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The Influence of Store Images of Discount Stores on Shopping Values and Shopping Satisfaction: The Roles of Perceived Retail Crowding (대형마트의 점포이미지가 쇼핑가치 및 쇼핑만족에 미치는 영향: 지각된 혼잡의 역할)

  • Bae, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2012
  • Conceptualization of store image have been suggested in the past by many marketing scholars. The dominant perspective about store image is treated as the results of a multi-attribute model. Store image is expressed as a function of the salient attributes of a particular store that are evaluated. Though, there is a little confusions about what elements compose the store image, most scholars agree that merchandise, service, atmosphere, physical facilities, comfort, and location are generally accepted elements as store image. A considerable researches support that shopping can provide both hedonic and utilitarian value. Hedonic shopping value reflects the value received from fantasy and emotive aspects of shopping experience, while utilitarian shopping value reflects the acquisition of products. These two types of shopping value can affect shopping satisfaction. This study examines the relationships among stores images(store atmosphere, salespeople services, facilities, product assortment, and store location), shopping values(utilitarian shopping value and hedonic shopping value), and shopping satisfaction based on discount stores (E-Mart, Home plus, and Lotte Mart). The author hypothesized that five store image components affect shopping values, and these shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. The author focused on the roles of perceived retail crowding between these relationships. Specifically, the author hypothesized that perceived retailing crowding moderated the relationship between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. The author also hypothesized the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Finally, the author hypothesized that five store image components affect directly shopping satisfaction. Research model is presented in

    . To test model and hypotheses, data were collected from 114 consumers located mid-size city in local area. The author employs PLS methodology (SmartPLS 2.0) to test hypotheses. Data analysis results indicate that among five store images salespeople services, and store location affect utilitarian shopping value. Store atmosphere, salespeople services, and store location affect hedonic shopping value. Two shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. Hedonic shopping value affect more shopping satisfaction than utilitarian shopping value. Data analysis results is presented in . The author examines the moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Results indicate that there are no moderating effects between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between utilitarian shopping value and shopping satisfaction are presented in
    . Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between hedonic shopping value and shopping satisfaction is presented in . The author examines the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Results are presented in
    . The author analyzed the relationship between perceived retail crowding and shopping satisfaction using WarpPLS 3.0 which can analyze the non-linear relationship. Result indicates that perceived retail crowding affects directly shopping satisfaction and there is a non-linear relationship between them. Among five store image components, store atmosphere and salespeople services affect directly shopping satisfaction. The author describes about the managerial implications, limitations, and future research issues.

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  • The Relationship among Returns, Volatilities, Trading Volume and Open Interests of KOSPI 200 Futures Markets (코스피 200 선물시장의 수익률, 변동성, 거래량 및 미결제약정간의 관련성)

    • Moon, Gyu-Hyen;Hong, Chung-Hyo
      • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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      • v.24 no.4
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      • pp.107-134
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      • 2007
    • This paper tests the relationship among returns, volatilities, contracts and open interests of KOSPI 200 futures markets with the various dynamic models such as granger-causality, impulse response, variance decomposition and ARMA(1, 1)-GJR-GARCH(1, 1)-M. The sample period is from July 7, 1998 to December 29, 2005. The main empirical results are as follows; First, both contract change and open interest change of KOSPI 200 futures market tend to lead the returns of that according to the results of granger-causality, impulse response and variance decomposition with VAR. These results are likely to support the KOSPI 200 futures market seems to be inefficient with rejecting the hypothesis 1. Second, we also find that the returns and volatilities of the KOSPI 200 futures market are effected by both contract change and open interest change of that due to the results of ARMA(1,1)-GJR-GARCH(1,1)-M. These results also reject the hypothesis 1 and 2 suggesting the evidences of inefficiency of the KOSPI 200 futures market. Third, the study shows the asymmetric information effects among the variables. In addition, we can find the feedback relationship between the contract change and open interest change of KOSPI 200 futures market.

