• Title, Summary, Keyword: supraclavicular lymph node recurrence

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Predictive Factors for Supraclavicular Lymph Node Recurrence in N1 Breast Cancer Patients

  • Kong, Moonkyoo;Hong, Seong Eon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2509-2514
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    • 2013
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors for supraclavicular lymph node recurrence (SCLR) in N1 breast cancer patients and define a high-risk subgroup who might benefit from supraclavicular nodal radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2009, 113 breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM). RT was given to all patients who received BCS. Among the patients given MRM, those with breast tumors >5 cm in size received RT. Regional nodal irradiation was not applied. Systemic chemotherapy was given to 105 patients (92.9%). Patient data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to identify predictive factors for SCLR. Results: The median follow-up duration was 6.5 years, with 5- and 10-year actuarial SCLR rates of 9.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Factors associated with SCLR on univariate analysis included histologic grade, number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension (ECE), and adjuvant chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade and ECE remained significant. The patient group with grade 3 and ECE had a significantly higher rate of SCLR compared with the remainder (5-year SCLR rate; 71.4% vs. 4.0%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Histologic grade and ECE status are significant predictive factors for SCLR. Supraclavicular nodal RT is necessary in N1 breast cancer patients featuring histologic grade 3 and ECE.

Significance of Supraclavicular Lymph Node Involvement on Determination of Clinical Staging for Thoracic Esophageal Carcinoma (흉부 식도암의 병기 결정에 있어서 채골상 림프절 전이의 의미)

  • Wu Hong-Gyun;Park Chan Il;Ha Sung Whan;Kim Il Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.108-112
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    • 1999
  • Background and Purpose : Involvement of supraclavicular Iymph nodes (SCL) is considered distant metastasis for thoracic esophageal carcinoma in AJCC staging system revised in 1997. We investigated significance of SCL involvement compared to other regional Iymph node involvement. Materials and Methods : Two-hundred eighty-nine patients with unresectable esophageal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy from June of 1979 through December 1992. Of these patients, 25 were identified having SCL involvement. Survival rate and relapse patterns were compared with that of mediastinal and perigastric Iymph node positive patients to evaluate prognostic significance of SCL involvement. Results : Median survival for patients with SCL involvement was 7 months and 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 12.0$\%$ and 4.0$\%$ respectably. Corresponding features for regional node positive patients were 9 month, 17.0$\%$ and 3.8$\%$. There was no significant difference between two groups. There was also no difference in patterns of recurrence. Conclusions : Results of this analysis showed that SCL involvement should be staged as nodal disease in contrast to present classification of metastatic disease.

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Prognostic Impact of Elective Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation for Patients with N1 Breast Cancer after Lumpectomy and Anthracycline Plus Taxane-Based Chemotherapy (KROG 1418): A Multicenter Case-Controlled Study

  • Kim, Haeyoung;Park, Won;Yu, Jeong Il;Choi, Doo Ho;Huh, Seung Jae;Kim, Yeon-Joo;Lee, Eun Sook;Lee, Keun Seok;Kang, Han-Sung;Park, In Hae;Shin, Kyung Hwan;Wee, Chan Woo;Kim, Kyubo;Park, Kyung Ran;Kim, Yong Bae;Ahn, Sung Ja;Lee, Jong Hoon;Kim, Jin Hee;Chun, Mison;Lee, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Jung Soo;Cha, Jihye
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.970-980
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of supraclavicular lymph node radiotherapy (SCNRT) on N1 breast cancer patients receiving post-lumpectomy whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) chemotherapy. Materials and Methods We performed a case-control analysis to compare the outcomes of WBI and WBI plus SCNRT (WBI+SCNRT). Among 1,147 patients with N1 breast cancer who received post-lumpectomy radiotherapy and AT-based chemotherapy in 12 hospitals, 542were selected after propensity score matching. Patterns of failure, disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and treatment-related toxicity were compared between groups. Results A total of 41 patients (7.6%) were found to have recurrence. Supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) failure was detected in three patients, two in WBI and one in WBI+SCNRT. All SCN failures were found simultaneously with distant metastasis. There was no significant difference in patterns of failure or survival between groups. The 5-year DFS and DMFS for patients with WBI and WBI+SCNRT were 94.4% versus 92.6% (p=0.50) and 95.1% versus 94.5% (p=0.99), respectively. The rates of lymphedema and radiation pneumonitis were significantly higher in the WBI+SCNRT than in the WBI. Conclusion We did not find a benefit of SCNRT for N1 breast cancer patients receiving AT-based chemotherapy.

