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A Pilot Study for Remediation of Groundwater by Surfactant -Enhanced Soil Flushing

  • Park, Jong Oh;Lee, Dal-Heui
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2016
  • The removal of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from groundwater using pure water, via pump and treat, is quite ineffective due to their low solubility and hydrophobicity. Therefore, the objectives of pilot tests were to select potentially suitable surfactants that solubilize tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) present as contaminants and to evaluate the optimal range of process parameters that can increase the removal efficiency in surfactant-enhanced soil flushing (SESF). Used experimental method for surfactant selection was batch experiments. The surfactant solution parameters for SESF pilot tests were surfactant solution concentration, surfactant solution pH, and the flow rate of surfactant solution in the SESF pilot system. Based on the batch experiments for surfactant selection, DOSL (an anionic surfactant) was selected as a suitable surfactant that solubilizes PCE and TCE present as contaminants. The highest recovery (95%) of the contaminants was obtained using a DOSL surfactant in the batch experiments. The pilot test results revealed that the optimum conditions were achieved with a surfactant solution concentration of 4% (v/v), a surfactant solution pH of 7.5, and a flow rate of 30 L/min of surfactant solution (Lee and Woo, 2015). The maximum removal of contaminants (89%) was obtained when optimum conditions were simultaneously met in pilot-scale SESF operations. These results confirm the viability of SESF for treating PCE and TCE-contaminated groundwater.

Effect of Steric Stability by Adsorption of Surfactant on the Detergency of Particulate Soil in Anionic/nonionic Surfactant Mixed Solution (I) -Adsorption of Surfactant to the Particles and Removal of Particle from Fabric- (음/비이온 흔합계면활성제 용액에 있어 계면활성제의 흡착에 의한 입체적 안정화가 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향 (I) -고헝입자에의 계면촬성제 흡착과 직물에서의 고헝입자의 제거 -)

  • Kang, In-Sook;Jung, Sun-Young
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.166-173
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    • 2005
  • This study was designed to investigate the relationship between adsorption of surfactant to $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particles and removal of the particles from fabric in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution. The adsorption of anionic surfactant to particle increased with increasing surfactants concentration but the influence of surfactant concentration was small in the case of nonionic surfactant. The adsorption of nonionic surfactant to particle increased with decreasing ionic strength, while the influence of ionic strength on the adsorption of anionic surfactant to particle was small. The removal of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle from PET fabric was relatively higher in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution than in both single surfactant solutions, where it increased with decreasing ionic strength and surfactant concentration. Generally the removal of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle from PET fabric increased with increasing adsorption of nonionic surfactant to the particle. Although some deviations exist, the removal of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle from PET fabric in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution was related not to the adsorption of anionic surfactant to the particle but to the adsorption of nonionic surfactant.

Surfactant Replcement Therapy in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (성인성 호흡곤란 증후군에 있어서 Surfactant 치료)

  • Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 1993
  • Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex composed primarily of phospholipid and lung specific apoproteins that reduces surface tension in the alveolus and maintains alveolar stability at low lung volume. Adult respiratory distress syndrome still carries a very high morbidity and mortality. The surfactant system is vital to the maintenance of proper lung function, any type of surfactant deficiency, whether primary or secondary, will contribute significantly to the development of pulmonary pathophysiology. Various mechanisms in adult respiratory distress syndrome may be responsible for such alterations in the surfactant system. Surfactant replacement is now an established treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, reducing both incidence of complications and mortality. With the current knowledge of surfactant physiology and the pathophysiology of the adult respiratory distress syndrome exogenous surfactant treatment or stimulation of endogenous surfactant synthesis and secretion will prove to be beneficial in preventing and treating the adult respiratory distress syndrome. The study of clinical surfactant therapy for adult respiratory distress syndrome is just beginnig and this can be viewed as an area with exciting potential. As soon as surfactant preparations become more widely available trials should begin to define the role of surfactant treatment in the adult respiratory distress syndrome as an adjunct to available treatment techniques.

