• Title, Summary, Keyword: tannins

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Effect of Condensed Tannins Prepared from Banana (Musa Sapientum L.) fruit on Digestive Enzyme In vitro (바나나 과실 함유탄닌이 소화효소 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Chung-Han;Ryu, Chung-Ho;Cho, Young-Su
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.477-481
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    • 1996
  • It has been shown that tannins have adverse effects on growth of animals and feed utilization. Tannins are usually classified into hydrolyzable and condensed types but the adverse effects are more marked in condensed tannin in hydrolyzable tannin. Furthermore, the principle condensed tannins found in banana fruits are pro types by the polymerization of flavan-3, 4-diols either alone or in combination with other flavonoids such as catechins. Tannin of the investigated banana(Banana; Musa sapientum LINN)fruits was fractionated into four or five molecular forms, according to the degree of polymerization by chromatography on a column of Sephadex LH-20. The protein-precitating capacity of the fraction noted tannins increased in degree polymerzation. The inhibitory effect of tannins on trypsin(EC 3. 4. 21. 4), ${\alpha}-amylase$(EC 3. 2. 1. 1) and lipase(EC 3. 1. 1. 3) activities in vitro also increased with the incraesed in degree of polymerization.

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Seasonal Variations in Tannin Profile of Tree Leaves

  • Rana, K.K.;Wadhwa, M.;Bakshi, M.P.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1134-1138
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    • 2006
  • Forest tree leaves (12 different species) of semi hilly arid region of Punjab State were collected at 30-day interval throughout the year to assess the seasonal variations in tannin profile. Tannins were extracted and fractionated from fat free samples and data were analyzed statistically by $12{\times}12$ factorial design. The leaves of Anogeissus latifolia had the highest (p<0.05) concentration of total phenols (17.4%), net (15.9%) and hydrolysable (16.9%) tannins, followed by leaves of Acacia nilotica. Majority of the tree leaves selected had moderate levels (2-5%) of net tannins. Leaves of Carrisa had the highest (p<0.05) concentration of condensed tannins (CT), whereas the leaves of Anogeissus had the lowest (p<0.05) concentration of condensed tannins. The protein precipitable phenols (PPP) corresponded well with the net tannin content present in different tree leaves. Seasonal variation data revealed that in summer, net tannins and PPP decline in leaves of Bauhinia and Zizyphus whereas the net tannin content of Anogeissus and that of Carrisa increased during summer. The CT and PPP content in the leaves of Pheonix, Leucaena, Zizyphus and Ougenia increased in winter till spring season. Tree leaves generally had higher concentration of HT during summer months. It was concluded that leaves of leaves of A. nilotica, A. latifolia and L. leucocephala could serve as an excellent alternate feed stuffs for ruminants. However, leaves of Phoenix, Carrisa, Bauhinia and Dodonea should be avoided.

Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

  • Kondo, Makoto;Hirano, Yoshiaki;Kita, Kazumi;Jayanegara, Anuraga;Yokota, Hiro-Omi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.937-945
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    • 2014
  • Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at $10^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$, and $30^{\circ}C$. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at $10^{\circ}C$. The GTS stored at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$ showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on $NH_3$-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and $NH_3$-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and $NH_3$-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen.

Effect of Tannins in Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera and Sesbania acculeata Foliage Determined In vitro, In sacco, and In vivo