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    Development of GIS based Water Quality Simulation System for Han River and Kyeonggi Bay Area (한강과 경기만 지역 GIS 기반 통합수질모의 시스템 개발)

    • Lee, Chol-Young;Kim, Kye-Hyun
      • Journal of Korea Spatial Information System Society
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      • v.10 no.4
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      • pp.77-88
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      • 2008
    • There has been growing demands to manage the water quality of west coastal region due to the large scale urbanization along the coastal zone, the possibility of application of TMDL(Total Maximum Daily Loadings) to Han river, and the natural disaster such as oil spill incident in Taean, Chungnam. However, no system has been developed for such purposes. In this background, the demand of GIS based effective water quality management has been increased to monitor water quality environment and propose best management alternatives for Han river and Kyeonggi bay. This study mainly focused on the development of integrated water quality management system for Han river bas in and its estuary are a connected to Kyeonggi bay to support integrated water quality management and its plan. Integration was made based on GIS by spatial linking between water quality attributes and location information. A GIS DB was built to estimate the amount of generated and discharged water pollutants according to TMDL technical guide and it included input data to use two different water quality models--W ASP7 for Han river and EFDC for coastal area--to forecast water quality and to suggest BMP(Best management Practices). The results of BOD, TN, and TP from WASP7 were used as the input to run EFDC. Based on the study results, some critical areas which have relatively higher pollutant loadings were identified, and it was also identified that the locations discharging water pollutant loadings to river and seasonal factor affected water quality. And the relationship of water quality between river and its estuary area was quantitatively verified. The results showed that GIS based integrated system could be used as a tool for estimating status-quo of water quality and proposing economically effective BMPs to mitigate water pollution. Further studies need to be made for improving system's capabilities such as adding decision making function as well as cost-benefit analysis, etc. Also, the concrete methodology for water quality management using the system need to be developed.

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    Summary and Conclusion Title :Oriental Nursing Management System (한방간호 관리체계 연구)

    • Moon, Heui-Ja
      • Journal of East-West Nursing Research
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      • v.10 no.1
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      • pp.11-26
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      • 2004
    • The purpose of this study is to investigate the present conditions of nursing investment contents, its conversion process, and output in Oriental University Medical Center, Korea to get good qualified Oriental nursing result which is the ultimate purpose of the Oriental nursing management, and to develope a matrix of Oriental nursing management system on the basis of that project. The subjects for nursing investment and output contents were eighteen nursing directors in eleven Oriental University Medical Center and two hundred thirty-nine nurses with three years and over experience in Oriental medical center. The subjects for Oriental nursing organization, human affair management, and control function were nineteen Oriental medical center in Oriental University Medical Center, Korea. Data were collected from November, 2002 to February, 2003 with questionnaire. Data analysis was done by SPSS PC+ 12 program. Frequency, percentage, and minimum/maximum values were used for investment contents, and frequency and percentage were used for conversion process and output contents. 1. The input factors of oriental nursing management system The objective's western hospital career was over five years of one hundred and seventy-five(73.2%) persons. Nursing in-service education was performed in fourteen hospitals(77.8%). Two hundreds(83.7%) were pro to oriental nurse system. Only four hospitals(22.2%) had independent budget in nursing division. Nursing staff allocation to the bed was from 2.8:1 to 9.06:1 respectively, with a big gap of the rate following the hospitals. 2. The conversion factors of oriental nursing system 1) Oriental nursing system Oriental hospital nursing system was organized independently in ten hospitals among eighteen hospitals. The recruitment of nurses which was a vital role of the nursing division of the hospital was mostly(79%) opened. The education to develope nursing personnels was through in-service one in 97.4%. Education for oriental nursing and management was performed in 42.1%(eight hospitals) and that for reserves was done in 36.8%(seven hospitals). Administration for nursing education by nursing division was 68.5%(thirteen hospitals). The post education evaluation was performed by report submission in 36.8%(seven hospitals), by written examination in 26.3%, by questionnaires in 21.1%, and by lecture presentation in 15.8% subsequently. The directorial meeting for the nursing directors was attended by 84.2%(sixteen hospitals), and the meeting type was the medical executive and support division executive meeting in 55.6%(ten hospitals) and the personnel management in 39.6%(seven hospitals). 2) The actual conditions of oriental nursing personnel management The reason of working in oriental hospital was by voluntary in 67.1%(a hundred and sixty persons), by nursing department order in 28.0%(sixty-seven persons), and by others in 5.0%(twelve persons) respectively. The shift form was a three-shifts one in 94.7%(eighteen hospitals), a two-shift one in only one hospital. Duty assignment was functional in 52.6%(ten hospitals), team and functional in 26.3%(five hospitals) and no team alone. Promotion manual was present at 68.4%(thirteen hospitals) and the competency essentials comprised of performance evaluation in 79%, interview, written examination, training result, study result subsequently. No labor union existed in 79%(fifteen hospitals) 3) Oriental nursing preceptor system There were five oriental hospitals(27.7%) administering the preceptor utilization model, which showed lower rate than the twenty-two medical university hospitals in Seoul in which fifteen hospitals (72.7%) were having the system. To the question of necessity of oriental nurse system asked to the objectives of two hundred and thirty-nine with more than three year-experience in oriental hospital, two hundred persons(83.7%) answered positively. 4) The control of oriental nursing The evaluation results from the target hospitals were mostly not opened in 89.4% of oriental hospitals. Thirteen hospitals(68.3%) had evaluation system of direct managers and the next were three hospitals(15.8%) of direct managers and selves. There was one hospital(5.3% each) where fellows and superiors, fellows, and inferiors' evaluation was performed and no hospital where superiors, fellows, inferiors and selves, and superiors, fellows and selves' evaluation was performed. The QI activity of nursing was 42.1%(eight hospitals) for nursing service evaluation, 36.8% for survey of ECSI, 26.3% for survey of ICSI, 15.8% for medical visit rate, 10% for hospital standardization inspection in sequence. 3. The output factors of oriental nursing management system The job satisfaction appeared good in general, indicating very good in thirty-seven persons (15.7%), good in one hundred and fourteen persons (48.3%) and fair in eighty-five persons(36.0%).

