.0. The nitrite-scavenging rate in tea extracts/amine/nitrite systems proved to be faster than that in amine/nitrite systems. To screen the nitrite-scavenging factors, tea extracts were fractionated into water-soluble, methanol-soluble, methanol-precipitate and crude catechin fraction. Among these fractions of tea extracts, the crude catechin fraction possessed greater nitrite-scavenging action than the other fractions. The nitrite-scavenging action of tea extracts increased with the contents of total phenols and an absorbance at 280nm, nitrite-scavenging factors were supposed to be and catechins in tea polyphenol compounds.

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Content Analysis of Chungtaejeon Tea and Green Tea Produced in Jangheung District (장흥지역 청태전과 녹차의 성분분석)

  • Park, Yong-Seo;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Ryu, Hyeun-Hee;Heo, Buk-Gu
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to compare the nutrient and chemical contents of traditional Chungtaejeon tea with that of green tea which was harvested in Jangheung, Jeonnam district. Vitamin C, amino acids and total nitrogen contents of Chungtaejeon tea were lower than that of green tea by 0.30, 2.30 and 4.20g/100g, respectively. The tannin, caffeine, reducing sugar and chlorophyll contents in Chungtaejeon tea were the same as those in green tea. Comparing catechin contents, catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin (EGC) in Chungtaejeon tea were lower than those of green tea. However, gallocatechin (GC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin gallate (CG) showed no significant difference between Chungtaejeon tea and green tea. The flavonoid contents of Chungtaejeon tea and green tea showed higher quercetin and kaempferol contents in green tea, and higher myricetin content in Chungtaejeon tea. The measured amino acid contents for threonine and aspartic acid were lower, and for glutamic acid were higher in Chungtaejeon tea compared with those in green tea. However, free amino acid content in Chungtaejeon tea and green tea showed no significant difference. Potassium and magnesium contents in Chungtaejeon tea were lower compared to green tea but no significant difference was found for iron, manganese or calcium contents when comparing the two teas.

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A Study on Tea Culture and Manner: focused on the Blooming Lotus Pond Tea (차문화와 예절에 관한 연구: 연지화개기호차를 중심으로)

  • Lee Il Hee
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2004
  • This is a historical study of the tea culture and its manners after checking the origin of the tea culture in Korea. Also I created the Blooming Lotus Pond Tea which can be utilized in various meetings or at homes in connection with the tea culture and etiquette by studying good manners, clothing and light refreshments in 'Kyucongyogyul' by Lee-E, 'Karyejibramdo' by Kim Jang-Seng and other books of the Chosun Dynasty. I created the Blooming Lotus Pond Tea by referring to the tea-ceremonies described in the poems by Hong Inmo, his wife, Lady Suh, and her descendants. They can be better harmonized with the modem tea culture rather than the strict procedures of traditional court ceremonies or marriage, funeral, and other formal tea ceremonies. About the costumes of the nobilities, that is especially referred to Kyukmongyogyul by Lee-I of the Chosun Dynasty for the etiquette, also 'The Living Manners' by Professor Lee Gilpyo and Choi Baeyong. In addition, the tea-food is made based on 'the five elements'. The Blooming Lotus Pond Tea is made of frozen lotus flowers and prepared in the lotus formed broad-rimmed tea-utensils and supposed to be shared with family members or guests. It's recommended to hold a poetry-party with a tea-party. At present, this kind of daily tea ceremony is being developed at homes. It'll be desirable if it could recreate the traditional way as a ceremonial tea culture. In that case, it'll regain the quality of the traditional etiquette by harmonizing tea culture and manners. Such a tea culture can contribute to the quality of people's ordinary life and the identity of our country.