  • Alam, M.R.;Amin, M.R.;Kabir, A.K.M.A.;Moniruzzaman, M.;McNeill, D.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2007
  • The nutritive value and the effect of tannins on the utilization of foliage from three commonly used legumes, Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera, and Sesbania acculeata, were determined. Three mature rumen-fistulated bullocks were used to study in sacco degradability and twelve adult sheep were randomly allocated on the basis of live weight to 4 groups of 3 in each to study the in vivo digestibility of the foliages. In all foliages, the contents of crude protein (17 to 24% of DM) were high. Fibre was especially high in Albizia (NDF 58.8% of DM vs. 21% in Sesbania and 15.4% in Acacia). Contents of both hydrolysable (4.4 to 0.05%) and condensed tannins (1.2 to 0.04%) varied from medium to low in the foliages. Acacia contained the highest level of total phenolics (20.1%), protein precipitable phenolics (13.2%) and had the highest capacity to precipitate protein (14.7%). Drying in shade reduced the tannin content in Acacia and Albizia by 48.6 and 69.3% respectively. The foliages ranked similarly for each of the different methods used to estimate tannin content and activity. Acacia and Sesbania foliage was highly degradable (85-87% potential degradability of DM in sacco), compared to Albizia (52%), indicating a minimal effect of tannins in Acacia and Sesbania. Yet, in vitro, the tannins in the Acacia inhibited microbial activity more than those in Albizia and Sesbania. Following the addition of polyethylene glycol to neutralise the tannins, gas production and microbial growth increased by 59% and 0.09 mg RNA equiv./dg microbial yield respectively in the Acacia, compared to 16-17% and 0.06 mg RNA equiv./dg microbial yield in the other foliages. There was a trend for low in vivo apparent digestibility of N in the Acacia (43.2%) and Albizia (44.2%) compared to the Sesbania (54.5%) supplemented groups. This was likely to be due to presence of tannins. Consistent with this was the low N retention (0.22 and 0.19 g N/g NI) in sheep supplemented with Acacia and Albizia compared to that for the Sesbania (0.32). Similarly, a trend for poor microbial N yield was observed in sheep fed these foliages. Across the foliages tested, an increase in tannin content was associated with a reduction in ruminal fermentation, N digestibility and N retention. For overall nutritive value, Sesbania proved to be the superior forage of the three tested.

The Comparison of Tannins and Nutritional Components in the Acorn of Major Oak Trees in Korea (한국의 주요 참나무류 종실의 탄닌 및 영양성분 비교)

  • Lee, Wi Young;Na, Sung June;Park, Eung-Jun;Han, Sang Urk
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2014
  • Nutritional composition, including total phenolics, tannins and nutrient components, of acorns of Q. actissima, Q. serrata, Q. variabilis and Q. mongolica were analyzed. Acorns were collected from each tree species, which were grown in a seed orchard. Contents of both total phenolics and tannins in acorns of Q. serrata were higher than those of Q. actissima (p<0.05). Interestingly, Q. serrata contained the highest amount of water soluble tannins (71 mg/g dw) and the lowest levels of water insoluble tannins (8.1 mg/g dw) among 4 oak species, resulting that acorns of Q. serrata had the lowest proportion of insoluble tannins. Among 4 oak species tested, Q. mongolicav acorns contained the highest levels of both total dietary fiber (TDF) and ascorbic acid, while the content of beta-carotene in Q. mongolicav was 52-fold lower than that in Q. variabilis ($520{\mu}g/100g$). Our result showed that nutritional composition of acoms was significantly different between oak species, indicating that tastes or nutritional values might be different as well among major oak species in Korea.

Effects of Protein and Iron Concentrations on Iron Solubility in Black Tea Infusion (단백질 함량 및 철분 농도의 변화에 따라 홍차 추출물이 철분의 용해도에 미치는 영향)

  • 김희선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.861-866
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    • 1996
  • Tannins in plant foods and beverages may produce antinutritional or toxic effects although some proteins with high affinity for tannins seem to function as defense mechanism to tannin toxicity. Our objectives were to investigate of tea tannins, iron and protein and to evaluate the role of proteins in tannin effects on iron solubility. Iron solubility in vitro was measured using tea with and without proteins. Mixtures of tea, protein in varying concentrations(either gelatin or bovine serum albumin), and iron(eithe 10 or 50ug/mL) were prepared. Controls contained water in place of tea. Iron bioavailability was assessed by measuring iron solubility in the simulated gastric condition with pepsin digestion. Bound iron was removed by centrifugation and soluble in tea alone. When iron concentratin was 10ug/mL, addition of small amounts of protein to tea dramatically reduced iron solubility, but solubility of iron increased in the tea mixturea as the concentration of protein was increased. The percnetage of iron that precipitated was much greater at 10ug Fe/mL than the values at 50ug Fe/mL suggesting that the iron binding sites on the tea-protein complex was saturated. These results suggest that interactions of iron with tea tannins are influenced by the concentratins of protein and iron.

