• Title, Summary, Keyword: synergistic effect

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Synergistic Effects of Catechin or Ascorbic Acid on Antioxidative Activities of Hexane and Methanol Extracts from Rosemary, Sage, Oregano, and Ginger (Rosemary, Sage, Oregano와 Ginger의 메탄올과 헥산 추출물의 항산화 작용에 대한 카테킨과 아스코르브산의 상승 효과)

  • Ahn, Chae-Kyung;Han, Daeseok;Rhee, Young-Kyung;Lee, Young-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.586-592
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    • 2005
  • This study was peformed to investigate the synergistic effects of catechin and ascorbic acid on antioxidative activities of methanol and hexane extracts (500 ppm) from rosemary, sage, oregano, and ginger. Ascorbic acid (200 ppm) and (-)-catechin (200 ppm) could be solubilized in a rice bran oil via a reverse micelles using small amount of water and dioctyl sulfosuccinate as the sufactant. Methanol extracts from rosemary, sage, oregano, and ginger showed the synergistic effects by (-)-catechin. However, methanol extracts showed the synergistic effect by ascorbic acid except that of ginger. The synergistic effects of (-)-catechin on methanol extracts were higher than those of ascorbic acid. Hexane extracts of oregano and ginger showed the synergistic effects by (-)-catechin, and no synergistic effects by ascorbic acid. On the other hand, rosemary and sage showed the synergistic effects by ascorbic acid and no synergistic effects by (-)-catechin.

Synergistic Effect of Interleukin-18 on the Expression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced IP-10 (CXCL-10) mRNA in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

  • Kim, Hyo-Young;Kim, Jae-Ryong;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1605-1612
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    • 2006
  • Interleukin (IL)-18, a member of the family of IL-l cytokine, is one of the principal inducers of $interferon-{\gamma}(IFN-{\gamma})$ in T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of IL-18 on the expression of chemokine IP-10 (CXCL-10) mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages. IL-18 had very weak direct effect or synergistic effect with IL-12 on the expression of IP-10 mRNA in C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophages. However, IL-18 pretreatment was found to playa cooperative role in the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IP-10 mRNA. For the expression of LPS-induced IP-10 mRNA, the synergistic effect was detected after 16 h of IL-18 pretreatment prior to LPS stimulation. The expression level of CD14 in cells stimulated with LPS was not changed by IL-18 pretreatment, and the level of $IFN-{\gamma}$ production during IL-18 pretreatment plus LPS stimulation was barely discernible ($0.36{\pm}0.31pg/ml$). Namely, the synergistic effect of IL-18 pretreatment was not related to a change of LPS receptor, CD14 expression, and the production of $IFN-{\gamma}$ by the interaction between IL-18 and LPS. The synergistic effect of IL-18 pretreatment on the expression of LPS-induced IP-10 was related to not NF-kB but AP-1 activation, and associated with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, one of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. These results provide useful information that may elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-18 on the expression of IP-10 mRNA.

Effect of Leptin on the Expression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chemokine KC mRNA in the Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

  • Lee, Dong-Eun;Kim, Hyo-Young;Song, In-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Kwang;Seul, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.722-729
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    • 2004
  • Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and its plasma levels correlate with total body fat mass, however, it also plays a regulatory role in immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Chemokine is known as a chemoattractant cytokine in inflammatory reaction, but its role in leptin reaction has not been well studied. In this study, the direct effect of leptin on the expression of chemokine mRNAs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chemokine KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Leptin did not induce the expression of lymphotactin, RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1$\beta$, MIP-1$\alpha$, MIP-2, MCP-1, IP-10, TCA-3, and KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and had no direct effect on the expression of these LPS-induced chemokine mRNAs except KC mRNA. The synergistic effect of leptin on the expression of LPS-induced KC mRNA occurred late in the time course of response to LPS. The increased expressions of Ob-Rb mRNA and leptin receptor protein were detected during the LPS treatment. Leptin produced a substantial increase in the stability of the LPS-induced KC mRNA, and the synergistic effect of leptin on LPS-induced KC mRNA expression was further augmented by cycloheximide (CHX). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) did not block the synergistic effect of leptin on LPS-induced KC mRNA expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that although leptin has no direct effect on the expression of lymphotactin, RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1$\beta$, MIP-1$\alpha$, MIP-2, MCP-1, IP-10, TCA-3, and KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages, the synergistic effect of leptin on the expression of LPS-induced KC mRNA has the possibility that LPS might induce the expression of the Ob-Rb receptor or an unknown gene(s) that sensitizes macrophages to the synergistic function of leptin. Therefore, further studies are necessary to examine leptin as a regulatory factor of chemokine production.

Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

  • Kim, K.T.;Chang, H.Y.;Lim, B.T.;Park, H.B.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2016
  • In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

A Proposal of Combat Power Measurement Model of Army Warfare Information System Using Network Power based on Social Network Analysis (SNA 기반 네트워크 파워를 이용한 지상전장정보체계 전투력 효과측정 모델제안)

  • Jung, Chi-Young;Lee, Jae-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2011
  • It is important not only to introduce the C4I(Command and Control, Communication, Computer, Intelligence) system for realizing the NCW(Network Centric Warfare) but also to evaluate the synergistic effect by the C4I system. However, the study effort for evaluating the system's synergistic effect is insufficient compared with introducing the system. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a model that measures the synergistic effect of combat power by the warfare information system. To measure the synergistic effect of warfare information system, the network power must be considered, so we also proposed a new methodology for measurement of network power based on SNA(Social Network Analysis), not Metcalfe's law. A model we proposed is a model that measures the raised combat power by the network effectiveness. The methodology and model we proposed in this paper will be used usefully to analyze the practical effect of constructing future warfare information system.