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    Appling Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice of Home Health Care (가정간호실무에 적용가능한 이론적틀)

    • Woo, Seon-Hye
      • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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      • v.11 no.1
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      • pp.5-13
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      • 2004
    • The home health care industry has grown rapidly and can be expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. Home health care refers to the practice of nursing applied to clients with a health condition in the clients place of residence. clients and their designated care givers are the focus at home health nursing practice. The goal of care is to initiate. manage and evaluate the resources needed to promote the clients optimal level of well-being and function. Nursing activities necessary to achieve this goal may warrant preventive maintenance and restorative emphases to prevent potential problems from developing. Many project program were suggested home health care model for Korea's health care system and policy direction for expansion and establishment of home health care .But the aim of this paper is to provide on overview for theoretical frame work in home health care. Theories and conceptual frameworks or models are important nursing because they define and guide the boundaries of professional practice and identify key nurse-patient-caregiver relationships that emerge with caring. Following is the research with an investigation of the literature review in the University of Arizona international medline database, In conclusion, are as followers: First, many nursing theorists have had a tremendous impact on nursing practice. the following highlights those nursing theorists that are particularly helpful in understanding home health care. 1. Florence Nightingale : Our earliest theoretical legacy. Nightingale's believes are reflected in basic infection control practice such as hand washing and infectious waste disposal and are key nursing interventions in home care. 2. Martha Roger's :Science of unitary human beings theory. Rorger's believed that the focus of shared. non invasive healing modelities is the human environmental field rather than direct physical care. These modelities continue to evolve as our awareness (reflecting greater diversity, faster rhythms, motions, and ways of knowing) transcends time and space, allowing individuals to get in touch with their integral nature of unbroken wholeness. On people as ever changing energy fields have special relevance in home care especially with hospice and palliative care applications. 3. Madeline Leininger's; Transcultural nursing theory. Home care nurses move through a variety of communities and often care for patients from different cultural back grounds. Therefore Leininger's work has a good that with home care because home care nursing practice is very culturally focused. 4. Dorothea Orem's : Self care deficit theory. Orem's theory views care as something to be performed by both nurses and patients. The role of the nurse is to provide education and support that help patients acquire the necessary activities to perform self-care. Orem's theory is foundational to have care because it begins to truly acknowledge the role of the patient in managing his or her own health. which is referred to as self-care. 5. Margaret Neuman's; Health as expending consciousness theory. Neuman believes that health compasses disease and reflects an underlying pattern of person-environment interaction. A key application of 'Neuman's work to home care is for nurses to understand that health and illness do not necessarily exist at opposite ends of a continuum. 6. Jean Watson's: Theory of human caring. Watson's theory of human caring in nursing proposes human caring as the moral ideal of nursing. Nurses participate human caring to protect, enhance and preserve humanity by assisting individuals to fing meaning in illness. pain and existence and to help others gain self knowledge. self control. and self healing such thinking lends richness to theory development. as well as clinical practice in home care. Second, Robin Rice : Dynamic self determination for self care. (A theoretical framework for home care) Dynamical self determination for self care can be useful to home care nurses in a variety of ways. As research tool it can be reflected in the interview process when the home visit. The home care nurse's role is that of facilitator of patient self-determination for self care through numerous strategies. including patient education and case management.

