• Title, Summary, Keyword: systematic review

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Ontology Design for the Register of Officials(先生案) of the Joseon Period (조선시대 선생안 온톨로지 설계)

  • Kim, Sa-hyun
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.69
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    • pp.115-146
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    • 2017
  • This paper is about the research on ontology design for a digital archive of seonsaengan(先生案) of the Joseon Period. Seonsaengan is the register of staff officials at each government office, along with their personal information and records of their transfer from one office to another, in addition to their DOBs, family clan, etc. A total of 176 types of registers are known to be kept at libraries and museums in the country. This paper intends to engage in the ontology design of 47 cases of such registers preserved at the Jangseogak Archives of the Academy of Korean Studies (AKS) with a focus on their content and structure including the names of the relevant government offices and posts assumed by the officials, etc. The work for the ontology design was done with a focus on the officials, the offices they belong to, and records about their transfers kept in the registers. The ontology design categorized relevant resources into classes according to the attributes common to the individuals. Each individual has defined a semantic postposition word that can explicitly express the relationship with other individuals. As for the classes, they were divided into eight categories, i.e. registers, figures, offices, official posts, state examination, records, and concepts. For design of relationships and attributes, terms and phrases such as Dublin Core, Europeana Data Mode, CIDOC-CRM, data model for database of those who passed the exam in the past, which are already designed and used, were referred to. Where terms and phrases designed in existing data models are used, the work used Namespace of the relevant data model. The writer defined the relationships where necessary. The designed ontology shows an exemplary implementation of the Myeongneung seonsaengan(明陵先生案). The work gave consideration to expected effects of information entered when a single registered is expanded to plural registers, along with ways to use it. The ontology design is not one made based on the review of all of the 176 registers. The model needs to be improved each time relevant information is obtained. The aim of such efforts is the systematic arrangement of information contained in the registers. It should be remembered that information arranged in this manner may be rearranged with the aid of databases or archives existing currently or to be built in the future. It is expected that the pieces of information entered through the ontology design will be used as data showing how government offices were operated and what their personnel system was like, along with politics, economy, society, and culture of the Joseon Period, in linkage with databases already established.

A Study on the Liability for Damage caused by Space Activity - With reference to Relevant Cases - (우주활동에 의하여 발생한 손해배상책임에 관한 연구 - 관련 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.177-213
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this paper is to research on the liability and cases for space damage with reference to the space activity under the international space treaty and national space law of major countries. The United Nations has adopted two treaties relating to the liability for space damage as follows: the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Liability Convention of 1972. Korea has enacted the Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008 relating to the liability for space damages. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 regulates the international responsibility for national activities in outer space, and the national tort liability for damage by space launching object. The Liability Convention of 1972 regulates the absolute liability by a launching state, the faulty liability by a launching state, the joint and several liability by a launching state, the person claiming for compensation, the claim method for compensation, the claim period of compensation, the claim for compensation and local remedy, the compensation amount for damage by a launching state, and the establishment of the Claims Commission. The Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008 in Korea regulates the definition of space damage, the relation of the Outer Space Damage Compensation Act and the international treaty, the non-faulty liability for damage by a launching person, the concentration of liability and recourse by a launching person, the exclusion of application of the Product Liability Act, the limit amount of the liability for damage by a launching person, the cover of the liability insurance by a launching person, the measures and assistance by the government in case of occurring the space damage, and the exercise period of the claim right of compensation for damage. There are several cases with reference to the liability for damage caused by space accidents as follows: the Collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251, the Disintegration of Cosmos 954 over Canadian Territory, the Failure of Satellite Launching by Martin Marietta, and the Malfunctioning of Westar VI Satellite. In the disputes and lawsuits due to such space accidents, the problems relating to the liability for space damage have been settled by the application of absolute(strict) liability principle or faulty liability principle. The Liability Convention of 1972 should be improved as follows: the clear definition in respect of the claimer of compensation for damage, the measure in respect of the enforcement of decision by the Claims Commission. The Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008 in Korea should be improved as follows: the inclusion of indirect damage into the definition of space damage, the change of the currency unit of the limit amount of liability for damage, the establishment of joint and several liability and recourse right for damage by space joint launching person, and the establishment of the Space Damage Compensation Review Commission. Korea has built the space center at Oinarodo, Goheung Province in June 2009. Korea has launched the first small launch vehicle KSLV-1 at the Naro Space Center in August 2009 and June 2010. In Korea, it will be the possibility to be occurred the problems relating to the international responsibility and the liability for space damage in the course of space activity. Accordingly the Korean government and launching organization should make the legal and systematic policy to cope with such problems.

