• Title, Summary, Keyword: synergistic effect

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Enhancement of Erythrosine Photodynamic Therapy against Streptococcus mutans by Chlorhexidine (Streptococcus mutans에 대한 클로르헥시딘과 Erythrosine 광역동 치료의 상승효과)

  • Park, Jongcheol;Park, Howon;Lee, Siyoung
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of erythrosine sensitized with a conventional halogen curing unit and sub-minimal bactericidal concentration(sub-MBC) of chorhexidine on bacterial viability of Streptococcus mutans in planktonic state. Sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of chlorhexidine was added into wells containing bacteria and erythrosine. The range of concentrations tested for chorhexidine was from 0.0000001% to 0.001%. The irradiation of the bacterial suspensions was performed for 15 sec with a conventional halogen curing unit light. In another set of experiment, the effects of 0.001% chlorhexidine were observed by adding chlorhexidine into wells containing the sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of erythrosine. At the concetration of 0.001% chlorhexidine, there were no antibacterial effects in the absence of erythrosine PDT(p < 0.05). At the concentraton of $1{\mu}M$ erythrosine, there was no photodynamic therapy effect in the absence of chlorhexidine(p < 0.05). But in the presence of sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of erythrosine with light exposure, the addition of 0.001% chlorhexidine increased the bactericidal rate(p < 0.05). A combination of erythrosine PDT with sub-MBC chlorhexidine resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial counts when compared to the case with the absence of chlorhexidine.

Biological Control of Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in Red Pepper by Bacillus sp. CS-52 (Bacillus sp. CS-52를 이용한 고추 탄저병 (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) 방제 특성)

  • Kwon, Joung-Ja;Lee, Jung-Bok;Kim, Beam-Soo;Lee, Eun-Ho;Kang, Kyeong-Muk;Shim, Jang-Sub;Joo, Woo-Hong;Jeon, Chun-Pyo;Kwon, Gi-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out in order to develop a biological control of anthracnose of red pepper caused by fungal pathogens. In particular, this study focuses on the Colletotrichum species, which includes important fungal pathogens causing a great deal of damage to red pepper. Antagonistic bacteria were isolated from the soil of pepper fields, which were then tested for biocontrol activity against the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides anthracnose pathogen of pepper. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the isolated bacterial strain CS-52 was identical to Bacillus sp. The culture broth of Bacillus sp. CS-52 had antifungal activity toward the hyphae and spores of C. gloeosporioides. Moreover, the substances with antifungal activity were optimized when Bacillus sp. CS-52 was grown aerobically in a medium composed of 0.5% glucose, 0.7% $K_2HPO_4$, 0.2% $KH_2PO_4$, 0.3% $NH_4NO_3$, 0.01% $MnSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, and 0.15% yeast extract at $30^{\circ}C$. The inhibition of spore formation resulting from cellulase, siderophores, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), were produced at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. Bacillus sp. CS-52 also exhibited its potent fungicidal activity against anthracnose in an in vivo test, at a level of 70% when compared to chemical fungicides. These results identified substances with antifungal activity produced by Bacillus sp. CS-52 for the biological control of major plant pathogens in red pepper. Further studies will investigate the synergistic effect promoting better growth and antifungal activity by the formulation of substances with antifungal activity.