Antioxidant Effect of Onion Skin Extract (양파껍질 추출물의 항산화 및 상승효과)

  • 손종연;손흥수;조원대
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.16-20
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    • 1998
  • The antioxidant and synergistic effect of methanol extracts of onion skin were investigated by measuring peroxide value. The inhibitory effects of the extracts against metal catalyzed oxidation were also studied. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract (0.02%) of onion skin was stronger than that of mixed tocopherol or ascorbic acid (0.02%), but weaker than that of BHT (0.02%). However, the methanol extract at the concentration of 0.04% exhibited strong antioxidant effect, comparable to that of BHT (0.02%). The methanol extract showed very strong synergistic effect with the mixed tocopherol. The methanol extracts at the concentration of 0.03% and 0.04% acted as metal deactivator in the presence of FeC1$_3$. As a metal deactivator, methanol extract of onion skin appeared to be more effective than citric acid.

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Antioxidative Effect of Histidine and Alanine on Oil Rancidity (Histidine과 Alanine의 유지에 대한 항산화 효과)

  • 조희숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and synergistic effects upon different concentrations(0.02, 0.1, l%) of histidine and alanine in soybean oil during incubation at 6$0^{\circ}C$. Acid value(AV), peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA) value of each oil was monitored. Histidine and alanine showed antioxidative effects in all concentrations. In the case of the incubating antioxidative effect of histidine was lower than that of TBHQ. That of alanine was considerably higher than that of $\alpha$-tocopherol, but was lower than that of histidine. Synergistic effects among histidine, alanine and some food antioxidants were shown to exist available in all substrates and the best effect was shown in substrate added compound of histidine and $\alpha$-tocopherol.

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Antitumor Activity of Bupleuri Radix and Artemisiae capillaris Herba and Synergistic Effect with Anticancer Drugs (시호(柴胡), 인진(茵蔯)의 간암세포(肝癌細胞)에 대한 항암활성(抗癌活性) 및 항암제(抗癌劑)와의 상승작용(相乘作用))

  • Son, Gap-Ho;Kim, Seong-Hun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.414-432
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    • 1995
  • In order to prove the antitumer effect of Bupleuri Radix(BR) and Artemisiae capillaris Herba(ACH) experimently, studies were done. The antitumer effect against hepatic cancer such as Hep G2, PLC & Hep 313, and also th synergastic action was evaulatcd in the combined treatment with anticancer drugs using chiefly for liver cancer, such as mitomycin(MMC), cisplatin(CPT) and 5-fluorouracil(5-FU). The results were obtained as follows: 1. IC50 against Hep G2, Hep 3B and PLC was 15.5ug/ml, 25.4ug/ml, 31.25ug/ml in Mitomycin (MMC), 92.5ug/ml, 50.2ug/ml, 62.5ug/ml in cisplatin(CPT) and 125ug/ml in 5-fluouracil(5- FU) respectively. 2. The antitumor effect was shown in the all concentrations of ACH, BR and below 55%-Cytotoxic effect against Hep G2 as compared with the date of control was shown in the concentration of $10^{-4}g/ml$ above of BR but not in ACH and also BR and ACHI revealed the synergistic effect with MMC. 3. The antitumor effect was shown in the concentration of $10^{-5}g/ml$ above of ACH, BR and below 55%-Cytotoxic effect against Hep 3B as compared with the data of control was shown in the concentration of $10^{-5}g/ml$ above of ACH but not in BH and also BR & ACH revealed the svnergistic effect with MMC. 4. The antitumor effect was shown in the all concentrations of ACH, BR and 55%-Cytotoxic effect against PLC as compared with the data of control was shown in the concentration of $10^{-5}g/ml$ above of ACH but not in BR and also ACH revealed the synergistic effect with MMC. From the above results it was concluded that Artemisiae capillaris had antitumor effect against PLC, Hep 3B, Bupleuri Radix against Hep G2 and also MMC showed the most synergistic effect in the anticancer drugs.

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RABBIT HEATING BY MICROWAVE EXPOSURE AT VARIOUS AMBIENT TEMPERATURES

  • Kolganova, Olga I.;Zhavoronkov, Leonid P.;Petin, Vladislav G.;Kim, Jin-Kyu
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2010
  • The potential ability of environmental temperature to enhance the effect of microwave radiation (7 GHz) was experimentally studied for rabbit heating after simultaneous application of both agents. The tested ambient temperatures (30 and $38^{\circ}C$) didn't exert a considerable influence upon rabbit heat homeostasis after the used duration of exposure (3 hours and 15 minutes, correspondingly). The synergistic interaction of microwave irradiation and ambient temperature was demonstrated for rabbit heating. Power flux density of microwave irradiation was shown to be a determinant of the synergistic interaction effectiveness. For the fixed ambient temperature ($30^{\circ}C$), the synergism was shown to be observed only within a definite power flux density ($0-100\;mW{\cdot}cm^{-2}$), inside of which there was an optimal intensity ($20\;mW{\cdot}cm^{-2}$), which maximized the synergistic effect. Any deviation of the power flux density from the optimal value resulted in a reduction of the synergy. It is concluded that any assessment of the health or environmental risks should take into account the synergistic interaction between ambient temperature and microwave radiation.