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A qualitative Research on Establishment of Department of Private Investigation and Its Future Direction (민간조사학과 개설의 필요성과 성장방향에 대한 질적 연구)

  • Jo, Sung-Gu;Lee, Ju-Lak
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.28
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    • pp.181-205
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    • 2011
  • There are various discussions about introducing private investigation in South Korea these days, and training private investigators is one of the main topics. Training private investigators, unlike other training, is required to instill expertise and ethical quality into the trainees since the major task of the investigators includes protecting the lives of the citizens as well as their properties. Therefore, many agree to the idea that systematic educational programs need to be organized to produce private investigators with expertness and morality. In this study, we explored the opinions of those who are concerned with this issue of establishing private investigation in the university education and analyzed the data by using the NVivo 2 program. The result revealed that the reasons that people supported the idea of launching private investigator services were as follows. First, there is lack of manpower to maintain peace and public order in the country. Second, the police does not intervene actively and help harmed victims unless it is a consequential incident. Third, in position to wield public power, police officers cannot get involved in civil affairs. Also, absence of an academic institution to educate private investigators and lack of the police and clients' trust in private investigation were the two biggest reasons that people approved the proposal to introduce department of private investigation in universities. The interviewees of the study believed the outlook and future direction for private investigation would change depending on the status of the licensed private investigation business bill. Before the bill passes, they thought that the work of private investigators will be performed by insurance companies, foreign private investigation businesses, domestic consulting firms, and security providers which supply similar services. On the other hand, after the bill passes, they believed that numerous private investigator corporations resembling existing security corporations will be founded in addition to the current market, and that private investigation in the academic field will also be vitalized.

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The Policy Review and Water Quality Characteristics of National Fishing Harbors and Designated Ports in East Coast of Korea (동해안 국가어항과 지정항만의 수질특성 및 정책적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-In;Kim, Gui-Young;Moon, Ju-Hoon;Eom, Ki-Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.213-223
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    • 2011
  • The status and changes of water quality of national fishing harbors and designated ports in East Coast of Korea were analyzed to support establishment effective water environmental management. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) concentration was satisfied to designated water quality criteria in most areas, but TN (Total Nitrogen) and TP (Total Phosphorus) exceeded the criteria frequently. Also, peak concentration was summer in COD and SS (Suspended Solid), but winter in TP. Eutrophication index of Ganggu and Pohang (old) area were the highest. Pollution index by function of COD, TN, and TP of Ganggu, Pohang, Jumunjin, and Guryongpo was high with gradual increasing recently, on the contrary, that of Samcheok, Imwon, and Chuksan was decreased. Pollution index involving multi-indictors relation to organics and inorganics was necessary for water quality assessment. Designated water quality criteria needed to be improved because the criteria of Jukbyun and Chuksan was applied more strictly compared to the other regions although without difference of environmental characteristics. Furthermore, the criteria notified lately needed to be related to management pollutants from land-based sources. The continuous diagnosis and monitoring on sediment quality within the study area were necessary for prevention of water pollution and eco-friendly disposal of dredged sediment. Especially, monitoring of Designated Ports was implemented partially, however monitoring ratio of National Fishing Har-bors was 7% to whole part. Therefore, systematic and integrated environmental monitoring for ports and harbors with charge of national management was reestablished by strengthening and securing a legal basis.

