• Title/Summary/Keyword: sunscreen

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Development of a Sunscreen Stick Formulation which is Water Resistant but Easily Washable

  • Choi, Minsung;Song, Seungjin;Kang, Nae-Gyu
    • Korea Journal of Cosmetic Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study is to develop a sunscreen stick formulation technology with excellent water resistance and washability. Consumers' needs for sunscreen products are diversifying. Water resistance and ease of washing are both important factors in sunscreen products. However, it is difficult to develop a sunscreen formulation that satisfies these two factors at the same time, because these two elements are in conflict. Fatty acid has a hydrophobic property against the water with low or neutral pH, but when it contacts with soapy water which has high pH, saponification occurs and the fatty acids become surfactants and can be dispersed in the water. Using the reaction characteristics of fatty acids, we can make sunscreen that is highly resistant to water or sweat, but is only selectively removed from soapy water. We found that the sunscreen stick containing fatty acids had better water resistance and washability than the sunscreen sticks without fatty acid. The sunscreen stick containing fatty acids showed a tendency to improve water resistance by scattering ultraviolet rays of long wavelength area by forming insoluble precipitation with divalent ions in tap water after immersion. In addition, an increase in the fatty acid content tended to also increase the ease of cleaning the sunscreen stick. Solid fatty acid was advantageous in improving water resistance than liquid fatty acid, but there was no difference between solid fatty acids and liquid fatty acid in washability. When it comes to stability, the sunscreen stick using liquid fatty acids maintained a high hardness and melting point, and showed no sweating. Based on this study, it is possible to develop an easy washable sunscreen stick formulation technology that has excellent water resistance but is selectively removed only in soapy water.

In vitro SPF Measurement of Sunscreen Agents in Cosmetics (화장품에서 자외선 차단제의 in vitro SPF 측정)

  • Yang, Jae-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.370-377
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    • 2010
  • This study evaluated SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of various quntity and kind of sunscreen ingredients which is used in O/W and W/O emulsion by systematic and quantitative approach. Octylmethoxycinnamate(OMC), Buthylmethoxydibenzoylmethan (BMDM), Octocrylene (OC), Octylsalicylate(OS), Octyl Triazone (OT), Titanium dioxide (TD) are used for the experiment. As a result, when different chemical sunscreen ingredients are added to OMC, the synergy effect of SPF was high in order of BMDM, OC, OS, OT. There was no significant difference in O/W and W/O emulsions. It can be a guide to use sunscreen ingredients effectively when the relation between the results of in vitro SPF and in vivo SPF is comprehended.

Factors Affecting Sun Protection Behavior (햇빛차단 행동에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • 권영아;강미정
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the factors of Knowledge and attitudes related to sun safety and to determine the factors affecting sun protection behavior. The subjects were 167 adults in their twenties living in Busan. The results were as follows. 1. Four factors of knowledge about sun safety were identified: ultraviolet ray risk, sunscreen, sun protective clothing, and nil protective color. 2. Four factors of attitudes toward sun exposure were identified: attractiveness, emotion, conformity, and health concern. 3. Four factors of sun protection behavior were identified: sunscreen/parasol, shade, hat/sunglasses, and sun protective clothing. 4. Compared to women, men were relatively more risk to skin damage due to less proportion that used sunscreen and a parasol. 5. Factors of sun protective behavior, such as sunscreen/parasol, shade, hat/sunglasses, and sun protective clothing, were associated with the Knowledge related to ultraviolet ray risk. 6. Wearing a hat and sunglasses was predicted by the attractiveness, which defined as positive attitudes toward tanned appearance. 7. Shade use was affected by the perception of sun exposure as happiness and relaxing. 8. Health concern was the strongest predictor of sunscreen/parasol use.