Radiotherapy for initial clinically positive internal mammary nodes in breast cancer

  • Kim, Jina;Chang, Jee Suk;Choi, Seo Hee;Kim, Yong Bae;Keum, Ki Chang;Suh, Chang-Ok;Yang, Gowoon;Cho, Yeona;Kim, Jun Won;Lee, Ik Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Internal mammary lymph node (IMN) involvement is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. This study investigated the treatment outcomes of initial clinically IMN-positive breast cancer patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), including IMN irradiation, following primary breast surgery. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of 95 breast cancer patients with clinically detected IMNs at diagnosis treated with surgery and RT between June 2009 and December 2015. Patients received adjuvant RT to the whole breast/chest wall and regional lymph node (axillary, internal mammary, and supraclavicular) areas. Twelve patients received an additional boost to the IMN area. Results: The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 4.5 to 100.5 months). Among 77 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 52 (67.5%) showed IMN normalization and 19 (24.6%) showed a partial response to IMN. There were 3 and 24 cases of IMN failure and any recurrence, respectively. The 5-year IMN failure-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 96%, 70%, and 84%, respectively. IMN failure-free survival was significantly affected by resection margin status (97.7% if negative, 87.5% for close or positive margins; p = 0.009). All three patients with IMN failure had initial IMN size ≥1 cm and did not receive IMN boost irradiation. The median age of the three patients was 31 years, and all had hormone receptor-negative tumors. Conclusion: RT provides excellent IMN control without the support of IMN surgery. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, including IMN boost for breast cancer patients, is a safe and effective technique for regional lymph node irradiation.

Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer (초기 유방암의 유방 보존수술 후 방사선 치료 결과)

  • Cho, Heung-Lae;Kim, Cheol-Jin;Park, Sung-Kwang;Oh, Min-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Yong;Ahn, Ki-Jung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range $43.8{\sim}129.4$ months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for T is and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had $1{\sim}3$ lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close (${\leq}2\;mm$) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy ($41.4{\sim}60.4\;Gy$) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0.0001) and higher relapse rates (p=0.0507). However, patients with close margins were at equal risk of relapse and disease-free survival as with negative margins (p=1.000). Patients younger than 40 years of age had higher relapse rates (9.3% vs. 0%) and lower disease-free survival periods, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.1255). The relapse rates for patients with tumors was 14% for tumor stage T2, compared to 0% for tumor stage T1 tumors (p=0.0284). A univariate analysis found that disease-free survival and relapse rates, T stage, positive resection margin and mutation of p53 were significant factors for clinical outcome. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that breast conservation surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer patients has proven to be a safe treatment modality with a low relapse rate and high disease-free survival rate. The patients with a positive margin, T2 stage, and mutation of p53 are associated with statistically higher relapse rates and lower disease-free survival.

Treatment Result of Ovarian Dysgerminoma (난소 미분화배세포종에 대한 방사선치료 결과)