Analysis of Experimental Researches in Korea on the Effects of Aromatherapy to Relieve Pain (아로마테라피의 통증 감소 효과에 관한 국내 실험논문 분석)

  • Park, Jeong-Sook;Park, Jeong-Eon;Yang, Jang-Soon;Kwak, Hye-Weon;Han, Jung-An
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-19
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study identifies research trends and provides fundamental data related to curative power of aromatherapy to relieve pain in Korea. Methods: The study analyzed 44 experimental studies on humans that were published in Korea before the end of December, 2009. The key words used for searching were: aroma, aromatherapy, hyang-yobeob, hyanggi-yobeob, hyanggichilyo, aromatherapy and pain, headache, scapulodynia, omodynia, feeling uncomfortable in the perineal region, sense of pain, labor pains, arm pain, menstrual pain, aches, and dysmenorrheal. Those words were found on websites, including those for Korea Education & Research Information Service, the National Assembly Library, KISS, KoreaMed, and NDSL. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The results showed that most of essential oils to relieve pain is composed of three to four kinds of oils, including Lavender, Roman chamomile, Rosemary, and Clarysage. Aromatherapy is applied usually by means of massage (50%), inhalation (13.6%), or a combination of the above two (13.6%). Measuring instruments as a dependent variable include VAS, questionnaire, GRS, blood pressure, pulse, and Algometer. Aromatherapy plays an important role in soothing headaches and arthralgia. However, when it comes to labor and menstrual pain, it doesn't seem to be effective. Conclusion: The study found that different kinds of oil, frequencies, and periods of time are used for the same symptoms. Further research should employ standardized oil blending, application, duration, and measuring instruments, and more systematically analyze the effects of aromatherapy to establish the effects on relieving pain.

A Kinematic Analysis on Lateral Break-Fall of Security Nartial Arts (경호무도 측방낙법의 운동학적 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Hak;Lee, Sae-Hwan
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.24
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to analyze kinematic variables regarding lateral break-fall quantitatively that can protect the body, prevent the injury and minimize the impact. To this end, three Hapkido, judo athletes of H University with experience of over 5 years were selected. Test was conducted through three dimensional image analysis by checking the time and order the subjects reach a mat. In this study, lateral break-fall was repeated five times and among them, the best movement was selected. The picture shot with high-speed camera was analyzed by using KWON3D ver. 3.1 program through three dimensional coordinate calculation based on DLT method and smoothing process of data. Study results were as follows. 1. With respect to time variables shown in lateral break-fall of A, B, C athletes, there is small difference in temporal variables and in the order the body reaches a mat. With respect to average value, hand is ($0.94{\pm}0.20$), elbow ($0.97{\pm}0.17$), hip ($0.97{\pm}0.18$), back ($0.98{\pm}0.18$), and shoulder ($1.04{\pm}0.16$). Time variable the body reaches a mat in lateral break-fall is in hand, elbow, hip, back and shoulder. 2. With respect to moving distance variables shown in lateral break-fall of A, B, C athletes, hand is ($34.33{\pm}34.59$), elbow ($52.00{\pm}26.06$), hip ($70.00{\pm}15.72$), back ($153.67{\pm}17.93$), and should ($130.67{\pm}29.02$). The fact that this study contributed to improving security martial arts technique and protecting the body by understanding the principle of lateral break-fall movement is of significance. In addition, the fact that this study provided systematic basic data for improving security martial arts technique is significant.

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Long-term Influence of Mild to Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation after Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (무심폐기하 관상동맥우회술에서의 중등도의 허혈성 승모판막부전증의 중요성)