The Study on the satisfaction of educational services of technology transfer agents' registration (기술거래사 등록교육 서비스 만족도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hye-Sun;Lee, Jae-Il
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 2012
  • Recently, as the one way of open Innovation management, Not a company's sole activity, but technology development and infrastructure buildup between companies for the synergistic effect of technological innovation, and technology transfer commercialization is needed. For a successful technology commercialization, it needs many experts like technology transfer agents, A technology transfer agent can be qualified with finishing its registration education course over 40 hours on the basis of the article 14 of law on the Promotion of Technology Transfer and the article 21 of the enforcement. After the 2010 revision of notice, the incorporated company, the Korea Technology Transfer agents has conducted the registration education. Until now, educations were conducted twice in January 2011 and November 2011. Accordingly, this study is necessary to improve the education service's quality and seek remedy through the in-depth evaluation of the present basic education service's quality. The results are as in the following. First, the service quality affect the satisfaction of the education service's quality positively. It is identified that the details of service quality of flexibility, reliability, responsiveness, conviction, and sympathy influence the education service satisfaction positively. Second, the education service satisfaction affects the attitude positively after completing the course. Third, service quality affects the attitude after completing the education course, Also it is identified that the details of service quality of flexibility, reliability, responsiveness, conviction, and sympathy influence the attitude after education completion. It is expected that this research may be used as the basic information for establishing education improvements and be helpful in establishing the technology transfer agents' registration education strategy. Through a continuous research, it is also expected that technology transfer markets are accelerated and qualified technology transfer agents are trained.

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Effect of a Combined Extract of Orostachys japonicus with Medicinal Plants on the Lipid Composition of the Liver and Kidney from Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (와송과 생약재 복합물이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐의 간장 및 신장 조직의 지질성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jung-Hye;Lee, Soo-Jung;Seo, Jong-Kwon;Lee, Hyun-Ju;Ju, Jong-Chan;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.510-518
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    • 2012
  • This study examined the biological activity and synergistic effects of an extract of Wa-song ($Orostachys$ $japonicus$, OE), a medicinal plant mixture (MPE) and a combination of both at different ratios (1:1, OMPE-1 and 3:1, OMPE-3). Extracts of the medicinal plants mixture were comprised of Baekbokyung, Changchul and Sa-in at the same ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and their complex were tested $in$ $vitro$. The $in$ $vivo$ antioxidant activity was also analyzed by examining the lipid composition in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was more than 50% in OMPE-3 at a 1,000 ${\mu}g$/mL concentration. Regarding metal ions, such as $Fe^{2+}$ and $Cu^{2+}$, the antioxidant activity of OMPE-1 and OMPE-3 was higher than that of OE and MPE. OMPE-1 and 3 had higher activity on $Cu^{2+}$ ions than $Fe^{2+}$ ions. The ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity of the OE extract was higher than that of MPE and OMPE-1 but the relative activity of OMPE-3 was significantly higher than the others. Freeze-dried MPE, OMPE-1 and OMPE-3 were added to the diet at a level of 1% given to STZ induced diabetes rats for 4 weeks. The OMPE-1 and OMPE-3 administered groups showed significant decreases in the total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver and kidney. In these groups, the glycogen accumulation level of the liver was increased significantly. The content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver and kidney was decreased but the DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased. These results suggest that Wa-song extract exhibits antioxidant and antidiabetic activity, which are enhanced by a complex with a medical plants extract.

The Effect of Extract Powder from Fresh and Black Garlic on Main Components in Serum and Organs of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (생마늘 및 흑마늘 추출분말이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨 흰쥐의 혈청 및 장기 내 주요성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Lee, Soo Jung;Sung, Nak Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.432-442
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we examined the biological activity and synergistic effects of an extract powder of 1% and 3%, each fresh (FGP) and black garlic (BGP) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose content was significantly lower in FGP and BGP groups than control group. Glycosylated Hb was significantly higher in streptozotocin induced diabetic control group than normal group, but significantly lower in FGP and BGP groups. Total cholesterol content of the FGP and BGP groups were lower than control group, but not shown the significant difference between garlic fed groups. HDL-cholesterol concentrations of the FGP and BGP fed groups were significantly higher than control group, except of 1% BGP group. LDL and VLDL-cholesterol contents were significantly lower in 3% FGP group, and the same tendency atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor. GOT, GPT, and ${\gamma}$-GTP activity of serum were lower in FGP and BGP fed groups than control group. Glycogen contents in liver significantly higher than control group, and has not significantly difference between normal group. TBARS content was no significantly difference in the liver and serum, but in the kidney, 3% FPG and BGP fed groups were significantly lower than other experimental group. DPPH radical scavenging activity of liver has not significant difference among experimental groups, but activity was higher garlic extract powder fed groups in serum and kidney. These results indicate that dietary supplements of fresh and black garlic extract powder was contributed to lower of blood glucose, loss prevention of glycogen in liver and improve of lipid metabolism.

