• Title, Summary, Keyword: synthetic folic acid

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Contemporary Issues Surrounding Folic Acid Fortification Initiatives

  • Choi, Jeong-Hwa;Yates, Zoe;Veysey, Martin;Heo, Young-Ran;Lucock, Mark
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.247-260
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    • 2014
  • The impact of folate on health and disease, particularly pregnancy complications and congenital malformations, has been extensively studied. Mandatory folic acid fortification therefore has been implemented in multiple countries, resulting in a reduction in the occurrence of neural tube defects. However, emerging evidence suggests increased folate intake may also be associated with unexpected adverse effects. This literature review focuses on contemporary issues of concern, and possible underlying mechanisms as well as giving consideration the future direction of mandatory folic acid fortification. Folate fortification has been associated with the presence of unmetabolized folic acid (PteGlu) in blood, masking of vitamin $B_{12}$ deficiency, increased dosage for anti-cancer medication, photo-catalysis of PteGlu leading to potential genotoxicity, and a role in the pathoaetiology of colorectal cancer. Increased folate intake has also been associated with twin birth and insulin resistance in offspring, and altered epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance. Although limited data exists to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying these issues, elevated blood folate level due to the excess use of PteGlu without consideration of an individual's specific phenotypic traits (e.g. genetic background and undiagnosed disease) may be relevant. Additionally, the accumulation of unmetabolized PteGlu may lead to inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and other enzymes. Concerns notwithstanding, folic acid fortification has achieved enormous advances in public health. It therefore seems prudent to target and carefully monitor high risk groups, and to conduct well focused further research to better understand and to minimize any risk of mandatory folic acid fortification.

Studies on Basidiomycetes(I) -On the Mycelial Growth of Agaricus bitorquis and Pleurotus ostreatus- (담자균(擔子菌)에 관한 연구(硏究)( I ) -고온성(高溫性) 양송이와 느타리의 균사(菌絲) 생육(生育)에 관하여-)

  • Hong, Jae-Sik;Lee, Kap-Sang;Choi, Dong- Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1981
  • The mycelial growth of Agaricus bitorquis and Pleurotus ostreatus in synthetic media were carried out by ordinary methods. The optimum pH and temperature for mycelial growth were from pH 6.0 to 6.5 and 25 to $30^{\circ}C$, and from pH 5.0 to 6.5 and $25^{\circ}C$ in A. bitorquis and P. ostreatus, respectively. Among the carbon and nitrogen sources, glucose, starch, and peptone showed the good result for the mycelial growth of A. bitorquis, and glucose, fructose, starch and peptone were good for the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus. The yield of mycelium decreased under lower or higher C/N ratio. Also, at the same C/N ratio, the higher the concentration of glucose and peptone, the more the yield was increased. Among various vitamins thiamine, Ca-pantothenate and folic acid were suitable for the mycelial growth of A. bitorquis, and thiamine, folic acid and ino­sitol for the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus. Although pH, total nitrogen and glucose contents of media decreased gradually during culture period the yield of mycelium increased.

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Studies on Cellulases Produced by Pleurotus spp. on Synthetic Medium(II) -Effects of Vitamins, Inorganic Salts and Cultural Conditions- (합성(合成) 배지(培地)에서 느타리속(屬)이 생산(生産)하는 섬유소(纖維素) 분해효소(分解酵素)에 관한 연구(硏究)(제2보) -비타민류(類), 무기(無機) 염류(鹽類)와 배양(培養) 조건(條件)의 영향(影響)-)

  • Hong, Jai-Sik;Lee, Jong-Bae;Koh, Moo-Seok;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Lee, Keug-Ro;Jung, Gi-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 1986
  • The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus sajor-caju JAFM 1017 was stimulated by folic acid and thiamine-HCl. Among the inorganic salts, optimum concentrations of $KH_2PO_4$ and $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ were 0.2% (w/v) and 0.04% (w/v), respectively, but other inorganic salts were not effective for the production of the enzymes. The optimum culture temperature and pH for the production were $25^{\circ}C$ and 5.5 for avicelase, and $30^{\circ}C$ and 5.0 for CMCase, and $30^{\circ}C$ and 6.5 for ${\beta}-glucosidase$, respectively.

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Fruit-body Formation of Pleurotus florida on the Synthetic Medium (합성배지(合成培地)를 이용(利用)한 고온성(高溫性) 느타리버섯의 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jai-Sik;Kang, Kui-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 1983
  • Nutritional and physio-chemical conditions for mycelial growth and fruit-body formation of Pleurotus florida were determined in synthetic media. Mannitol and sucrose were good sugar substances for the mycelial growth and fruit-body formation whereas less mycelial growth and no fruit-body formation was obtained with arabinose, lactose and inulin. The optimum concentration of mannitol was about 2%. Peptone as a nitrogen sources resulted in a rapid mycelial growth and fruit-body formation with higher yield, but nitrite-nitrogens inhibited the mycelial growth. The higher yield was obtained with 0.2% peptone. Among the vitamins used, the greatest mycelial growth and fruit-body formation brought about by thiamine and folic acid. $KH_2PO_4$ and $MgSO_4$ at 0.2% and 0.02%, respectively, were effective for the mycelial growth and fruit-body formation, but other inorganic salts used were ineffective. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and fruit-body formation were $25^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$, respectively, and light intensity of $100{\sim}500\;lux$ and pH 6.0 appeared to be effective.

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Studies on the Cellulolytic Enzymes Produced by Ganoderma lucidum in Synthetic Media (합성배지(合成培地)에서 불로초(不老草)가 생산(生産)하는 섬유소(纖維素) 분해효소(分解酵素)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jae-Sik;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Yun, Se-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 1986
  • Factors affecting the productivity of cellulolytic enzymes and the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum CAFM 9065 were examined in synthetic media. Among the carbon sources tested, Na-CMC was the best for the production of avicelase CMC ase, and cellobiose for ${\beta}-glucosidase$. Soluble starch and cellobiose were the best for the mycelial growth. The optimum concentration of Na-CMC for the production of the enzymes was 1.0 %, and mycelial growth increased remarkably with the higher concentration of Na-CMC. Glucose inhibited the production of the enzymes, but stimulated the mycelial growth. Among the nitrogen sources used, peptone was the most effective for the production of the enzymes, and the appropriate concentration of peptone was 0.2%. The mycelial growth was stimulated with the increase of the concentration of peptone up to 0.5%. The optimum concentration of $KH_2PO_4$ for the production of the enzymes and mycelial growth was 0.3 and 0.2%, respectively. The optimum concentration of $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ for the production of the enzymes and mycelial growth was 0.02%. The production of the enzymes was facilitated by folic acid at a low concentration (0.03 mg/l), and mycelial growth by inositol. The optimum temperature for the production of the enzymes and mycelial growth was $30^{\circ}C$. The optimum pH for the production of avicelase and ${\beta}-glucosidase$ was 5.0 equally and CMCase 5.5. The activities of avicelase and CMCase were the highest at 8 and 10 days of culture, respectively and that of ${\beta}-glucosidase$ at 16 day culture. The growth of mycelium was the highest at 12 days of culture at pH 5.0.

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