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Effect of Steric Stability by Adsorption of Surfactant on the Detergency of Particulate Soil in Anionic/nonionic Surfactant Mixed Solution (II) -Adsorption of Surfactant to the Fabric and Adhesion of Particle to Fabric- (음/비이온 혼합계면활성제 용액에 있어 계면활성제의 흡착에 의한 입체적 안정화가 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향 (II) -직물에의 계면활성제 흡착과 직물에의 고형입자의 부착-)

  • Kang, In-Sook
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 2005
  • The steric stability by adsorption of surfactant to the fabric was examined as a fundamental variable in the adhesion of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle to fabric in an anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution. Generally, the adsorption of surfactants to the fabric was higher in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution than in either anionic or nonionic surfactant solution, and the adsorption of anionic surfactant was higher than that of nonionic surfactant regardless of solution condition. The adhesion of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle to PET fabric was lower in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution than in single surfactant solution. And the adhesion of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle to PET fabric was minimum at $0.1\%$ surfactants concentration, and increased with ionic strength. Although some deviations exist, the adhesion of $\alpha-Fe_{2}O_{3}$ particle to PET fabric decreased with increasing adsorption of nonionic surfactant to fabric, However the correlation between adsorption of anionic surfactant to particle and the adhesion of particle to fabric was relatively insignificant.

Electrophoretic Mobility to Monitor Protein-Surfacant Interactions

  • Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 1998
  • Protein -surfactant interactions have been investigate by measuring ζ-potential of $\beta$-lactoglobulin-coated emulsion droplets and $\beta$-lactoglobulin in solution in the rpesenceof surfactant, with particular emphasis on the effect of protein heat treatment(7$0^{\circ}C$, 30min). When ionic surfactant (SDS or DATEM) is added to the protein solution, the ζ-potential of the mixture is found to increase with increasing surfactant concentration, indicating surfactant binding to the protein molecules. For heat-denatured protein,it has been observed that the ζ-potential tends to be lower than that of the native protein. The effect of surfactant on emulsions is rather complicated .With SDS, small amounts of surfactant addition induce a sharp increase in zeta potential arising from the specific interaction of surfactant with protein. With further surfacant addition, there is a gradual reductio in the ζ-potential, presumably caused by the displacement of adsorped protein (and protein-surfactant complex) from the emulsion droplet surfac by the excess of SDS molecules. At even higher surfactant concentrations, the measured zeta potential appears to increase slightly, possibly due to the formation of a surfactant measured zeta potential appears to increase slightly, possibly due to the formation of surfactant micellar structure at the oil droplet surface. This behaviour contrastswith the results of the corresponding systems containing the anionic emulsifier DATEM, in which the ζ-potential of the system is found to increase continuously with R, particularly at very low surfactant concentration. Overall, such behaviour is consisten with a combination of complexation and competitive displacement between surfactant and protein occurring at the oil-water interface. In addition, it has also been found that above the CMC, there is a time-dependent increase in the negative ζ-potential of emulsion droplets in solutions of SDS, possibly due to the solublization of oil droplets into surfactant micelles in the aqueous bulk phase.

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Effect of Surfactant Micelle on Lipid Oxidation in Corn Oil-in-Water Emulsion with Phenol Compounds (Phenol성 물질이 첨가된 Corn Oil-in-Water Emulsion의 산화에 미치는 Surfactant Micelle의 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Gyu;Chun, Sung-Sook;Cho, Young-Je
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of phenol compounds from green tea leaves and surfactant micelles on lipid oxidation in com oil-in-water emulsion (O/W). The concentration of phenol and surfactant in continuous phase of the O/W with exceed Brij 700 and phenol compounds was measured. The particle size of O/W with phenol (100 ppm) increased with increasing added exceed surfactant $(0{\sim}2.0%)$ and the concentration of surfactant and phenols in the continuous phase higher than these of control. Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal, in the O/W emulsions containing phenol compounds (100 ppm) and exceed surfactant $(0{\sim}2.0%)$ decreased with increasing concentration of exceed surfactant. The ability of the phenol compounds and exceed surfactant to inhibit hydroperoxide and headspace hexanal producing as lipid oxidation in O/W was BHT>procyanidin B3-3-O-gallate> (+)-gallocatechin > (+)-catechin and 2% > 1 % > 0% of exceed surfactant. These results indicate that phenol compounds and exceed surfactant could alter the physical location of hydroperoxide in O/W.

Effect of Surfactant on Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene by Zero-Valent Iron (양이온-비이온 혼합계면활성제의 첨가가 영가철을 이용한 TCE환원에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Min-Chul;Choi, Hyun-Dock;Yang, Jung-Seok;Baek, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2007
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) and has contaminated substance environments including soil and groundwater due to leakage and careless. DNPAL, has been treated by surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). After application of SEAR, groundwater contains still surfactant as well as little amount of residual TCE. Permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron (ZW) is a very effective technology to treat the residual TCE in groundwater. In this study, the effect of the residual surfactant on the reductive dechlorination of residual TCE was investigated using ZVI. Mixed surfactant composed of nonioinic surfactant and cationic surfactant was used as a residual surfactant because of toxicity and enhancement of dechlorination rate. Structure of surfactant affected significantly the decrhlorination rate of TCE. Mixed surfactant system with relatively short polyethylene oxide (PEO) chain in nonionic surfactant, cationic surfactant did not affect TCE dechlorination rate. However, mixed surfactant system with relatively long PEO chain in nonionic surfactant shows that TCE dechlorination rate was significantly dependent on fraction of cationic surfactant and HLB of nonionic surfactant. Cationic surfactant with trimethyl ammonium group enhanced reductive dechlorination rate compared to that surfactant with pyridinium group.