Growth and Contents of Anthocyanins and Ascorbic Acid in Lettuce as Affected by Supplemental UV-A LED Irradiation with Different Light Quality and Photoperiod (상이한 광질 및 광주기 하에서 UV-A LED 부가 조사가 상추의 생장, 안토시아닌 및 아스코르빈산 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong Hyeon;Lee, Jae Su
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.596-606
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    • 2016
  • The growth and contents of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in lettuce(Lactuca sativa L., 'Jeokchima') as affected by supplemental UV-A LED irradiation under different light quality and photoperiod conditions were analyzed in this study. Five light qualities, namely B (blue LED), R (red LED), BUV (blue LED+UV-A LED), RUV (red LED+UV-A LED) and Control (white fluorescent lamps) with photoperiods of 12/12 hours (day/night), 16/8 hours, or 20/4 hours were provided to investigate the effects of light quality and photoperiod on the growth and accumulation of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in lettuce leaves. As measured 28 days after transplanting, the number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, shoot fresh weight and dry weight of lettuce were significantly affected by light quality and photoperiod. The number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, shoot fresh weight and dry weight of lettuce grown under R treatment increased with increasing light period. By contrast, leaf development was inhibited, but chlorophyll content increased, under B treatment. Supplemental UV-A irradiation significantly decreased leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and shoot fresh weight. Anthocyanins in lettuce increased significantly with decreasing dark period under B treatment. A synergistic effect of supplemental UV-A LED irradiation on anthocyanins accumulation was found for lettuce leaves grown under R treatment but not B treatment. Ascorbic acid in lettuce was greatly affected by photoperiod. Ascorbic acid content at BUV and RUV treatments increased by 20-30% compared to without UV-A LED irradiation. From these results, it was concluded that growth and contents of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in lettuce are significantly affected by supplemental UV-A LED irradiation. The results obtained in this study will be informative for efforts to improve the nutritional value of leafy vegetables grown in plant factories.

Histological and Biochemical Studies on the Rooting of Hard-wood Cuttings in Mulberry (Morus species) (뽕나무 古條揷木의 發根에 關한 組織 및 生化學的 硏究)

  • Lim, Su-Ho
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1981
  • Rootability of the hardwood cuttings of mulberry was related not only histological characteristics but dependent on biochemical properties. In this connection, the characteristics of the hardwood cuttings were histologically observed and the growth substances produced by the cuttings were also identified by means of mung bean bioassay. Amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid contents, and the C/N ratio were also analysed. The results are summarized as follows. 1. There were differences in rootability of cuttings between mulberry species and varieties Among the three mulberry species tested, Morus Lhou Koidz. showed the highest rootability while M. bombycis showed the lowest one. In varietal differences in rootability, it was shown that the varieties could be grouped according to rootability: high varieties(above 80%), medium(41~79%), and low(below 40%). The higher varieties were Kemmochi, Nakamaki, Kosen, and Wusuba roso. 2. The histological characteristic of the hardwood cuttings most closely related to rootability was cell layer arrangement in the sclerenchyma tissue. The lower rootability varieties developed two or three overlapping cell layers in the bark tissue and in the higher rootability varieties they were scattered over the primary cortex. 3. In the higher rootability varieties, there was a positive correlation between the development of root primodia and rootability of the hardwood cuttings. It was also shown that there was a close relationship between the size of primodia and the surface area of the lenticel with rootability of the cuttings. 4. Effect of growth substances extracted from the hardwood cuttings were determined by mung bean bioassay. The higher rootability varieties usually showed higher activities of the growth substances, in contrast the lower rootability varieties showed higher activities of the inhibitory substances. 5. It was evident that the substance separated by paper chromatography was identified as indole acetic acid with $R_f$ value ranging from 0.3 to 0.5. The other substances detected at a $R_f$ value ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and origin to 0.1 were also responsible for rooting. 6. There exists a quantitatively different distribution of growth substances in a synergistic system in the tissues of cuttings, and the balance between growth and inhibitory substances gives rise to the development of rooting. Particularly, no descent of the substances from winter buds resulted in no rooting of cuttings but these substances were produced a week after planting in a warm environment. 7. It was shown that there were positive correlations between carbohydrate ($r=0.72^*$) and total sugar ($r=0.67^*$) and rootability, respectively, but there were negative correlations between reducing sugars ($r=-0.75^*$) and rootability. 8. High C/N ratio gave rise to high rootability($r=0.67^*$). The latter therefore depended on high amount of carbohydrate rather than nitrogen in the cuttings. 9. The content of RNA and DNA in the cuttings was not changed for upto two weeks after the cuttings were planted. Then an increase in RNA content took place in only the high rootability varieties. 10. There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the compositions of the amino acids between the high rootability varieties and the low rootability varieties. More aspartic acid and cystine were found in the higher rootability varieties than in the low rootability varieties.

