• Title, Summary, Keyword: synergistic effect

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Effects of Growth Factors and Gut Regulatory Peptides on Glucose Uptake in HC 11 Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

  • Myung, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1690-1694
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    • 2003
  • The large and rapid changes of glucose utilization in lactating mammary tissue in response to changes in nutritional state must be largely related by external signal of insulin. This also must be related with the quantity and composition of the diet in vivo. To characterize the mode of growth factors and gut regulatory peptides with insulin, in vitro experiment was conducted with HC11 cells. All the growth factor alone and the combinations of growth factors significantly (p<0.05) increased in glucose uptake. Insulin, EGF and IGF-1 exhibited a stimulation of glucose uptake for at least 24 h. Furthermore, the highest (p<0.05) synergistic effect was shown in EGF plus IGF-1 and the second synergistic effect in insulin plus EGF while no synergistic effect was found between insulin and IGF-1. However, the gut regulatory peptides neither potentiated nor inhibited the action of insulin on glucose uptake. Although growth factors did not modulates glucose uptake via increasing the rate of translation of the GLUT1 protein, RT-PCR analysis indicated that the growth factors significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of GLUT1. The growth factors are therefore shown to be capable of modulating glucose uptake by transcription level with insulin in HC 11 cells.

Grafting of Vinyl Monomers onto PET Film(I) -Synergistic Effect of Binary Mixtures of Styrene and Acrylic Acid during Graft Copolymerization onto PET Film- (PET 필름의 그라프트 중합(I) -스티렌-아크릴산 단량체 혼합계에서의 상승효과-)

  • O, Hyeon-Ri;Jeon, Dong-Won;Yu, Hye-Ja
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.8-17
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    • 1986
  • Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid(AA) and styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate)[PET] film using benzoyl peroxide[BPO] as an initiator was investigated under the various conditions. The effect of the monomer concentration, of the initiator concentration, and of the grafting temperature and time on the graft yield was evaluated. It was found that the maximum graft yield was obtained when 80/20(mole ratio) styrene/AA mixture was used. Increasing the ratio of styrene in the styrene/AA mixture enhanced grafting. It was studied that there is a synergistic phenomenon when styrene/AA mixtures are grafted to PET film. The results indicated that, in the styrene/AA grafting, styrene exhibits negative synergistic effect and AA exhibits positive one. Grafting of AA and styrene to PET film improves the moisture regain of the film considerably. Moisture regain of PET-g-styrene is higher than that of PET-g-AA.

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Joint Toxic Action of Insecticide Mixtures to the Cupermethrin-and Pirimicarb-Selected Strains of Green Peach Aphid(Myzus pericae Sulzer) (Cypermethrin과 Pirimicarb 저항성계통 복숭아혹잔딧물에 대한 살충제문의 연합독작용)

  • 안용준;김길하;최승윤
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 1989
  • The joint toxic action of mixtures of cypermethrin or pirimicarb with one of other insecticides (acephate, cypermethrin, demeton-S-methyl and pirimicarb) on the cypermethrin or picimicarb-selected green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer)was investigated. The responses depended on the choice and ratios of insecticide combination. In the cypermethrin-selected strain bioas-say, mixtures of test insecticides showed no synergistic effect. On the other hand, the maxi-mum synergistic effects for the pirimicarb-selected strain were obtained at the 8 : 2 ratio of pirimicarb and demeton-S-methyl exhibited antagonistic effect.

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Immobilization of Endo- and Exoinulinase on Vinylsulfone Activated Agarose (Vinylsulfone Activated Agarose 에 Endo- 및 Exoinulinase의 고정화)

  • 한상배;송근섭;정용섭;손희숙;우순자;엄태봉
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-24
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    • 1992
  • In order to reuse inulinase effectively, a method for immobilizing both endo- and exoinulinase to vinylsulfone activated agarose via covalent bond was investigated. The immobilized enzyme preparation had, respectively, 400 U for exoinulinase activity and 80 U for endoinu- Iinase activity per gram gel. A thermal stability by immobilization had increased in the case of exoinulinase. Optimum pHs for two immobilized enzymes were 4.4 to 5.0. Synergistic effect which depends on mixed ratio of two immobilized enzymes was the best when the mixed ratio of endo/exo lay between 0.1 and 0.5, and its activity of the mixed enzyme increased 1.7 times as compared to that of each immobilized enzyme. Inulinase activities of both of the immobilized enzymes did not change during 20 times experimental runs in a batch reactor.

