• Title/Summary/Keyword: tariff and non-tariff

Search Result 8, Processing Time 0.097 seconds

A study on Strategy of Korea-U.S.A. FTA Negotiation in Cosmetics Industry and Reformation of Cosmetics Law (한국 화장품산업의 한.미 FTA 통상협상전략과 관련 법규 개선방향에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Gi
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
    • /
    • v.34
    • /
    • pp.189-223
    • /
    • 2007
  • In Korea-U.S.A. FTA Negotiation, U.S.A. request to eliminate barriers of tariffs and non-tariff in trade of cosmetics. Korea applies tariffs of 8% on most cosmetics and personal care products. There are some non-tariffs barriers in cosmetics trade between Korea and U.S.A., for example, transparency on restriction and regulatory, cosmeceuticals, import clearance review, quality control testing, ingredient labelling. Tariffs of 8% on most cosmetics should be eliminated, a proviso of complementary measures on sanitation of Korean people about imported cosmetics. This is a meaning of reformation of prior management(tariffs) by strong ex post management in cosmetics trade. It is important that Korea should construct system of ex post management, for instance, construction of data base on manufacturer, importer, bland name of cosmetics and all ingredients of cosmetics. This is concerned with labelling of cosmetics and cosmeceutical and publication of Korean edition of INCI(International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredient).

  • PDF

Customs Administration strategies under FTA's trade environment (FTA 무역환경에서의 관세행정 전략)

  • Choe, Hui-In
    • 한국디지털정책학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • 2007.06a
    • /
    • pp.33-40
    • /
    • 2007
  • The Customs Administration, unlike other administrative service, should respond to constantly changing external environment. The Customs has to actively adapt itself to government policy changes, economic changes and international environment changes to facilitate the flow of trade logistics and maintain trading relations wi th other countries. The purpose of this paper is to explain policy directions of the Korea Customs Service which enforces various policies related to tariff and non-tariff barrier elimination for the trade liberalization while the Korean government is pursuing FTAs on a multi-track basis. This paper aims to seek ways to apply FTA policies to the Korean society and economy in a smooth manner. First of all, this paper examines changes in Customs administration brought by the proliferation of FTAs to such areas as FTA negotiations, import/export management, duties and taxes collection, drawback reduction/exempt ion of duty application area of preferential tariff rate and country of origin management. Then, the paper sets FTA missions of "supporting Customs Administration to lead the new trend of free trade environment" after analyzing the environment changes. To achieve the FTA mission mentioned above, the KCS designated 4 strategies and 40 implementation tasks. The 4 strategies are named "4C Strategies" taking initial letters from Client-oriented, Customized procedures, Cooperation and Constitution. "4C" also refers to Foresee(strategies to foresee the successful establishment of FTA policies) or For C(Customer or Customs). The KCS will continue to create new tasks through various channels and monitor their implementation process, and to help FTA regime successfully take root in Korea.

  • PDF

A Study on Seafood Import Management System of Major Countries in the WTO (WTO 체제하(體制下)의 주요국(主要國)의 수산물(水産物) 수입관리제도(輸入管理制度)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Pak, Myong-Sop;Kim, Eun-Joo
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
    • /
    • v.13
    • /
    • pp.735-765
    • /
    • 2000
  • The paper aims to introduce and to discuss seafood import systems in terms of tariff and Non-Tariff Measurements which have been changed by the establishment of WTO. The paper can be used as materials for seafood trade policy making. The Non-Tariff Measurements for seafood import control in Japan are explored as follows; Import Quota, Import License, Pre-identification, Standard system, Customs Clearance Procedure, Import Port Nomination, Import Channel, Unification. The paper is composed of six chapters. Chapter 1 shows the current situation of seafood trade of major countries and background of the research. Chapter 2 deals with fisheries negotiations in the Uruguay Round, their impacts and major issues of tariffs and Non-Tariff Measurements in seafood trade. Chapter 3 analyzes seafood import of Japan, which is the core nation in the seafood trade of Northeast Asian Region, by item and the structure and characteristics of Japanese seafood import tariff including Non-Tariff Measurements. Chapter 4 and chapter 5 tackle seafood import management system of EU and USA respectively. Chapter 6 summarizes the issues of seafood import by focusing on Japan which is the biggest import market of Korean seafood.

  • PDF

Determinants of the World's Rice Trade: The Role of Trade Costs

  • NGUYEN, Anh Lan Thi;PHAM, Thong Le;TRUONG, Xuyen Vinh Khanh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
    • /
    • v.9 no.5
    • /
    • pp.313-324
    • /
    • 2022
  • We investigate the impacts of tariff, tariff-rate quota, conformity assessment, and traceability requirements set by the rice importers using panel data of 17 rice exporters exporting to 119 countries in two years 2015 and 2018, using both Ordinary least square (OLS) and Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood (PPLM) methods. Results from our gravity models strongly indicate that tariff and tariff rate quota remain significantly detrimental to the world's rice exporters because these measures place downward pressure on the rice exporters' prices and the importers' import quantity, creating barriers to market participation. Our study also provides strong evidence about the role of origin certificates in allowing rice exporters to gain access to foreign markets. Meanwhile, regulatory standards such as traceability requirements and logistical and distributional requirements imposed by the rice importers are found to be major obstacles to rice importation from less-developed countries. Our study provides insights into tariff and non-tariff barriers existing in the global rice market, which is likely to assist policymakers operating in developing countries to help shape their policies and bolster rice competitiveness.