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The Effects of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase to the Calcium and Nonphosphorus Levels in Feed of Laying Hens (산란계 사료 내 칼슘 및 무기태 인 수준에 따른 Bacterial Phytase 급여 효과)

  • Kang, H.K.;Park, S.Y.;Yu, D.J.;Kim, J.H.;Kang, G.H.;Na, J.C.;Kim, D.W.;Suh, O.S.;Lee, S.J.;Lee, W.J.;Kim, S.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to identify the correlation of bacterial phytase ($Transphos^{(R)}$) to the calcium level in feed. Of all 21-week-old 720 HyLine brown laying hens, 2 birds of similar weight were placed on each individual cage. The experiment was conducted by $3{\times}2{\times}3$ factorial design with including 3 different levels of phytase (0, 300, and 1,000 DPU/kg), 2 different levels of calcium (3.5% and 4.0%), and 3 different levels of no NPP addition 0% (0.095 NPP), 0.5% (0.185% NPP), and 1.0% (0.275% NPP). The feeding trial maintained the ME level of 2,800 kcal/kg and 16% for crude protein. The diet was fed ad libitum and 17 hours of lighting was provided throughout the experimental period. Egg production seemed to increase, in the 300 DPU of bacterial phytase added group and the cracked egg tended to reduce in Transphos added group. The egg productivity between treatment groups did not show significant difference by dietary calcium level, whereas non NPP added group (0.095% NPP) was found to be low compared to NPP added groups (P<0.05). The highest mean egg weight and the highest daily egg mass were detected in 300 DPU phytase added group. Although the mean egg weight was significantly higher in treatment groups fed with 3.5% calcium containing feeds (P<0.05), daily egg mass was no among treatment groups. The mean egg weight and daily egg mass were the lowest in non NPP added group (0.095% NPP) compared to other treatment groups (P<0.05). The feed intake showed similar pattern regardless of the bacterial phytase and calcium levels in the diet. However, the treatment groups fed diets containing NPP level of 0.275% and 0.165% showed significantly higher feed intake than the group fed with 0.095% NPP (P<0.05). Although the feed conversion was not affected by calcium and NPP levels in the diet, the most improved result was obtained from 300 DPU phytase added group (P<0.05). The eggshell breaking strength and thickness increased as dietary calcium level increase the level of calcium increases in diet. The treatment groups fed diet containing 0.275% and 0.165% NPP revealed to show improvement in eggshell breaking strength and yolk color index compared to the NPP non added (0.095% NPP) treatment group. The result of the present study suggests that the appropriate level of microbial phytase is 300 DPU and at this level, tricalciumphosphate supplementation in feed can be reduced to 40% of NRC recommendation. Higher calcium level in feed fail to show synergistic effect by adding microbial phytase.

