• Title, Summary, Keyword: synergistic effect

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Synergistic Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and LPS on Silica-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Production in Macrophage Cell Line J774A.1

  • LEE DONG HEE;PARK BONG JOO;LEE MIN SUB;CHOI JAE BONG;KIM JEONG KOO;PARK JONG HOON;PARK JONG-CHUL
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.136-140
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of Staphylococcus aureus extracts (membranes and walls) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in the pathogenesis of silica-induced inflammation. The synergistic induction of TNF by silica particles $(<20\;{\mu}m)$ in combination with either S. aureus extracts or LPS was examined in J774A.1 cell cultures. Media from the treated and untreated cell cultures were assayed for TNF, using the mouse WEHI 164 cell cytotoxicity assay and enzyme immunoassay. Cells exposed simultaneously to silica and $0.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ S. aureus extracts (or 0.5 ng/ml of LPS) produced a significantly higher level of TNF than those produced by the inducer alone. Our results indicate that device-associated infections (or pyrogen contamination) could enhance inflammatory responses, because of particles produced by the wear of medical implants or particulate biomaterials used for clinical purposes.

Synergistic Effects of Exemestane and Aspirin on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Hu, Li-Xia;Du, Ying-Ying;Zhang, Ying;Pan, Yue-Yin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5903-5908
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined effects of exemestane and aspirin on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Methods: Antiproliferative effects of exemestane and aspirin, alone and in combination, on growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were assessed using the MTT assay. Synergistic interaction between the two drugs was evaluated in vitro using the combination index (CI) method. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and Bcl-2. Results: MTT assays indicated that combination treatment obviously decreased the viability of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells compared to individual drug treatment (CI<1). In addition, the combination of exemestane and aspirin exhibited a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation, significantly arrested the cell cycle in the $G_0/G_1$ phase and produced a stronger inhibitory effect on COX-1 and Bcl-2 expression than control or individual drug treatment. Conclusion: These results indicate that the combination of exemestane and aspirin might become a useful method to the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. The combination of the two inhibitors significantly increased the response as compared to single agent treatment, suggesting that combination treatment could become a highly effective approach for breast cancer.

Exploring Synergistic Effect in Metro Station Areas: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

  • Zhuang, Yu;Zhang, Lingzhu
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2016
  • In the process of exploring sustainable development, major cities in China are expanding metro systems as a strategy to reduce the negative environmental and social consequences of fast-paced motorization. A metro station is not only a transportation node, but also a place where diverse activities can be performed. Therefore, the realization of the spatial potential for human interaction is the essence of the strategy for integrated development in metro station areas. For this paper, 10 well-developed metro stations in Central Shanghai were selected to investigate the correlation between accessibility and spatial performance in station areas. The spatial performance in station areas is significantly affected by metro configuration. However, both vehicle and pedestrian accessibility show weak influence on spatial performance. A synergistic model was then developed to provide quantitative support for transit-oriented development in metro station areas.

Synergistic Effect of Notopterygium incisum with Clematis manshurica in the Anti-inflammatory Activity (강활(羌活)과 위령선(威靈仙)의 항염증 상승작용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Ju;Chun, Jin-Mi;Yang, Won-Kyung;Cheon, Myeong-Sook;Sung, Yoon-Young;Park, Jun-Yeon;Kim, Ho-Kyoung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Oriental medicines have been combined oriental medical theory which based on the seven modes of emotions. Notopterygium incisum (N. incisum) and Clematis manshurica (C. manshurica) have been used as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, headache, cold, etc. In this study, we evaluate the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of N. incisum and C. manshurica. Method : To evaluate the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of a herbal mixture N. incisum and C. manshurica, we examined the changed ear thickness in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model after topical application of herbal mixture. In addition, the levels of markers for inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, prostaglandin $G_2$ ($PGE_2$), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by ELISA assay and Griess reagent in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Results : Our results showed that aqueous extracts of N. incisum and C. manshurica combination significantly inhibited the mouse ear edema induced by TPA. Moreover, the aqueous extracts of N. incisum and C. manshurica combination exhibited synergistic effects in down-regulating TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, $PGE_2$ level, but not NO. Conclusions : This study suggested that combined treatment of N. incisum and C. manshurica, based on seven methods in prescription compatibility, has a synergistic effect in down-regulating inflammatory response both in vitro and in vivo models.

Effect of Perfluidone - Bifenox Mixture I. Interaction of Perfluidone and Bifenox Mixture (Perfluidone과 Bifenox의 혼합효과(混合效果) 제1보(第1報 제초제(除草劑) Perfluidone과 Bifenox의 상호작용(相互作用))

  • Ryang, H.S.;Jang, I.S.;Ma, S.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 1985
  • The experiment was carried out to evaluated the interaction between perfluidone(2-methyl-4-phenylsulphonyltrifluoromethylsulphoanilide) and bifenox(2,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methoxycarbonyl-4-nitrophenylether). A synergistic effect was found between perfluidone and bifenox. The highest synergistic effect on Echinochloa crus-galli (L.). Beauv. was obtained when 10 g a.i./10a of perfluidone was combined with 24.9 g a.i./10a of bifenox. However, bifenox should be increased to 33.3, g a.i./10a to obtain the highest synergistic effect when applied to Cyperus serotinus Rottb. at 1.0-1.5 leaf stage. Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. at 0.5-1.0sleaf stage was completely controlled by the lowest combination rate employed.