  • Shin Seong Soo;Park Suk Won;Shin Kyung Hwan;Ha Sung Whan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : Ovarian dysgerminoma is a highly radiosensitive malignant tumor occurring in young age group. The conventional treatment was total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment results of Patients who had received radiotherapy in the era before chemotherapy was widely used. Material and Method : Twenty two patients with ovarian dysgerminoma were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between August, 1980 and May, 1991. Four patients were excluded from this study, because three patients received incomplete treatment and one received combined chemotherapy. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy and two patients had radical radiotherapy as tumor was unresectable. Median follow-up period was 99 months (range, 51-178) Median age was 22 years (range, 11-42). Among the postoperatively treated patients, three Patients were in stage IA, eight in stage IC, two in stage II, and three in stage III. One patient had Turner's syndrome. Radiotherapy was performed with high energy photon (telecobalt unit or linear accelerator, either 6MV or 10MV), The radiation dose to the whole abdomen was 1950-2100cGy (median, 2000) and 1050-2520cGy was added to the whole pelvis, the total dose to the whole pelvis was 3000-4500cGy (median, 3500). Prophylactic Paraaortic area irradiation was done in six Patients (dose range, 900-1500cGy). One patient who had positive Paraaortic node, received radiation dose of 1620cGy, followed by additional 900cGy to the gross mass with shrinking field. Total dose to the paraaortic node was 4470cGy. Six patients, including one who had paraaortic node metastasis, received Prophylactic irradiation to mediastinum and supraclavicular area (2520cGy). Of the two patients with unresectable tumors who received radical radiotherapy, one was in stage III and the other was in stage IV with left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. The stage III patient received radiation to the whole abdomen (2000cGy), followed by boost to whole pelvis (2070cGy) and paraaortic area (2450cGy). Stage IV patient received radiation to the whole abdomen (2000cGy), followed by radiation to the whole pelvis and paraaortic area (2400cGy), mediastinum (2520cGy) , and left supraclavicular area (3550cGy) .Results : The 5 year local control rate was $100\%$ in patients who received postoperative adiuvant radiotherapy after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Only one patient in stage III who did not receive prophylactic irradiation to mediastinum developed mediastinal metastasis. but was salvaged by chemotherapy. So. the 5 year overall survival rate uras also $100\%$. Two patients who received radiation only, are alive without disease at 112 and 155 months. Conclusion : Postoperntive adjuvant radiotherapy as well as radical radiotherapy in unresectable ovarian dysgerminoma was very effective. aut chemotherapy is also an effective treatment modality We now recomrneifd chemotherapy for Patients who need to save their ovarian functien and reserve radiotherapv fov chemo-resistant tumor or recurrence alter che motherapy.

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Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy after Breast Conserving Surgery for Invasive Breast Cancer: An Intermediate Result (침윤성 유방암에서 유방보존수술 후 방사선치료 및 항암화학 병용치료의 성적 및 위험인자 분석)

  • Lee, Seok-Ho;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Young-Don;Park, Heoung-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-Young;Park, Se-Hoon;Lee, Kyu-Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by chemotherapy (CTx.) and radiation therapy (RT) is widely performed for the treatment of early breast cancer. This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate our interim results in terms of failure patterns, survival and relative risk factors. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: From January 1999 through December 2003, 129 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with BCS followed by RT were subject to retrospective review. The median age of the patients was 45 years (age distribution, $27{\sim}76$ years). The proportions of patients according to their tumor, nodes, and metastases (TNM) stage were 65 (50.4%) in stage I, 41 (31.7%) in stage IIa, 13 (10.1%) in stage IIb, 9 (7.0%) in stage III, and 1 patient (0.8%) in stage IIIc. For 32 patients (24.8%), axillary node metastasis was found after dissection. BCS consisted of quadrantectomy in 115 patients (89.1%) and lumpectomy in 14 patients (10.6%). Axillary node dissection at axillary level I and II was performed for 120 patients (93%). For 7 patients (5.4%), only sentinel node dissection was performed with BCS. For 2 patients (1.6%) axillary dissection of any type was not performed. Postoperative RT was given with 6 MV X-rays. A tumor dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered to the entire breast area using a tangential field with a wedge compensator. An aditional dose of $9{\sim}16\;Gy$ was given to the primary tumor bed areas with electron beams. In 30 patients (23.3%), RT was delivered to the supraclavicular node. Most patients had adjuvant CTx. with $4{\sim}6$ cycles of CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) regimens. The median follow-up period was 50 months (range: $17{\sim}93$ months). $\underline{Results}$: The actuarial 5 year survival rate (5Y-OSR) was 96.9%, and the 5 year disease free survival rate (5Y-DFSR) was 93.7%. Local recurrences were noted in 2 patients (true: 2, regional node: 1) as the first sign of recurrence at a mean time of 29.3 months after surgery. Five patients developed distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence at $6{\sim}33$ months (mean 21 months). Sites of distant metastatic sites were bone in 3 patients, liver in 1 patient and systemic lesions in 1 patient. Among the patients with distant metastatic sites, two patients died at 17 and 25 months during the follow-up period. According to stage, the 5Y-OSR was 95.5%, 100%, 84.6%, and 100% for stage I, IIa, IIb, and III respectively. The 5Y-DFSR was 96.8%, 92.7%, 76.9%, and 100% for stage I, IIa, IIb, and III respectively. Stage was the only risk factor for local recurrence based on univariate analysis. Ten stage III patients included in this analysis had a primary tumor size of less than 3 cm and had more than 4 axillary lymph node metastases. The 10 stage III patients received not only breast RT but also received posterior axillary boost RT to the supraclavicular node. During the median 53.3 months follow-up period, no any local or distant failure was found. Complications were asymptomatic radiation pneumonitis in 10 patients, symptomatic pneumonitis in 1 patient and lymphedema in 8 patients. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Although our follow up period is short, we had excellent local control and survival results and reaffirmed that BCS followed by RT and CTx. appears to be an adequate treatment method. These results also provide evidence that distant failure occurs earlier and more frequent as compared with local failure. Further studies and a longer follow-up period are needed to assess the effectiveness of BCS followed by RT for the patients with less than a 3 cm primary tumor and more than 4 axillary node metastases.