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    Design and Implementation of Game Server using the Efficient Load Balancing Technology based on CPU Utilization (게임서버의 CPU 사용율 기반 효율적인 부하균등화 기술의 설계 및 구현)

    • Myung, Won-Shig;Han, Jun-Tak
      • Journal of Korea Game Society
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      • v.4 no.4
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      • pp.11-18
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      • 2004
    • The on-line games in the past were played by only two persons exchanging data based on one-to-one connections, whereas recent ones (e.g. MMORPG: Massively Multi-player Online Role-playings Game) enable tens of thousands of people to be connected simultaneously. Specifically, Korea has established an excellent network infrastructure that can't be found anywhere in the world. Almost every household has a high-speed Internet access. What made this possible was, in part, high density of population that has accelerated the formation of good Internet infrastructure. However, this rapid increase in the use of on-line games may lead to surging traffics exceeding the limited Internet communication capacity so that the connection to the games is unstable or the server fails. expanding the servers though this measure is very costly could solve this problem. To deal with this problem, the present study proposes the load distribution technology that connects in the form of local clustering the game servers divided by their contents used in each on-line game reduces the loads of specific servers using the load balancer, and enhances performance of sewer for their efficient operation. In this paper, a cluster system is proposed where each Game server in the system has different contents service and loads are distributed efficiently using the game server resource information such as CPU utilization. Game sewers having different contents are mutually connected and managed with a network file system to maintain information consistency required to support resource information updates, deletions, and additions. Simulation studies show that our method performs better than other traditional methods. In terms of response time, our method shows shorter latency than RR (Round Robin) and LC (Least Connection) by about 12%, 10% respectively.

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    A Comparison of the Effects of Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate Solution versus Cold Blood Cardioplegic Solution on Myocardial Protection in Mitral Valve Surgery (승모판막수술 시 히스티딘를 함유한 결정성 심정지액(Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate Solution)과 저온 혈성 심정지액이 심근기능 보존에 미치는 영향 비교)

    • Choi, Yong-Seon;Bang, Sou-Ouk;Chang, Byung-Chul;Lee, Sak;Park, Chol-Hee;Kwak, Young-Lan
      • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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      • v.40 no.6
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      • pp.399-406
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      • 2007
    • Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury related to unsuccessful myocardial protection affects postoperative ventricular function and mortality during open-heart surgery. We prospectively compared the effects of administration of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and cold blood cardioplegia (CBC) on myocardial protection and clinical outcome in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Material and Method: Seventy patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing mitral valve surgery were randomly divided into the HTK group (n=31) and the CBC group (n=31 ): eight patients were excluded. Perioperative hemodynamics, cardiac medications, pacing, postoperative outcomes and complications were recorded during the hospital stay. All patients received follow-up for at least 6 months postoperatively for morbidity and mortality. Resuか: There were no significant differences in the hemodynamics between the groups during the study period, except for the mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), PCWP and CVP that were lower in the HTK group at 15 min after weaning of CBP. There were no differences for inotropic support and pacing during the 12 hrs postoperatively between the groups. CK-MB values on day 1 and day 2 were $77{\pm}54$ and $41{\pm}23$ for the HTK group and $70{\pm}69$ and $44{\pm}34$ for the CBC group, respectively (p=NS). Postoperative clinical outcomes were similar in both groups for at least 6 months during the follow-up period. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of HTK solution is as safe as cold blood cardioplegia in terms of myocardial protection.

    Timing and Risk Factors of Adoption for Legally-Free Foster Children after Having Parental Rights Terminated in the U. S. (미국 위탁아동의 친권상실선고 이후 입양 결정요인에 관한 생존분석)