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Development of Multifunctional Natural Sunscreen (BHC-S) Having Sunscreening and Anti-wrinkle (주름개선 자외선 차단효과를 갖는 다기능성 천연 자외선 차단제(BHC-S) 개발)

  • Kim, Chul;Jeong, Sae Byeol;Im, Gyeong Hyeon;Gang, Myeong Hwan;An, Jun Hyuk;Kim, Jin Hee;Lee, Ho
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to develop a stable plant-derived natural sunscreen (BHC-S) that replaces the artificially synthesized organic sunscreen agents. The natural sunscreen (BHC-S), which is composed of peanut extract, Centella asiatica extract, and Ecklonia stolonifera extract, has the same level of ultraviolet shielding effect as PARSOL MCX-XR (OMC), which is a synthetic sunscreen. and has safety against skin. MultiFunctional effect such as and anti-wrinkle improvement. Thus, it can be used as raw material for natural cosmetics for ultraviolet ray blocking, and anti-aging.

Method development and initial results of testing for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in waterproof sunscreens

  • Keawmanee, Sasipin;Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati;Boontanon, Narin
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2015
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental pollutants, extremely stable, and possibly adversely affect human health. They are widely used in many industries and consumer goods, including sunscreen products. These substances are stable chemicals made of long carbon chains, having both lipid- and water-repellent qualities. The research objectives are (1) to find the most effective method for the preparation of semi-liquid samples by comparing solid phase extraction (SPE) and centrifugation after Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and (2) to determine the contamination levels of PFOS and PFOA in waterproof sunscreen samples. All sunscreen samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sunscreen samples were purchased from domestic and international brands sold in Thailand. Special chemical properties were considered for the selection of samples, e.g., those found in waterproof, sweat resistant, water resistant, and non-stick products. Considering the factors of physical properties, e.g., operation time, chemical consumption, and recovery percentage for selecting methods to develop, the centrifugation method using 2 mL of extracted sample with the conditions of 12,000 rpm and $5^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour after PLE was chosen. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were detected at 0.0671 ng/g and 21.0644 ng/g, respectively. Even though present concentrations are found at ng/g levels, the daily use of sunscreen products is normally several grams. Therefore, a risk assessment of PFOS and PFOA contamination in sunscreen products is an important concern, and more attention needs to be paid to the long-term effects on human health.

Studies on Transparent Sunscreen of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Type (유중수 타입의 외관이 투명한 자외선 차단 화장료에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, Jae-Hoon;Cho, Yong-Hun;Byun, Sang-Yo;Kim, Tae Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.469-479
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    • 2015
  • This study is related to the developing method of a transparent sunscreen cosmetic which has waterproofing property and no white turbidity when applied to skin. The transparent sunscreen is prepared by exploiting refractive index difference between oil-phase and water-phase of water-in-oil(W/O) emulsion. The sunscreen according to this study is prepared as a W/O type emulsion so that it is water-stable and water resistance. Also, the stability of W/O type emulsion is developed by adjusting the content of oil phase part and water phase part. As a result of this studying, the transparent W/O emulsion is prepared by adjusting the refractive index of oil-phase and water-phase within 0.004 and it is found that the stability of the transparent sunscreen is increasing when the water phase part is over 75% (w/w) of the W/O emulsion. Through clinical test of transparent sunscreen, the value of sun protection Factor(SPF) and Protection Factor of UVA(PFA) were determined. SPF and PFA values of transparent sunscreen were indicated $30.99{\pm}1.65$ and $3.01{\pm}0.30$.

Factors Affecting Physical Properties of Solid Sunscreen Using Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 고형 자외선 차단제의 물성에 영향을 주는 요인)

  • Ryu, Sang Deok;Heo, Min Geun;Yoon, Kyung-Sup
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.237-254
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    • 2019
  • This study is focused on the effect of sodium stearate, which is a hydrophilic gelling agent affecting on the hardness of O/W solid sunscreen cosmetic. The sunscreen of the O/W (oil in water) type is stable, good in use, and relatively easier to stabilize than the sunscreen of the W/O (water in oil) type. Methods for increasing the stability by using emulsifiers, electrolytes, and wax or oil have been studied for solid sunscreen. This study was intended to develop a solid sunscreen stabilized by increasing the hardness using sodium stearate as an O/W type containing more than 40% moisture. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the factors affecting the hardness of cosmetics, and sodium stearate, polyol and oil were used for each factor. The hardness and the reaction value was measured using a rheometer. As a result, sodium stearate showed a meaningful value (p < 0.05) among the three factors affecting hardness. In addition, the use of sodium stearate as a hydrophilic gelling agent increased the usability and stability of the solid sunscreen.