Concurrent Chemoradiation in Patients with Cancer of the Esophagus (식도암에서의 동시화학방사선요법)

  • Lee Kang Kyoo;Park Kyung Ran;Lee Jong Young;Shin Hyun Soo;Lee Chong In;Chang Woo Ick;Shim Young Hak
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To evaluate survival rate and prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Materials and Methods : Eligibility included biopsy proven invasive carcinoma of the cervical or thoracic esophagus, confined to esophagus and mediastinum with or without regional lymph node and supraclavicular lymph node, and ECOG Performance status $H_0-H_2$. Patients received radiation therapy with 5940cGy over 7 weeks and chemotherapy, consisted of 5-FU(1000 $mg/m^2/day$ in continuous infusion for 5 days, days 1 to 5 and days 29 to 33) and mitomycin C($8mg/m^2$ intravenous bolus at day 1). After concurrent chemoradiation, maintenance chemotherapy was followed with 5-FU(1000 $mg/m^2/day$ in continuous infusion for 5 days at 9th, 13th, and 17th weeks) and cisplatin($80mg/m^2$ intravenous bolus at the first day of each cycle). Results : From November 1989 to November 1995, 44 patients were entered in this study. After treatment, complete response rate and partial response rate were $59\%$ and $41\%$. Overall 1, 2, and 5-year survivals were $59\%$, $38\%$, and $9.6\%$(median 17 months), Prognostic factors affecting survival were response to treatment and T-stage. Among 26 complete responders, there were 6 local recurrences, 3 distant recurrences, 1 local and distant recurrence, and 2 unknown site recurrences Acute and chronic complication rates with grade 3 or more were $20\%$ and $13.0\%$ and there was no treatment-related mortality. Conclusion : Concurrent chemoradiation, compared with historical control groups that treated with radiation alone, improved median survival and did not significantly increase treatment-related complications. Complete responders had longer survival duration than partial responders. Predominant failure pattern was local failure. So, efforts to improve local control should be proposed.

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Long-term Follow-up after Radiation Therapy Alone for Esophageal Carcinoma (식도암의 방사선치료 성적 - 장기 추적관찰의 결과)

  • Wu Hong-Gyun;Park Suk-Won;Park Charn-Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.441-446
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : The incidence of esophageal carcinoma is increasing. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice, but large proportion of the esophageal cancer patients are with unresectable disease at the time of initial diagnosis, so radiation therapy has been the major treatment modality. We carried out retrospective analysis to see the outcome and prognostic factors of radiation therapy alone for esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials : From June of 1979 through December 1992, 289 patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy alone at Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Of these patients, 84 patients were excluded as they were ineligible for the current analyses. Twenty-two patients had distant metastasis other than supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, 52 patients received less than 45 Gy, and 10 patient were lost from follow-up. Therefore 205 patients constituted the base population of this study. According to AJCC s1aging system, there were 2 patients with stage 1, 104 with stage IIA, 26 with stage IIB, 48 with stage III, and 25 with stage IV Radiation dose ranged from 4500 cGy to 6980 cGy with median dose of 5940 cGy. Follow-up period of the alive patients ranged from 77 to 180 months. Results : The Median survival period of all the patients was II months and the 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 22.4$\%$, 10.2$\%$ and 5.3$\%$, respectively. Most of the failures were local recurrences. Of 169 failures, 134 had local failure as a component and 111 had local recurrence only. The Lymph node was most common distant metastatic site and the next was the lung. The stage, T-stage, N-stage, functional status, tumor size, and aim of treatment were statistically significant prognostic factors for survival by univariate analyses. But only tumor size and N-stage were significant by multivariate analyses. Conclusion : We could get 10.2$\%$ of 5 year survival rate and 5.3$\%$ of 10 year survival rate with radiation therapy alone. The size of tumor and N-stage were statistically significant prognostic factors for survival on multivariate analyses.

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