  • Hong, Jong-Myeon;Cartier, Raymond
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 2010
  • Background: Our objective was to review the long-term prognosis of patients with preoperative mild to moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Material and Method: We prospectively followed 1,000 consecutive and systematic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting patients who were operated on between September 1996 and March 2004; follow-up was achieved for 97%. Sixty-seven patients (6.7%) had mild to moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation at the time of surgery. Operative mortality, actuarial survival and major adverse cardiac event free survival were compared to assess the effect of ischemic mitral regurgitation. Result: Average follow-up was $66{\pm}22$ months. Patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation were older (p<0.001), had lower ejection fractions (p<0.001) and more comorbidities. Significantly more female patients presented with ischemic mitral regurgitation (p=0.002). There was no significant difference in operative mortality and perioperative myocardial infarction in ischemic mitral regurgitation patients (p=0.25). Eight-year survival was decreased in ischemic mitral regurgitation patients ($39.6{\pm}11.8%$ vs $76.7{\pm}2.2$, p<0.001). However, after correcting for risk factors, mild to moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation was not found to be a significant independent risk factor for long-term mortality (p=0.42). Major adverse cardiac event free survival at 8 years was significantly lower in ischemic mitral regurgitation patients ($53.12{\pm}12%$ vs $77{\pm}2%$, p<0.001). After correction for risk factors, ischemic mitral regurgitation remained a significant independent cause of major adverse cardiac events (HR: 2.31), especially congestive heart failure and recurrent myocardial infarction. Conclusion: In our series, patients with preoperative mild to moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation had a higher prevalence of preoperative risk factors than patients without ischemic mitral regurgitation. They had comparable perioperative mortality and morbidity, but, in the long term, were found to be at elevated risk for recurrent cardiac events.

The Liability for Damage and Dispute Settlement Mechanism under the Space Law (우주법상 손해배상책임과 분쟁해결제도)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.173-198
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to research on the liability for the space damage and the settlement of the dispute with reference to the space activity under the international space treaty and national space law of Korea. The United Nations has adopted five treaties relating to the space activity as follows: The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the Rescue and Return Agreement of 1968, the Liability Convention of 1972, the Registration Convention of 1974, and the Moon Treaty of 1979. All five treaties have come into force. Korea has ratified above four treaties except the Moon Treaty. Korea has enacted three national legislations relating to space development as follows: Aerospace Industry Development Promotion Act of 1987, Outer Space Development Promotion Act of 2005, Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 regulates the international responsibility for national activities in outer space, the national tort liability for damage by space launching object, the national measures for dispute prevention and international consultation in the exploration and use of outer space, the joint resolution of practical questions by international inter-governmental organizations in the exploration and use of outer space. The Liability Convention of 1972 regulates the absolute liability by a launching state, the faulty liability by a launching state, the joint and several liability by a launching state, the person claiming for compensation, the claim method for compensation, the claim period of compensation, the claim for compensation and local remedy, the compensation amount for damage by a launching state, the establishment of the Claims Commission. The Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008 in Korea regulates the definition of space damage, the relation of the Outer Space Damage Compensation Act and the international treaty, the non-faulty liability for damage by a launching person, the concentration of liability and recourse by a launching person, the exclusion of application of the Product Liability Act, the limit amount of the liability for damage by a launching person, the cover of the liability insurance by a launching person, the measures and assistance by the government in case of occurring the space damage, the exercise period of the claim right of compensation for damage. The Liability Convention of 1972 should be improved as follows: the problem in respect of the claimer of compensation for damage, the problem in respect of the efficiency of decision by the Claims Commission. The Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008 in Korea should be improved as follows: the inclusion of indirect damage into the definition of space damage, the change of currency unit of the limit amount of liability for damage, the establishment of joint and several liability and recourse right for damage by space joint launching person, the establishment of the Space Damage Compensation Review Commission. The 1998 Final Draft Convention on the Settlement of Disputes Related to Space Activities of 1998 by ILA regulates the binding procedure and non-binding settlement procedure for the disputes in respect of space activity. The non-binding procedure regulates the negotiation or the peaceful means and compromise for dispute settlement. The binding procedure regulates the choice of a means among the following means: International Space Law Court if it will be established, International Court of Justice, and Arbitration Court. The above final Draft Convention by ILA will be a model for the innovative development in respect of the peaceful settlement of disputes with reference to space activity and will be useful for establishing the frame of practicable dispute settlement. Korea has built the space center at Oinarodo, Goheung Province in June 2009. Korea has launched the first small launch vehicle KSLV-1 at the Naro Space Center in August 2009 and June 2010. In Korea, it will be the possibility to be occurred the problems relating to the international responsibility and dispute settlement, and the liability for space damage in the course of space activity. Accordingly the Korean government and launching organization should make the legal and systematic policy to cope with such problems.