Development of a Sunscreen Formulation that Increases UV Blocking Ability by UV Light (자외선에 의해 자외선 차단 효율이 상승하는 선크림 제형 개발)

  • Choi, Minsung;Cho, Hyeongjin;Song, Kyunghee;Song, Seungjin;Kang, Nae-Gyu;Park, Sun-Gyoo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.139-150
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    • 2019
  • This study is investigated sunscreen formulation that enhances UV absorption efficiency by UV light. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most common UV filters. Many studies have been conducted about photostability of OMC. It is well known that under the UV exposure, trans-OMC could turn to cis-OMC, or produce various photoproducts including its dimers. Those chemical structure changes were understood as the reason of a decrease in UV absorption efficiency upon UV exposure. However, it was found that OMC and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (IMC) could even enhance its UV absorption efficiency when it was exposed to UV light in an environment similar to actual use. In order to develop sunscreen formulation that enhances UV absorption efficiency by UV light, emollient with high polarity and compatibility should be avoided from the formular. Those emollient seemed to prevent OMC or IMC from producing photoproducts under UV light. Finally, a sunscreen formulation (UV sensing SPF boosting formular) enhancing UV absorption efficiency by UV was developed by the UV activated SPF boosting technology, and the effect of the sunscreen was evaluated. in vitro SPF of the sunscreen was increased from 50.69 to 72.33 when it was exposed to UV light and its in vivo SPF (53.7) was 56.10% higher than that of the control sunscreen (below 34.4).

Photostability Evaluation of a New Sunscreen Agent, Methoxycinnamidopropyl Polysilsesquioxane (신규 자외선차단제인 Methoxycinnamidopropyl Polysilsesquioxane의 광안정성 평가)

  • Jung, Taek-Kyu;Kim, Young-Back;Yoon, Kyung-Sup
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2011
  • The new sunscreen agent, methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane, is manufactured as polymeric particles with an organic/inorganic hybrid composition. We have already reported the manufacturing method, physical properties, and sunprotection effects of methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane. In this study, we evaluated the photochemical properties and photostabilities of methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane that has the same functional group as a typical organic sunscreen agent, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC). Using the correlation of UV absorbance and fluorescence, we studied photostabilizers to enhance the photostability of methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane. Finally, we confirmed that octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycrylene, and bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine were good photostabilizers for methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane.

SPF Evaluation and Safety of Sunscreen Products (자외선 차단 제품의 SPF 측정과 안전성)

  • 김종일;이병곤;고재숙
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • 1992.09a
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    • pp.5-26
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    • 1992
  • Many methods of in vitro SPF evaluation have been developed in order to measure SPF of sunscreen products. In this study, we compared two spectrophotometric in vitro measurements using the skin cast made of Luviset CAP- $X^{R}$ resin and Transpor $e^{R}$ tape as substrate with two in vivo measurements using guinea pig and human. And we also observed the radiation reaching on the earth's surface in Seoul for one year and the change of the primary skin irritancy along the change of SPF value. According to the our research, the first, in vivo measurement using guinea pig had the close agreement with SPF measurement using human and showed the tendancy that guinea pig SPF was lower than human SPF. The second, there was the good relationship between in vitro SPF by using Transpor $e^{R}$ tape and in vivo SPF, and it is possible to predict human SPF from Protection Index(PI) by using tape. The third, it is thought that SPE 20 is reasonable value because of UV intensity in Seoul and the primary skin irritancy of higher SPF than 25. So we propose that it is important to distinguish the sunscreen product having higher than approximate 25 from the category of general cosmetics including lower SPF sunscreen product.oduct.

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