• Title, Summary, Keyword: tannins

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Antioxidative Properties of Chinese Artichoke (Stachys sieboldii Miq) added White Bread (초석잠 첨가 식빵의 항산화 활성)

  • Jeon, Ki-Suk;Park, Shin-In
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.120-132
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary information for the utilization extension of Chinese artichoke(Stachys sieboldii Miq) as a functional food material. The effects of the addition of Chinese artichoke powder(0, 3, 6, 9, and 12%) in white bread formulation on phenolics content and antioxidant properties, and sensory analysis(seven-point hedonic test) were examined. The contents of total polyphenols(TPC), flavonoids (TFC), and tannins(TTC) in Chinese artichoke powder were $139.09{\pm}1.97mg\;GAE/g\;dw$, $74.33{\pm}2.69mg\;QE/g\;dw$, and $40.41{\pm}2.54 mg\;TAE/g\;dw$, respectively. As the amount of Chinese artichoke powder increased, the phenolics contents also significantly increased(p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001 on TPC, TFC, and TTC, respectively), the highest TPC($104.27{\pm}0.13mg\;GAE/g\;dw$), TFC($71.03{\pm}1.75mg\;QE/g\;dw$), and TTC($8.76{\pm}0.12mg\;TAE/g\;dw$) were achieved in the white bread having the highest percentage of Chinese artichoke powder(12%). The $IC_{50}$ values of Chinese artichoke extract for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging activities were 1.42 mg/mL and 1.57 mg/mL, respectively. Scavenging activities of DPPH and ABTS radicals of white bread were significantly increased according to the levels of added Chinese artichoke powder(p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). In the acceptance test, the white bread containing 9% Chinese artichoke powder was ranked significantly higher than the other groups according to all sensory parameters such as appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and the overall acceptability. Overall, Chinese artichoke enhanced white bread could be developed as an antioxidant-enriched bread with good sensorial properties.

Comparison of whitening effect of Rubus coreanus fruit according to maturity (성숙도에 따른 복분자 열매의 미백 활성 비교)

  • Park, Jeong-Yong;Lee, Ji Yeon;Seo, Kyung Hye;Jang, Gwi Young;Lee, Seung Eun;Ji, Yun-Jeong;Kim, Hyung Don
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The Rubus coreanus fruit (RF) is an important traditional medicinal herb having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory properties. These activities are known to change dramatically, depending on maturity of the RF. It is presumed that change of functional components, such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, triterpenoids and organic acids in RF, affect the various bioactivities. This study aimed to confirm changes in the anti-melanogenic effects of RF based on maturity, and to identify the bioactive compounds responsible. Methods: The cell viability of mature RF (MRF) and immature RF (IRF) extracts was investigated using B16F10 cells. To compare the anti-melanogenic effect of MRF and IRF extracts, we first assessed the melanin content. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to evaluate changes in the level of ellagic acid according to maturity of the RF. In addition, tyrosinase inhibitory activity of both extracts was examined. Results: MRF and IRF extracts (50-200 ㎍/mL) do not affect the cell viability of B16F10 melanoma cells. IRF extract more effectively inhibited melanin synthesis than MRF extract. The content of ellagic acid in IRF extract was higher than that obtained in MRF extract. Furthermore, greater inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed after exposure to IRF extract than MRF extract. A positive correlation was determined between ellagic acid content and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and a negative correlation was obtained between ellagic acid content and melanin content. Taken together, our results indicate that ellagic acid is one of the major bioactive compounds of RF that imparts a whitening effect. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ellagic acid in MRF and IRF extracts affect the anti-melanogenesis effect through inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Therefore, the ellagic acid rich IRF has greater potential for application as a natural and functional cosmetic material.

Effect of Byproducts Supplementation by Partically Replacing Soybean Meal to a Total Mixed Ration on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics In Vitro (대두박 대체 부산물 위주의 TMR 사료가 반추위 내 미생물의 In Vitro 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Gui Seck;Kim, Eun Joong;Song, Tae Ho;Song, Tae Hwa;Park, Tae Il;Choi, Nag Jin;Kwon, Chan Ho;Chang, Moon Baek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of replacing basic total mixed ration (TMR) with fermented soybean curd, Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal, and spent coffee grounds by-product on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro. Soybean in the basic TMR diet (control) was replaced by the following 9 treatments (3 replicates): maximum amounts of soybean curd (SC); fermented SC (FSC); 3, 5, and 10% FSC + fermented A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (1:1, DM basis, FSCS); and 3, 5, 10% FSC + fermented coffee meal (1:1, DM basis, FSCC) of soybean. FSC, FSCS, and FSCC were fermented using Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 496, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 1493, Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 1048, and Lactobacillus casei IFO 3533. Replacing dairy cow TMR with FSC treatment led to a pH value of 6 after 8 h of incubation-the lowest value measured (p<0.05), and FSCS and FSCC treatments were higher than SC and FSC treatment after 6 h (p<0.05). Gas production was higher in response to 3% FSC and FSCC treatments than the control after 4-10 h. Dry matter digestibility was increased 0-12 h after FSC treatment (p<0.05) and was the highest after 24 h of 10% FSCS treatment. $NH_3-N$ concentration was the lowest after 24 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein content increased in response to treatments that had been fermented by the Lactobacillus spp. compared to control and SC treatments (p<0.05). The total concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was increased after 6-12 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05), while the highest acetate proportion was observed 24 h after 5% and 10% FSCS treatments. The FSC of propionate proportion was increased for 0-10 h compared with among treatments (p<0.05). The highest acetate in the propionate ration was observed after 12 h of SC treatment and the lowest with FSCS 3% treatment after 24 h. Methane ($CH_4$) emulsion was lower with A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal and spent coffee grounds treatments than with the control, SC, and FSC treatments. These experiments were designed to replace the by-products of dairy cow TMR with SC, FSC, FSCS, and FSCC to improve TMR quality. Condensed tannins contained in FSCS and FSCC treatments, which reduced $CH_4$ emulsion in vitro, decreased rumen microbial fermentation during the early incubation time. Therefore, future experiments are required to develop a rumen continuous culture system and an in vivo test to optimize the percentages of FSC, FSCS, and FSCC in the TMR diet of the dairy cows.