Naphthalene Sorption on HPTMA-Modified Clays

  • 이승엽;김수진
    • Proceedings of the Mineralogical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.52-52
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    • 2001
  • Clays coated with cationic surfactants (organoclays) have been investigated due to their effectiveness in sorbing organic compounds from water The objectives of this study were to (1) study the sorption characteristics or a cationic surfactant (HDTMA) to clay minerals; (2) examine the partitioning of HOC (naphthalene) to the adsorbed surfactants within the context of the first objective, and (3) develop overall HOC distribution coefficients that consider sorbed surfactant amounts. The sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminant was due to partitioning of the organics into the organic pseudophase created by the surfactant tail groups. Sorption of naphthalene by HDTMA-clays at different surfactant surface coverages revealed that the naphthalene K$\_$d/ values were affected by the surface concentration of surfactant. In our study the kaolinite was modified with a cationic surfactant to achieve different fractional organic carbon contents and different surfactant molecule configurations on the surface. All of the sorption isotherms were nearly linear and could be described by a distribution coefficient (K$\_$d/). The sorption of naphthalene by the surfactant-modified kaolinite was found to be dependent on the bound surfactant molecule configuration as well as on the fractional organic carbon content but halloysite was not affected by the increase of surfactant amounts. Results from this investigation provide additional insight into the role that sorbed surfactant structure plays in HOC partitioning.

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Detergency of Particulate Soil in Anion/Nonionic Surfactant Mixed Solution (음이온/비이온 혼합 계면활성제 용액에서의 고형오구의 세척성)

  • Kang, In-Sook
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.790-796
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to investigate the influence of ratio of anionic/nonionic surfactant mixture on detergency of particulate soil under various solutions. The detergency of the particulate soil was determined by adhesion of particle to fabric and its removal from fabric separately. The PET fabric and ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$were used as materials of textile and model of particulate soil, respectively. The detergency was investigated as a function of surfactants concentration, ionic strength, kinds of electrolyte and mole numbers of oxyethylene ether of nonionic surfactant in different ratio of anionic/nonionic surfactant mixture. Although some deviations exist, the adhesion of particle to fabric generally increased with decreasing its removal from fabric. The detergency of particulate soil on PET fabric was relatively higher in anionic/nonionic surfactant mixed solution than in each single surfactant solution, but the influence of ratio of anionic/nonionic surfactant mixture on detergency of particulate soil was low. Generally the detergency of particulate soil on fabric was at its maximum at 0.1% surfactant concentration, $1{\times}10^{-3}$ ionic strength, $Na_5P_3O_{10}$ electrolytes and 10 mole numbers of oxyethylene ether of nonionic surfactant, regardless of ratio of anionic/nonionic surfactant mixture.

The Dispersion Stability of $\alpha-Fe_2O_3$ Particulate Soil in the Anionic/Nonionic Mixed Surfactant Solution (음/비이온계 혼합계면활성제 용액에서 $\alpha-Fe_2O_3$ 입자의 분산안정성)

  • 정선영;강인숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.854-861
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    • 2004
  • To estimate dispersion stability of particles in anionic and nonionic surfactant mixed solution, suspending power was examined as functions of duration time of suspension, ionic and nonionic surfactant mixed ratio, surfactant concentration, kinds of electrolyte, ionic strength and mole numbers of oxyethylene additions to nonionic surfactant using $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ particle as the model of particulate soil. The suspending power of anionic and nonionic surfactant mixed solution was relatively higher than that of anionic and nonionic surfactant single solution regardless of solution concentration. The suspending power was gradually decreased with increasing duration time of suspension. In the absence of electrolyte, the effect of surfactant concentration on suspending power was small but in solution with electrolyte, suspending power was lowest at 1 % surfactant concentration. With 1${\times}$10$^{-3}$ ionic strength and polyanionic electrolyte in solution, the suspending power was high but effects of oxyethylene mole number to nonionic surfactant on suspending power was small. Generally the suspending power was gradually increased with decreasing the particle size. Hence the suspending power was inversely related to the particle size.