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Rheological Differences of Waxy Barley Flour Dispersions Mixed with Various Gums

  • Kim, Chong-Yeon;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2017
  • Rheological properties of waxy barley flour (WBF) dispersions mixed with various gums (carboxyl methyl celluleose, guar gum, gum arabic, konjac gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, and xanthan gum) at different gum concentrations were examined in steady and dynamic shear. WBF-gum mixture samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Rheological tests indicated that the flow and dynamic rheological parameter (apparent viscosity, consistency index, yield stress, storage modulus, and loss modulus) values of WBF dispersions mixed with gums, except for gum arabic, were significantly higher than those of WBF with no gum, and also increased with an increase in gum concentration. In particular, konjac gum at 0.6% among other gums showed the highest rheological parameter values. Tan ${\delta}$ values of WBF-xanthan gum mixtures were lower than those of other gums, showing that there is a more pronounced synergistic effect on the elastic properties of WBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Such synergistic effect was hypothesized by considering thermodynamic compatibility between xanthan gum and WBF. These rheological results suggest that in the WBF-gum mixture systems, the addition of gums modified the flow and viscoelastic properties of WBF, and that these modifications were dependent on the type of gum and gum concentration.

The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen and Ni2O3 over TiO2 Photocatalyst in the Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Under Visible Light

  • Hu, Shaozheng;Li, Fayun;Fan, Zhiping
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.4052-4058
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    • 2012
  • The composite photocatalyst, N-$TiO_2$ loaded with $Ni_2O_3$, was prepared by $N_2$ plasma treatment. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, $N_2$ adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared $TiO_2$ samples. The results indicated that the band gap energy was decreased obviously by nitrogen doping, whereas loading of $Ni_2O_3$ did not influence the band gap and visible light absorption. The photocatalytic activities were tested in the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) under visible light. The photocatalytic activity and stability of composite photocatalyst were much higher than that of catalyst modified with nitrogen or $Ni_2O_3$ alone. The synergistic effect of doping nitrogen and $Ni_2O_3$ over $TiO_2$ was investigated.

Soot and PAH Formation Characteristic of Concentric Co-Flow Diffusion Flames (이중동축류 확산화염에서의 매연 및 PAH 생성 특성)

  • Lee, Won-Nam;Nam, Youn-Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2005
  • The synergistic effect of ethylene/propane mixture on soot formation is studied experimentally using a concentric co-flow diffusion burner, which provides the stratified fuel mixture. The soot volume fraction, soot particle diameter, number density and PAH concentrations are measured with various fuel supply configurations and compared to the homogeneously mixed case. When propane is supplied through the inner nozzle, an increase of soot formation is observed. However, when propane is supplied through the outer nozzle, a decrease is observed. The reaction path of PAH's formed from the pyrolysis process of propane is likely to be responsible to the observed differences. When propane is supplied through the outer nozzle, PAH's are formed in the relatively near oxidation region and exposed to the oxidization environment; on the other hand, when propane is supplied through the inner nozzle, PAH's are not likely to be oxidized and thus get involved in soot formation process. The synergistic effect in ethylene/propane diffusion flames is found to be affected not only by the com position of the mixture but also by the way of mixing.

The Combined Effect of Caffeine and Ornithine on the Mood of Healthy Office Workers

  • Misaizu, Akane;Kokubo, Takeshi;Tazumi, Kyoko;Kanayama, Masaya;Miura, Yutaka
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.367-372
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    • 2014
  • Caffeine is widely consumed and well known for stimulating the central nervous system. When developing new foods and beverages that contain caffeine, it is important to explore the potential synergistic effects of consuming amino acids and other food ingredients with caffeine on humans. Given the physiological pathways affected by the amino acid ornithine, consumption of ornithine with caffeine may have synergistic effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of consuming caffeine with ornithine in humans. The study used a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover design. The subjects were all healthy office workers who ingested the placebo, 100 mg caffeine, or 100 mg caffeine plus 200 mg ornithine in the morning and completed questionnaires about their mood. Office workers who consumed the combination of caffeine and ornithine had higher mood ratings 8 h after consumption than office workers who consumed caffeine alone. The results of the present study suggest that there is a unique synergistic effect between caffeine and ornithine on the mood of healthy office workers and that ornithine may potentiate the effects of caffeine.

Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

  • Dong, Yuming;Wu, Lina;Wang, Guangli;Zhao, Hui;Jiang, Pingping;Feng, Cuiyun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.3227-3232
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    • 2013
  • A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state.

Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Ecklonia cava Extract against Anti-biotic Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (항생제 내성 Enterococcus faecalis에 대한 감태(Ecklonia cava) 추출물의 항균 시너지 효과)

  • Kim, Seung-Yong;Kim, Young-Mog;Kim, Eunjung;Lee, Myung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2015
  • With continuing demand for the development of new, effective and safe therapies, an investigation was carried out to test the efficacy of an antibacterial agent derived from marine edible seaweed. The methanolic extract of Ecklonia cava from marine edible seaweed evinced potential antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Among five solvent-soluble fractions of E. cava methanolic extract, the ethyl acetate soluble extract (EtOAc) exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity, with a MIC value of $128{\mu}g/mL $ against E. faecalis strains. Furthermore, a synergistic antibacterial effect between an antibiotic and the EtOAc fraction was assessed using fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices. A combination of ciprofloxacin and the EtOAc fraction resulted in a ${\sum}FIC_{min}$ range of 0.188 and ${\sum}FIC_{max}$ of 0.508 to 563, suggesting that the ciprofloxacin-EtOAc fraction of E. cava combination resulted in an antibacterial synergy effect against E. faecalis.