• Title, Summary, Keyword: tannins

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Utilization of Persimmon Peel and Its Tannin Extracts for Animal Feeding (가축사양에 있어서 감 과피와 감 과피탄닌 추출물의 이용)

  • Sin, Yeong-Geun;An, Byeong-Gi;Gang, Chang-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.28-42
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    • 2006
  • Tannins are phenolic compounds that precipitate proteins and composed of a very diverse group of oligomers and polymers. Tannins are potential biological antioxidants, which are widely believed to be an important line of defense against oxidative damage and may participate in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Persimmon(Diospyros kaki L.) has been cultivated in East Asia and is a good source of nutritional antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids and tannins. In general persimmon peel was regarded as a waste matter, although based on recent studies, the peel contains more carotenoids and polyphenols than pulp. Several investigation conducted in experimental animals have reported that dietary persimmon fruit and peel effectively lowered the levels of plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. We conducted experiments to investigate in vitro antioxidative activities of persimmon peel powder (PP) and its soluble tannin extract (ST) and their dietary effects on productive performances and physiological responses in poultry. The PP and ST exhibited in vitro antioxidative activity in SOD - like activity model. The yolk color and eggshell color were significantly improved by the addition of PP and ST into layer diets. The contents of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid of liver in the groups fed diets containing PP and ST tended to be reduce as compared with those of control. With adding of PP and ST, Haugh unit was increased after 7 and 14 days of storage. In conclusion, PP and ST can be used as valuable feed additives for reducing hepatic lipid contents without harmful effects on overall productive performances and physiological responses in laying hens.

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Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

  • Anantasook, N.;Wanapat, M.;Cherdthong, A.;Gunun, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1583-1591
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus) were used in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM) (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake). Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60) (p<0.05). In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05) with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population.

Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

  • Dey, Avijit;De, Partha Sarathi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.342-348
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW $351.6{\pm}10.6$ kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves.

Antitumor Effect of Persimmon Leaves in vivo using Sarcoma-180 Cells (Sarcoma-180 세포를 이용한 in vivo에서 감잎의 항암효과)

  • 문숙희;김광혁;박건영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 1996
  • Antitumor effects of hexane, chloroform fractions and tannins from persimmon leaves were studied by using sarcoma-180 tumor cells. The solid tumor growth was inhibited most effectively when 0.5mg/kg of hexane fraction was administerated to the Balb/c mouse. The life prolongation effects were 35.6%, 11.5% and 29.9%, respectively when hexane fraction, chloroform fraction and tannins from the persimmon leaves were administerated to the mouse. Spleen index, a marker for immunological activity, was increased in mice administrated hexane fraction, chloroform fraction and tannins of persimmon loaves, compared with the control group.

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Inhibition Effect against Tyrosinase of Condensed Tannins from Korean Green Tea (한국산 녹차로부터 분리한 축합형 탄닌의 tyrosinase 저해효과)

  • Kim, Jin-Ku;Cha, Woen-Seup;Park, Joon-Hee;Oh, Sang-Lyong;Cho, Young-Je;Chun, Sung-Sook;Choi, Cheong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 1997
  • For the utilizing of tannins in the functional foods and natural inhibitor against browning reaction by tyrosinase in foods, inhibition effect against tyrosinase of tannins from Korean green tea was determined. Acetone extract from Korean green tea showed inhibition effect against tyrosinase. The gallocatechin compounds showed higher inhibition effect than the catechin compounds. In terms of stereo isomers, (-)-epicatechin compounds had higher inhibition effect than the (+)-catechin compounds. The monomer had higher inhibition effect than the dimer.

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Immobilization and Characterization of Tannase from a Metagenomic Library and Its Use for Removal of Tannins from Green Tea Infusion

  • Yao, Jian;Chen, Qinglong;Zhong, Guoxiang;Cao, Wen;Yu, An;Liu, Yuhuan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2014
  • Tannase (Tan410) from a soil metagenomic library was immobilized on different supports, including mesoporous silica SBA-15, chitosan, calcium alginate, and amberlite IRC 50. Entrapment in calcium alginate beads was comparatively found to be the best method and was further characterized. The optimum pH of the immobilized Tan410 was shifted toward neutrality compared with the free enzyme (from pH 6.4 to pH 7.0). The optimum temperature was determined to be $45^{\circ}C$ for the immobilized enzyme and $30^{\circ}C$ for the free enzyme, respectively. The immobilized enzyme had no loss of activity after 10 cycles, and retained more than 90% of its original activity after storage for 30 days. After immobilization, the enzyme activity was only slightly affected by $Hg^{2+}$, which completely inhibited the activity of the free enzyme. The immobilized tannase was used to remove 80% of tannins from a green tea infusion on the first treatment. The beads were used for six successive runs resulting in overall hydrolysis of 56% of the tannins.