A Phase I/II Trial of $DCVac/IR^{(R)}$ Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy Combined with Irradiation in Cases of Refractory Colorectal Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases (기존의 치료에 반응하지 않는 다발성 간전이 대장암 환자에서 방사선조사와 병합한 수지상세포 면역치료의 1, 2상 임상시험)

  • Choi, Young-Min;Lee, Hyung-Sik;Kwon, Hyuk-Chan;Han, Sang-Young;Choi, Jong-Cheol;Chung, Ju-Seop;Kim, Chang-Won;Kim, Dong-Won;Kang, Chi-Duk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.104-112
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To assess the toxicity and tumor response induced by $DCVac/IR^{(R)}$ dendritic cell(DC) immunotherapy combined with irradiation for refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases. Materials and Methods: Between May 2004 and November 2006, applicants from a pool of refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases were enrolled. The patients were registered after having signed the informed consent form, which had been approved by the Institutional Review Board from the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. DCs were obtained from peripheral blood of each patient, and then cultured in vitro. A total of $6{\times}10^6$ DCs were packed into a vial($DCVac/IR^{(R)}$, 0.5 ml) at the convenience of each patient's schedule. On the day before and on the day of each vaccination, each patient received a 4 Gy radiation dose to the target tumor. On the day of vaccination, the indicated dose of autologous DCs was injected into the irradiated tumor using ultrasound-guided needle injection procedures. A total of four vaccinations were scheduled at three 2-week intervals and one 4 week interval at the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. If the tumor status was deemed to be stable or responding to therapy, an additional vaccination dose or two was approved at 4 week intervals beyond the fourth immunization. A tolerance test for DCs was conducted by injecting a range of doses($3{\times}10^6\;to\;12{\times}10^6$ DCs) after the 3rd injection. Moreover, the maximal tolerable dose was applied to additional patients. Treatment safety was evaluated in all patients who had at least one injection. Treatment feasibility was evaluated by the 10th week by assessing the response of patients having at least 4 injections. For systemic toxicities, the evaluation was performed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, whereas adverse effects were recorded using common WHO toxicity criteria. Results: Of the 24 registered patients, 22 received the DCs injections. Moreover, of the 14 patients that applied for the tolerance test, only 11 patients completed it because 3 patients withdrew their testing agreement. A grade 3 or more side effect, which was possibly related to the DC injection, did not occur in additional patients. The $12{\times}10^6$ DC injection was identified as the maximum tolerable dose, and was then injected in an additional 8 patients. Patients tolerated the injection fairly well, with no fatal side effects. In order to assess the feasibility of DC immunotherapy, the response was evaluated in other hepatic lesions outside of the targeted hepatic lesion. The response evaluation was performed in 15 of the 17 patients who received at least 4 injections. Stable and progressive disease was found in 4 and 11 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The DC-based immunotherapy and radiotherapy is theoretically synergistic for the local control and systemic control. The $DCVac/IR^{(R)}$ immunotherapy combined with irradiation was tolerable and safe in the evaluated cases of refractory colorectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Future work should include well designed a phase II clinical trials.