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Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on In vitro Rumen Fermentation

  • Kondo, Makoto;Hirano, Yoshiaki;Ikai, Noriyuki;Kita, Kazumi;Jayanegara, Anuraga;Yokota, Hiro-Omi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1571-1576
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    • 2014
  • Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased $NH_3$-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the $NH_3$-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and $NH_3$-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product.

Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) Phlorotannins and Terrestrial Tannins

  • Wang, Yuxi;Xu, Z.;Bach, S.J.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 2009
  • Pure culture experiments were conducted to assess the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of phlorotannins (PT) isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum (brown seaweed) on Escherichia coli O157:H7. In Exp. 1, one non-O157:H7 strain (25922) and three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (3081, EDL933 and E318N) were cultured in M9 medium with PT included at 0 (control), 25, 50 or $100{\mu}g/ml$ (n = 3). Bacterial growth was monitored by $OD_{600}$ at 0, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, and by dilution plating at 0, 4, 6 and 24 h. All strains were inhibited (p<0.001) by PT to varying degrees. At 50 or $100{\mu}g/ml$, PT prevented growth of all four strains. At $25{\mu}g\;PT/ml$, growth of 25922, 3081, E318N and EDL933 was inhibited for 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively, but 25922 and 3081 resumed growth by 12 and 24 h. Direct plating confirmed bactericidal effects of PT on all four strains at $100{\mu}g/ml$, and on EDL933 and E318N at $50{\mu}g/ml$. In Exp. 2, strains 25922 and 3081 were incubated with no tannins or with $50{\mu}g/ml$ of PT, purified condensed tannins (CT) from Quebracho (Schinopsis balansaei), or purified tannic acid from Rhus semialata (Anacardiaceae) as hydrolysable tannins (HT). Strain 3081 was unaffected by HT or CT, but was completely inhibited (p<0.001) by PT at 4, 6 and 24 h. Strain 25922 was unaffected by HT, slightly inhibited by CT, and almost eradicated by PT at 4 and 6 h. Transmission electron microscopy revealed tannin-mediated alterations to bacterial cell walls. Phlorotannins from A. nodosum exhibit growth-inhibiting and bactericidal effects in vitro against the strains of E. coli O157:H7 investigated. Anti-E. coli efficacy of A. nodosum PT is superior to that of terrestrial tannins purified from Quebracho and from Rhus semialata.

Inhibitory Effect of Hydrolysable Tannins Isolated from the Euphorbia helioscopia on Mushroom Tyrosinase Activity in vitro (대극과식물 등대풀로부터 분리한 가수분해형 탄닌의 tyrosinase 활성 억제효과)

  • 김진준;이주상;김소영;김정아;정시련
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.214-219
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    • 2001
  • Nineteen hydrolysable tannins isolated from the Euphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for the inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Inhibitory effect of gallotannin group exhibited more potent than that of phenolcarboxylic acid and ellagitannin groups against the enzyme activity. The inhibitory activity by pentagalloyl glucose on mushroom tyrosinase was more potent ($IC_{50}$/, 4.9 $\mu$M) than that of kojic acid ($IC_{50}$/, 8.7 $\mu$M).

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Study on Antioxidant Effects of Acorn(Quercus acutissima CARRUTHERS) Components;I. The Separation and Identification of Tannin Components from Acorn (상수리 성분의 항산화 효과에 관한 연구;제I보 상수리 타닌 성분의 분리 및 동정)

  • Shin, Doo-Ho;Cho, Jung-Soon;Jung, Seung-Tai
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 1993
  • This study aimed to search for separate and identify of Quercus acutissima CARRUTHERS tannins. Tannins were extracted with methanol and ethylacetate from acorn powder and identified TLC, UV spectrum, HPLC, IR, GC/MS, and $^{1}H$ NMR. Three spots($R_{f}$ 0.94, 0.84 and 0.29) detected on TLC. These spots gave dark blue color fairly on spraying with 0.3% potassium ferricyanid${\cdot}$0.3% ferricchloride reagent, and these tannins identified as gallic acid, caffeic acid and ellagic acid by UV spectrum, HPLC, IR, GC/ MS, and $^{1}H$ NMR.