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The Nutrients and Microbial Properties of Animal Manure and Spent Mushroom Compost Tea and the Effect of Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) (가축분뇨와 폐버섯 퇴비차의 양분 및 미생물적 특성과 상추의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.589-602
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    • 2011
  • In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different compost teas on plant growth reponses and yield of leaf lettuce. Compost tea is a liquid extract of compost obtained by mixing compost and water for a defined period of time. The pig manure and spent mushroom compost were made by steeping compost in water. Compost tea was aerated from 24 hours and molasses and kelp were added as supplements. The four types of compost were tested growth of lettuce. EC of animal manure compost tea was higher than that of spent mushroom compost tea. Mineral nutrients were significantly higher in animal manure compost tea compared with spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea contains nutrient and a ranges of different organisms. The beneficial fungi and actinomycetes were prominent in a spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea from animal manure had the higher numbers of total bacteria. The actinomycetes densities were high in spent mushroom compost tea. But actinomycetes were not founded in animal manure compost tea. The growth characteristics of lettuce in animal manure compost tea were higher than those of spent mushroom compost tea. And also SPAD value in leaf was high in plot treated with animal manure compost tea. The fresh yield of lettuce in animal compost tea was higher by 181% that of control plot. The effect of compost tea on growth of lettuce was largely attributable to mineral nutrient.

Tea Utensils Represented on the Tomb Mural Paintings of Foreign Exchange Countries with Koryo Dynasty (고려 대외교류국의 고분벽화에 나타난 차구(茶具))

  • Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.736-749
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    • 2015
  • The present study addresses the tea utensils and tea drinking methods seen in tomb mural paintings of Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan, which were Koryo's foreign exchange countries. The paintings illustrate the pointing tea method, which was popular during dynasty times. Tea utensils observed in the paintings include a tea mill, mill stone, and tea pestle necessary for making cake tea into powder. The tea stove and boiling bottle are depicted as being required to boil water. Some mural works vividly depict how a tea drinker pours hot water from a boiling bottle into a cup with a stand, mixes it with a tea spoon, and whisks tea powder for foaming with a tea whisk. The tea drinking method of the Southern race Han is also similarly described in the tomb mural paintings of Liao, Jin, and Yuan from Northern nomads. The distribution of tea culture had an enormous influence on the development of tea utensil manufacturing methods. The significance of this study is that these findings can be used as basic data to provide food culture insights into Koryo celadon tea utensils.

Tea Breeding in Korea (우리나라 차나무 품종육성)

  • Park, Young-Goo
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.24
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2006
  • When tea trees were introduced to Korea peninsular from China? Historically, Mr. Taeryum, an envoy of Shilla dynasty brought tea seeds from China during Tang dynasty and the seeds were planted at Jiri Mt. by the order of King Heungduk at AD828. During Koryo Dynasty(918 1392), Buddhism spread rapidly all over the country and the tea culture reached its highest stage of prosperity. At the Chosun Dynasty, however, the ceremonial drinking of tea vanished almost completely due to the flourishing Confucian tradition, a kind of substitution of Buddhism. But a few people have supported the traditional tea culture by themselves. Since the independence of Korea soon after the World War II at 1945, Korean War have been exploded at 1950. After economic evolution have been succeeded at 1980, the cultivation area of tea trees has been increased about 2,000ha and the cultural tradition of tea drinking has become popular again at a tea consume quantities amounted to 100g per capita at 2004. The northern limited area of tea plant is lined on the southern part of Korea peninsular. It is very small region compared to China about one million ha and to Japan over 60 thousand ha. It is problem not only the area of tea fields but also the methodology of tea cultivation, for examples without clonal cultivars and mechanical systems. WTO treatments was discussing with Korea, China and Japan government at 2005. Green tea custom is very high at 514% in Korea. If three countries will be agreed the imported tax will be cut off, the Korean tea farmers will be confused because of unstable situation of tea markets. All most of tea farmers should be made the tea fields by seeding not clonal propagation. Because of clonal cultivars have not developed in Korea, there have not been the research institutes for tea plants and manufactures before 1992. Now there are three research institute of tea in Korea; Tea Experiment Station at Bosung of Jeonnam Agricultural Research & Extension Services, Mokpo Experimental Station of National Institute of Crop Science, and Green Tea Cluster Institute of Hadong. Mokpo and Hadong Research Station were established at 2004 and at 2005 but Bosung Station was established at 1992. Seven clonal tea cultivers were selected at Bosung Station; Bohyang, Myngsun, Chanlok, Sunhyang, Mihyang, Jinhyang and Ohsun until 2004. Mokpo Experimental Institute was started the tea provenance testing about 4 provenances: Kangwon-do, Jeonlabuk-do, Jeonlanam-do, and Kyungsangnam-do. Korean new tea cultivers should be selected because Koran wild tea population have been high genetic variation. If tea breeding research will be successful to select new clonal cultivers, the tea farmers of Korea will be stable after WTO treatment with each country.

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