Microbiological and Enzymological Studies on the Flavor Components of Sea Food Pickles (젓갈등속(等屬)의 정미성분(呈味成分)에 관(關)한 미생물학적(微生物學的) 및 효소학적(酵素學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Ke-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.11
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1969
  • More than thirty kinds of sea food pickles have been eaten in Korea. Out of these salted yellow tail pickle, salted clam pickle, salted oyster pickle, and salted cuttlefish pickle were employed for the analysis of their components, identification of main fermenting microbes, and determination of enzyme characteristics concerned. Also studied was the effect of enzymic action of microbes, which are concerned with the fermenting of pickles, on the production of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides and amino acids. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Microflora observed in the pickles are: (a) Total count of viable cells after 1-2 months of pickling was found to be $10^7$ and that after 6 months decreased to $10^4$. (b) Microbial occurence in the early stage of pickling was observed to be 10-20% Micrococcus spp., 10-20% Brevibacterium spp., 0-30% Sarcina spp., 20-30% Leuconostoc spp., ca 30% Bacillus spp., 0-10% Pseudomonas spp., 0-10% Flavobacterium spp., and 0-20% yeast. (c) Following the early stage of pickling, mainly halophilic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus halophilus and Sarcina litoralis, were found to exhibit an effect on the fermentation of pickle and their enzyme activities were in direct concern in fermentation of pickles. (d) Among the bacteria participating in the fermentation, Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains were in need of high nutritional requirement and the former was grown only in the presence of purine, pyrimidine and cystine and the latter purine, pyrimidine and glutamic acid. 2. Enzyme characteristics studied in relation to the raw materials and the concerned microbes isolated are as follows: (a) A small amount of protease was found in the raw materials and 30-60% decrease in protease activity was demonstrated at 7% salt concentration. (b) Protease activity of halophilic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis 7-6, 11-1, 3-6 and 9-4 strains, in the complete media decreased by 10-30% at the 7% salt concentration and that of Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains decreased by 10-20%. (c) Proteins in the raw materials were found to be hydrolyzed to yield free amino acids by protease in the fermenting microbes. (d) No accumulation of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides was demonstrated because RNA-depolymerase in the raw materials and the pickles tended to decompose RNA into nucleoside and phosphoric acid. (e) The enzyme produced in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain isolated from the salted clam pickles, was ascertained to be 5'-phosphodiesterase because of its ability to decompose RNA and thus accumulating 5'-mononucleotide. (f) It was demonstrated that the activity of phosphodiesterase in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain was enhanced by some components in the corn steep liquor and salted clam pickle. The enzyme activity was found to decrease by 10-30% and 40-60% at the salt concentration of 10% and 20%, respectively. 3. Quantitative data for free amino acids in the pickles are as follows: (a) Amounts of acidic amino acids such as glutamic and aspartic acids in salted clam pickle, were observed to be 2-10 times other pickles and it is considered that the abundance in these amino acids may contribute significantly to the specific flavor of this food. (b) Large amounts of basic amino acids such as arginine and histidine were found to occur in salted yellow tail pickle. (c) It is much interesting that in the salted cuttlefish pickle the contents of sulfur-containing amino acids were exceedingly high compared with those of others: cystine was found to be 17-130 times and methionine, 7-19 times. (d) In the salted oyster pickle a high content of some essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, isoleucine and leucine, was demonstrated and a specific flavor of the pickle was ascribed to the sweet amino acids. Contents of alanine and glycine in the salted oyster pickle were 4 and 3-14 times as much as those of the others respectively. 4. Analytical data for 5'-mononucleotides in the pickles are as follows: (a) 5'-Adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid were found in large amounts in the salted yellow tail pickle and 5'-inosinic acid in lesser amount. (b) 5'-Adenylic acid, especially 3'-adenylic acid predominated in amount in the salted oyster pickle over that in the other pickles. (c) The salted cuttlefish pickle was found to contain only 5'-adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid. It has become evident from the above fact that clam and the invertebrate lack of adenylic deaminase and contain high content of adenylic acid. Thus, they were demonstrated to be the AMP-type. (d) 5'-Inosinic acid was contained in the salted yellow tail pickle in a significant concentration, and it might be considered to be IMP-type. 5. Comparative data for flavor with regard to the flavorous amino acids and the contents of 5'-mononucleotides are: (a) A specific flavor of salted yellow tail pickle was ascribed to the abundance in glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and to the existence of a small amount of flavorous 5'-inosinic acid. The combined effect of these components was belived to exhibit a synergistic action in producing a specific fiavor to the pickle. (b) A specific flavor of salted clam pickle has been demonstrated to be attributable to the richness in glutamic acid and aspartic acid rather than to that of 5'-mononucleotides.

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