Trade and environment issue in Doha Development Agenda and its policy implication (도하개발아젠다 전경협상과 환경통상정책 과제)

  • Kang, Sang-In
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.111-128
    • /
    • 2002
  • The Ministerial Declaration of the 4th WTO Ministerial Meeting at Doha in November 2001 announced the launch of the New Round and a completion date of January 1st, 2005. It agreed to eventually negotiate trade and environment linkage issues, such as the relationship between the WTO rules and Multilateral Environment Agreements and the reduction or elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services. The Committee on Trade and Environment was instructed to pursue work on all items on its agenda within the current terms of reference and to give particular attention to the effects of environmental measures on market access, relevant provisions of the TRTPS Agreement, and labelling requirements for environmental purposes. This means that far the first time, the members of the WTO will discuss and negotiate trade and environment linkage in the framework of multilateral trade negotiation. Korea, from the standpoint of a smaller open economy heavily dependent on international trade, is obliged to overcome the challenges imposed by the environment agenda in the Doha declaration. This study examined the linkage among environment, economic growth and international trade in order to review the possible trade and environment policy implications in Korea. Mutual supportiveness of trade and environment depends much on the effectiveness of trade and environment policy coordination. In this regard, we conclude that the Korean government should provide an appropriate institutional framework to promote closer cooperation among policy makers engaged in negotiations. Trade and environment policy review and environmental impact assessment of trade negotiation should be considered as a work programme of this institutional policy coordination framework.

  • PDF

A Study on the Export Strategy of China to the Cosmetic Industry: Focus on Countermeasures against Tariffs and Non-Tariff Measures (화장품 산업의 대중국 수출전략에 관한 연구: 관세 및 비관세조치 대응전략 수립을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Woo-Kyung;Lee, Seo-Young;Kim, Tae-In
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.145-165
    • /
    • 2020
  • Purpose - The purpose of this study is to suggest strategies and solutions for entering China in the tariff and non-tariff sectors of the cosmetic industry. Design/methodology/approach - This study analyzed the import tariff rate of cosmetics in China, and analyzed the export cost by actually interviewing the exporting companies to derive the economic effect of non-tariff measures. Findings - First, We proposed the use of the FTA business model (basic cosmetics), the use of Korea-China FTA tariffs (foam cleansing, toothpaste), and the use of APTA tariffs (perfume). Second, We proposed cooperation between the governments to facilitate customs clearance procedures and improvement of FTA awareness among corporate practitioners. Third, We proposed the expansion and support of the AEO MRA system and the expansion of Korea-China MOU conclusions regarding the certification system, and the international standardization of domestic licensing system and technical conditions. Fourth, We proposed the use of government-supported projects related to obtaining overseas certifications and overseas expansion through collaboration with the same industry. Research implications or Originality - HS3304 products excluded from the Korea-China FTA should take full advantage of the FTA business model. In addition, the non-tariff measure costs are fixed costs per year, so the ratio decreases as the number of exports and export volume increases.

Marketing Strategy of Korean Textile Industry for US market in Post Korea-Us FTA era. (한미 FTA에 대비한 미국 섬유시장 진출 전략)

  • Koh, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Joo-Nam
    • International Commerce and Information Review
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.95-116
    • /
    • 2009
  • Korea-Us FTA negotiation started in February 2006 with a view to overcoming those uncertainties in the global market and was finally concluded in April, 2007. The Agreement was officially signed between ministers two month later and it is expected to be ratified this year even though the process is most likely to be painful in both countries by the political resistances. For the new President of the United States, effective leadership will depends largely on how to encourage domestic industries such as Automobile industry and Iron and Steel industry from the financial crisis. Many trading partners of US worry about US foreign trade policy changes to protectionism that might be unequal to bear. Korea textile industry is one of the major industry in Korea as it occupies 15% of total number of manufacturers, 11% of total employment and 5% of national GDP. Korea-US FTA will provide a breakthrough for bouncing back by exploring new market. US agreed to remove all tariff and non-tariff barriers to 87% of textile items under trading. This study shows that Korean textile industry has been losing it's competitiveness as textile quota system abolished in the year 2005 and has been traced by pursuers such as China, India and Vietnam. In case of woven fabric which was a representing export item of Korea lost price competitiveness against China after 2005. This study seeks the strategy of Korea textile industry in the US market by utilizing the capacity of KOTRA offices in US. All possible statistical data obtained in the US were used for analysing the competitiveness. Fabrics and Garments are analysed independently with a view to finding out real trends of textile market in US. This study also suggest Korea's textile industry strategic ideas obtained from the potential buyers to show the way to penetrate into US market.

  • PDF

Tariff Reduction and Within-Plant Productivity: Micro-evidence from Korean Manufacturing (수입관세 인하가 기업 생산성에 미치는 효과 분석)

  • Lee, Siwook
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
    • /
    • v.29 no.3
    • /
    • pp.75-109
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper empirically investigates the effects of import tariff on within-plant productivity growth in Korean manufacturing, using the detailed plant-level longitudinal data of the Korea Census of Manufacturers for the period of 1993-2003. Our main findings are as follows: First, the productivity changes of Korean manufacturing for the period under analysis were mostly induced by within-plant productivity gains, rather than within-industry and/or between-industry resource reallocations. Second, after controlling for firm-specific heterogeneity, the estimation results indicate that lowering tariff-barriers has a positive impact on within-plant TFP growth. We interpret the results in a way that trade liberalization through the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers heightens the competitive pressure, which in turn creates incentives to reduce production and managerial inefficiency and to invest more on innovative activities. Third, we also find that plant productivity growth from reducing tariff barriers is particularly conspicuous within a year after tariff changes, which implies that plants are quickly adjusting to heightened import competition. On the other hand, our results show that the trade effect on employment creation proceeds relatively slow.

  • PDF