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Combination Effects of Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate with Sodium Chloride on the Growth of Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis의 생육에 미치는 식염과 Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate의 병용효과)

  • Yang, Yeo-Young;Youn, Jung-Hae;Cho, Nam-Sook;Choi, Eon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 1988
  • In order to investigate the combined effect of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate and the synergistic effect of sodium chloride on bacterial cell growth inhibition, Bacillus subtilis was cultured with or without shaking in tryptone-glucose-yeast extract broth containing 0.1% potassium sorbate and/or 0.03% sodium benzoat, which are equivalent to half of the maximum permissible levels, respectively. The combined treatment of the two preservatives did not show any synergistic effect of tne growth inhibition of B. subtilis. Addition of 2% sodium chloride, however, showed remarkable synergistic effect on the growth inhibition of the bacterium by potassium sorbate.

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Antilisterial Synergistic Effect of Falcarindiol Isolated from Dystaemia takesimana Kitagawa with Monoglycride (섬바디로부터 분리된 Falcarindiol과 유화제와의 혼합에 따른 Listeria monocytogenes에 대한 항균 상승효과)

  • Oh, Jin-Ah;Shin, Dong-Hwa;Ahn, Young-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.864-869
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    • 1999
  • Synergistic effects of the falcarindiol mixed with monoglyceride in broth exhibited strong growth inhibition on all test strains. It was confirmed that the falcarindiol mixed with monoglyceride exhibited bactericidal effect in broth against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19111 and ATCC 19114 at the same level.

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Anti-proliferative Effect of Tetra-arsenic Oxide (TetraAs®) in Human Gastric Cancer Cells in Vitro

  • Chung, Won-Heui;Koo, Hye-Jin;Kuh, Hyo-Jeong
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2007
  • Arsenic compounds have been used to treat various diseases including cancer in oriental medicine. Arsenic trioxide ($As_2O_3,\;Trisenox^{(R)}$) has been used for the treatment of leukemia and its anti-solid tumor activity has also been reported recently. Tetra-arsenic oxide ($As_4O_6,\;TetraAs^{(R)}$) is a newly developed arsenic compound which has shown an anticancer activity in some human cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-gastric cancer potential of TetraAs and to search for an agent with synergistic interaction with TetraAs against human gastric cancers. We analysed anti-proliferative effect of TetraAs when given alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-FU, paclitaxel, and cisplatin in SNU-216, a human gastric cancer cell line. The $IC_{50}$ of these 4 anti-cancer drugs ranged from 5.8 nM to $7.5\;{\mu}M$ with a potency rank of order paclitaxel>TetraAs>cisplatin>5-FU. TetraAs showed 10-fold greater potency than 5-FU and cisplatin at the same effect level of $IC_{50}$. TetraAs+5-FU and TetraAs+paclitaxel showed synergistic and additive interaction, respectively. On the other hand, TetraAs with cisplatin group appeared to be strongly antagonistic. Apoptotic population was measured and compared between single and combination treatment. The apoptotic cells for the combination of TetraAs+5-FU showed significant increase compared to single TetraAs treatment. On the contrary, TetraAs+cisplatin showed less apoptotic cells compared to TetraAs or cisplatin alone treatment. Overall, our results indicate that TetraAs can be effectively combined with 5-FU or paclitaxel, but not with cisplatin for synergistic anti-cancer effect, which warrants further evaluation using in vivo models.

Exploring synergistic effect among essential oils in antibacterial action (항균작용에 대한 에센셜 오일들 간의 상승작용 탐색)

  • Kim, Ka-Eun;Park, Soon Kwon;Cho, Il-Young
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to look at the antimicrobial synergistic effect of blended oil into the target skin flora. The essential oils used in antimicrobial test were 100% eucalyptus (EU), lemon (LE), lavender (LA) and four blended oils, EU+LE, LE+LA, EU+LA, and, EU+LE+LA in ratio of 1:1 and 1:1:1 respectively. As a result, LE showed the highest, LA showed the lowest antimicrobial activity among single oil group. In blended oil group, antimicrobial activity of the EU + LA showed significantly increasing effect than the sum of the antimicrobial activity of the single oil. However, the antimicrobial effects of the blend of three oils did not show any synergistic effect. This result showed that the interaction between the chemical components constituting the oil than the number of blended oil seems more significant on the synergistic effect. Therefore, blending essential oil based on scientific evidence becomes more necessary in the future.

Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract Obtained from Green Tea (녹차 물추출물의 항산화효과)

  • Rhi, Ju-Won;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.759-763
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    • 1993
  • The antioxidant effects of aqueous green tea extract(AGTE) obtained from green tea and its combinations with several synergists on lard were investigated to equalize with that of crude catechin in green tea. The antioxidant effect of crude catechin was about 3-fold higher than that of AGTE. The suitable synergists for AGTE were ${\delta}-tocopherol$ and lecithin, while the tendency of their synergistic effects was different from each other. Addition of ${\delta}-tocopherol$ within 0.05% dosage to lard showed significant synergistic effect, and its synergistic effect decreased with the concentration of AGTE over 0.1% dosage. In combination of AGTE and lecithin, they gradually enhanced synergistic effect on lard with increasing the concentration. The combinations of AGTE, ${\delta}-tocopherol$ and lecithin showed intense synergistic effects and the optimum level of the each component was 0.1% AGTE, 0.05% ${\delta}-tocopherol$ and 1% lecithin. By adding the optimum level of three components to lard, the induction period was lenghtened approximately 8-fold than that of the control owing to their synergism. Comparing the antioxidant effect between the AGTE with synergists and crude catechin, the former was 60% and 20% higher than the latter at 0.1% and 1% dosage respectively.

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