    • Song, Min-Kyoung
      • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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      • v.59 no.1
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      • pp.301-327
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      • 2007
    • The purpose of this study is to examine the timing and the risk factors associated with the adoption of legally-free foster children. The sample of the study was drawn from foster care files of Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System(AFCARS) in 32 states between October 1998 (FY 1999) and September 2002(FY 2002). The timing post-TPR to adoption was examined by plotting the Kaplan-Meier cumulative hazard function for adoption and by plotting the KM hazard functions stratified by child's race and child's age at TPR. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for adoption of legally-free foster children after TPR. The hazard of adoption was very low immediately after TPR but increased steadily starting at 3 months and then declined after 20 months. The cumulative hazard functions for White non-Hispanic children and Black non-Hispanic children crossed over at 13 months after TPR. Racial minority status, older age, and disability were negatively associated with the hazard of adoption. Physical abuse, sexual abuse had the lower hazard for adoption compared by neglect. Caretaker's inability to cope had the slightly lower hazard for adoption whereas inadequate housing showed the slightly greater hazard for adoption. Characteristics of foster care services turned into be powerful predictors of adoption. Specifically, legally-free children placed in pre-adoptive homes, those who shared the same racial/ethnic background with their foster caretakers, and those who were placed in two-parent families have a greater likelihood of adoption. The findings highlight the importance of foster care service provisions after TPR to facilitate adoption of legally-free foster children. Furthermore, a more substantial resources and targeted support for foster children who experience physical abuse and sexual abuse in need of adoption should be provided for moving the foster children into permanency.

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    COMORBIDITY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN WHO HAVE THE SYMPTOMS OF OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER - COMMUNITY BASED STUDY - (반항성 도전 장애 아동과 연관된 공존 증상 및 위험 요인에 관한 연구 - 지역사회 연구 -)

    • Kim Boong-Nyun;Jung Kwang-Mo;Cho Soo Churl;Hong Kang-E
      • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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      • v.16 no.1
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      • pp.79-89
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      • 2005
    • Objectives : To acquire an improved understanding of oppositional defiant disorder, we evaluated the characteristics of children who have the symptoms of ODD in community sample. Methods : 1200 children from an elementary school in Bucheon (an urban community near Seoul) were recruited by randomized sampling method. By Disruptive Behavior Disorder Scale according to DSM-III-R & DSM-IV, we evaluated the symptoms of ODD and selected subjects with ODD. Psychiatric comorbidity, character trait were compared in subjects with ODD and comparison group. Also we examined the association between prenatal/perinatal risk factors, family functions and the symptoms of ODD. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical method using SPSS 11.5 window version. Result : Children with oppositional defiant disorder were revealed to have significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity and significantly greater family dysfunction compared to comparison group. Among the prenatal/perinatal risk factors, severe emotional stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, medication during pregnancy were revealed as risk factors of ODD. In character inventory, ODD group were evaluated to have high score in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, but low in reward dependency. Conclusion : These results support that 1) prenatal/perinatal and psycho-social risk factors could be a important role in the progression of ODD, and 2) children with ODD have diverse comorbid psychiatric symptoms.

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    Overseas exhibition and organization of Korean exhibition room in foreign museum. (해외 전시와 외국 박물관의 한국실 설치-그리스 특별 전시 사례를 중심으로)

    • Jeong, Ho-Seop
      • KOMUNHWA
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      • no.70
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      • pp.163-178
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      • 2007
    • Among many functions of the museum, the educational function is being emphasized. Museums should actively expand their scope of action through special exhibits or various educational activities. It is through exhibits that museums prove their reason for existence and raise calls for support. Through such activities, university museums should demonstrate the role and reason of existence of a museum inside a university to the members of the university. They should carry out various activities to raise the presence of the museum in the university. That may be the way for university museums, which face many difficulties in reality, to find their breakthrough. Especially in a situation of a low-budget, holding overseas exhibition may be a good opportunity to display the excellence of the Korean culture and, at the same time, publicize the school and the museum. Also, through such overseas exhibition, benchmarking of facilities and activities of advanced museums can be made and networks can be set up with museums around the world. This paper introduces the planning and progressing procedures of exhibitions abroad through the experiences of the Korea University Museum. I sincerely hope that it will contribute to the hereafter development of university museums. Aside from such overseas exhibition, the Korea Foundation has been supporting prestigious foreign museums to establish a Korean exhibition room in order to form a perpetual space to systematically introduce Korean culture and art to foreign audience. Thus far, the National Museum of Korea has stood in the forefront in lending relics to Korean exhibition rooms abroad. I believe it would be a worthwhile activity for the Korea Association of University Museums, which has approximately 100 institutions as its members, to actively participate in the establishment of Korean exhibitions rooms of foreign museums for the development of university museums. Participating in the establishment of Korean exhibition rooms is attractive as it will lead to a constant exchange with foreign museums instead of a one-time exchange. Localization and globalization, which became a big issue about ten years ago, is reality from which university museums cannot be free. In such reality, it is time for university museums to look back on whether they are ready to make their way forward in this era called the century of culture.

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