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A Study on Perception of Good Instruction between In-service and Pre-service Teachers ('좋은 수업'에 대한 현직교사와 예비교사의 인식 연구 - 지양해야 할 수업 형태와 관련하여 -)

  • Eom, Miri;Kim, Myeong-Rang;Park, Innwoo;Jang, Seon-Yeong
    • (The)Korea Educational Review
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.107-132
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    • 2009
  • What is good instruction? The term "instruction" means the essential activity of school education, a precondition for good school, and the starting point of reforming school education. The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning of "good instruction" by examining the difference of perception between in-service teachers and pre-service teachers who encompass the viewpoint of both teacher and student using open-ended questionnaires asking the type of instruction that they have to avoid and the undesirable instruction. This study was carried out with 150 teachers who were working in the schools and 160 students who were in college of education to be teacher in the future. Collected data was analyzed using the QSR Nvivo qualitative program. The findings of this study indicates the followings: First, the most undesirable class cited by in-service teachers was the class that applies uniform instructional strategy, followed by class based on directions instruction, unsystematic class, class characterized by lack of teaching competency, class that emphasizes test scores and competition, class that are not interactive enough, class that does not consider the level of students, class in which students are not respected, class that have poor educational environment, and the class in which little support is provided. Second, the most undesirable class cited by pre-service teachers was the class that applies uniform instructional strategy, followed by unsystematic class, class characterized by lack of teaching competency, class based on directions instruction, class in which students are not respected, class that emphasizes test scores and competition, class that does not consider the level of students, class that are not interactive enough, class that have poor educational environment, and the class in which little support is provided. Third, this study examined the difference of perception between in-service teachers and pre-service teachers toward the undesirable class that they have to avoid. In terms of the integrated rank that is common among in-service teachers and pre-service teachers, the most undesirable class that they have to avoid was the class that applies uniform instructional strategy, unsystematic class, class based on directions instruction, and class characterized by lack of teaching competency. The findings of this study may be used as a basis for in-service teachers to reflect on their professionalism of instruction that they provide and examine the attitude of students toward instruction, while providing a practical guideline for pre-service teachers to design and ensure systematic instruction in the future.

"Improving women's and children's health in DPRK" project funded by the Republic of Korea (현재 진행되고 있는 남북한 의료협력사업 : 영유아 지원 사업을 중심으로)

  • Shin, Young-Jeon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.671-689
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    • 2008
  • The economic recession of North Korea has been prolonged, the need for humanitarian assistance for the women and children of DPRK has been raised. In March 2006, South Korean government signed MOU with World Health Organization (WHO) to financially support "Improving Women's and Children's Health in DPRK (IWCH)" project. The assistance projects through UNICEF and the non-government organizations of South Korea were also followed. IWCH project consists of three parts; nutrition, disease management, children and maternity care. The first term (2006-2007) of the project leading by WHO was finished, and the second term (2008-2010) is just begun. The projects driven by NGOs have relatively been delayed due to difficulties in negotiating on project contents and places with North Korea. Recently, however, re-modeling processes of an obstetric/gynecology hospital and a children hospital in Nampo were started. Up to recently, South Korean government has played only a limited role in the humanitarian assistance for North Korea. IWCH project is, however, a full-scale initiative driven by government based on a systematic review of need and priorities. A significant amount of budget and relatively long term (five year) project compare to the previous short term and small size programs were expected to make more meaningful achievement. Despite these positive aspects, the project remains a list of unsolved problems a lack of mutual trust, a different decision making process between South and North Korea, a lack of conflict management process, and unpredictability and complexity of international politics. In spite of such kind of political uncertainty, the health care sector will be a leading area in the process of improving relationship between South and North Korea, particularly, humanitarian assistance for women and children will play a crucial role in the process. The successful implementation of IWCH project, therefore, will contribute to provide the reference model in developing the mutually constructive relationship between South and North