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

  • Hue, Khuc Thi;Van, Do Thi Thanh;Ledin, Inger;Wredle, Ewa;Sporndly, Eva
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1691-1700
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    • 2012
  • The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

Nutritive Evaluation of Some Browse Tree Legume Foliages Native to Semi-arid Areas in Western Tanzania

  • Rubanza, C.D.K.;Shem, M.N.;Otsyina, R.;Ichinohe, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1429-1437
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    • 2003
  • Browse tree legume leaves from Acacia spp (A. nilotica, A. tortilis, A. polyacantha), Dichrostachys sp, Flagea villosa, Piliostigma thonningii, Harrisonia sp were evaluated for nutritive potential (chemical compositions and degradability characteristics) compared to Gliricidia sepium. Effect of tannins anti-nutritive activity on digestibility was also assessed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) tannin bioassay. Crude protein (CP), ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) differed (p<0.05) between legume foliages. Mean CP, ash, NDF, ADF and ADL for fodder species tested were 158, 92, 385, 145, and 100 g/kg DM, respectively. CP ranged from 115 (P. thonningii) to 205 g/kg DM (G. sepium). Acacia spp had moderate CP values (g/kg DM) of 144 (A. nilotica), to high CP in A. tortilis (188) and A. polyacantha (194) comparable to G. sepium. The forages had relatively lower fiber compositions. A. nilotica had (p<0.05) lowest NDF, ADF and ADL (182, 68 and 44) compared to P. thonningii (619, 196 and 130) g/kg DM, respectively. Except G. sepium, all fodder species had detectable high phenolic and tannin contents greater than 5% DM, an upper beneficial level in animal feeding and nutrition. Mean total phenolics (TP), total tannins (TT) and condensed tannins (CT) (or proanthocyanidins) for fodder species tested were 139, 113 and 43 mg/g DM, respectively. F. villosa had (p<0.05) lowest TP and TT of 65 and 56 mg/g DM, respectively, compared to A. nilotica (237 and 236 mg/g DM, respectively). The CT varied (p<0.05) from 6 (F. villosa) to 74 mg/g DM (Dichrostachys sp). In vitro organic matter (OM) degradability (OMD) differed (p<0.05) between fodder species. G. sepium had (p<0.05) high degradability potential compared to A. polyacantha that had (p<0.05) the lowest OMD values. Forage degradability ranked: G. sepium>A. nilotica>P. thonningi>F. villosa>Dichrostachys sp>A. tortilis>A. polyacantha. Addition of PEG resulted to (p<0.05) improvement in in vitro OM digestibility (IVD). Increase in IVD was mainly due to binding action of PEG on tannins; and represents potential nutritive values previously depressed by tannins anti-nutritive activity. Browse fodder has potential as sources of ruminal nitrogen especially for ruminants consuming low quality roughages due to high protein, lower fiber compositions and high potential digestibility. However, utilization of browse supplements in ruminants is hampered by high phenolic and tannin contents. Deactivation of tannin anti-nutritive activity, possibly by feeding tanniniferous browse with other readily available nitrogen sources to dilute tannin anti-nutritive activity could improve utilization of browse fodder supplements. Further studies are needed to assess browse fodder palatability and intake, and their effect on growth performance in ruminants.

Use of Chemical Treatments to Reduce Tannins and Trypsin Inhibitor Contents in Salseed (Shorea robusta) Meal

  • Mahmood, S.;Khan, Ajmal M.;Sarwar, M.;Nisa, M.;Lee, W.S.;Kim, S.B.;Hur, T.Y.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1462-1467
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the effect of chemical treatments on tannins (condensed and hydrolysable) and on the trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity in salseed meal. Triplicate samples of ground salseed meal (1 kg) were mixed with 820 ml of either distilled water (pH 5.3), 0.67 M acetic acid (pH 2.4), 0.67 M sodium bicarbonate (pH 8.2) or 2% polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) solution. The material was placed in airtight plastic containers and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Samples of untreated salseed meal which had not been subjected to soaking or incubation were run through the analysis to serve as control. Addition of water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate and PVP solutions to salseed meal and subsequent anaerobic incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ significantly reduced chemically detectable tannins. At each incubation time, alkali solution was more effective than its counterparts. The effect of acidic solution on hydrolysable tannin was least among the treatments. All the treatments reduced TI activity of salseed meal. The reduction in TI activity by these treatments was similar and ranged between 80-84%. Treatment time effected a decrease in the contents of antinutritional substances. However, the effect of the treatment with the reagents, even for zero incubation time, was quite pronounced. It may be concluded from the present results that the treatment of salseed meal with sodium bicarbonate (0.67 M) is more effective in reducing hydrolysable and condensed tannin contents than PVP, water and acid solutions. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate solution is more economical and easier to handle than acid and PVP treatments. Incubation of the treated material for 12 h is reasonably effective, economical and safe from any mould growth.

Multivariate statistical analysis of the comparative antioxidant activity of the total phenolics and tannins in the water and ethanol extracts of dried goji berry (Lycium chinense) fruits

  • Kim, Joo-Shin;Kimm, Haklin Alex
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2019
  • Antioxidant activity in water and ethanol extracts of dried Lycium chinense fruit, as a result of the total phenolic and tannin content, was measured using a number of chemical and biochemical assays for radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, with the analysis being extended by applying a bootstrapping statistical method. Previous statistical analyses mostly provided linear correlation and regression analyses between antioxidant activity and increasing concentrations of phenolics and tannins in a concentration-dependent mode. The present study showed that multiple component or multivariate analysis by applying multiple regression analysis or regression planes proved more informative than linear regression analysis of the relationship between the concentration of individual components and antioxidant activity. In this paper, we represented the multivariate analysis of antioxidant activities of both phenolic and tannin contents combined in the water and ethanol extracts, which revealed the hidden observations that were not evident from linear statistical analysis.