• Title, Summary, Keyword: sugar and water interaction

Search Result 9, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Interactive Effect of Food Compositions on the Migration Behavior of Printing Ink Solvent

  • An, Duek-Jun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.310-315
    • /
    • 2009
  • The partitioning behavior of the five printing ink solvents in nine lab-made cookies with various sugar and water content at 25${^{\circ}C}$ was studied to find out the presence and effects of interaction between the two ingredients on partitioning behavior in cookies. Solvents were ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone and hexane. It was observed that the partition coefficient (the solvent concentration in food compared to that in air, Kp) decreased as sugar increased in all case and increased as water content increased for all compounds except toluene. Statistical analysis by the F-test method was used to determine the significance of sugar-water interactions, as well as other single factors on partitioning behavior of each solvent. Sugar content alone had no significant effects, but the crystallinity of sugar, as changed by water content, affected the partitioning behavior of the five solvents significantly. Parameter estimation for each significant factor by SAS program yielded a regression equation, which was used to predict the partitioning behavior in the finished cookie. Kp values from the regression equation could be determined more precisely by applying a correction term for the interaction between sugar and water to the Kp values of each ingredient after baking.

Scientific Study for the Standardization of the Preparation Methods for Paeksolgi(I) (백설기 조리법의 표준화를 위한 조리과학적 연구(I))

  • 김기숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-87
    • /
    • 1987
  • Paeksolgi is a typical Korean rice cake made by steaming rice powder added sugar, water and salt. This study attempted to clarify the factors which affect the textural characteristics, and to examine the effects of various steaming time and volume of adding water on sensory characteristics and Instron measurement on textures of Paeksolgi. Evaluation was conducted through sensory evaluation and objective evaluation. The results were summarized as follows. 1. In the preparation, the significant factors were soaking time, volume of sugar, and the interaction between soaking time and volume of adding water. And, Kind of sweetener, volume of adding water, steaming time, condition of powder, and the interaction between soaking time and steaming time, and between soaking time and volume of adding water, and between kind of sweetener and condition of powder, and between steaming time and volume of sugar were the significant factors which affected the textural characteristics of Paeksolgi. 2. In sensory evaluation on the various steaming time and volume of adding water, Paeksolgi made by steaming rice powder added water of 10% for 30 min. showed the most favorite tendency on the overall quality. The results of Instron measurement indicated that hardness, gumminess and chewiness tended to decrease as volume of adding water increased in same steaming time.

  • PDF

Effect of Sugar Alcohol on Wheat Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation (당알콜이 밀전분이 호화 및 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김혁일;신인영;김창순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.28 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1251-1255
    • /
    • 1999
  • The sugar alcohols are useful alternatives to sucrose in confections because they provide desirable taste but lessen the potential risks for dental caries. The effects of sugar alcohol and their interaction on starch pasting properties were determined by the viscoamylograph with the concentration of 30%, 20%, 10% sugar alcohol in 1% CMC. The disaccharides, lactitol, maltitol, and isomalt, delayed pasting more than did monosaccharides, sorbitol and xylitol. With regard to the solubility in water, sorbitol and xylitol are more soluble than sucrose, maltitol and lactitol are almost equal and isomalt is less soluble than sucrose. Sorbitol and xylitol were highest on gelatinization. But their retrogradation occurred faster than other sugar alcohols. Lactitol and maltitol decreased gel strength more than did sucrose and other sugar alcohols.

  • PDF

Quality Characteristic and Optimization of Iced Cookie with Addition of Jinuni bean(Rhynchosia volubilis) (쥐눈이콩(鼠目太) 첨가 냉동쿠키의 품질특성 및 최적화)

  • Ko, Young-Joo;Joo, Na-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.514-527
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purposes of this study were firstly to optimize the recipe for iced cookies by cooking with five different ingredient levels of $Jinuni\;bean(X_1),\;butter(X_2)\;&\;sugar(X_3)$ and secondly to analyze the chemical and sensory test results by using RSM(Response Surface Methodology). As a result of this test, water activity decreased with increasing contents of butter or sugar, while hydrophilic browning decreased independently with increasing sugar content. There was a positive correlation(p<.001) between specific gravity and hardness, although the result was not uniform due to the interaction of each factor. There was a negative correlation(p<.001) between the spread ratio and gravity or hardness, and it tended to increase with increasing each content. Color value L and color value a had positive correlation (p<.001) and the value tended to decrease with increasing the quantity of Jinuni bean. Generally, the strength of the cookies showed a saddle point at the peak of the 3d graph. As a result of sensory evaluation, the color was sensitive to the contents of sugar and Jinuni bean, the texture was sensitive to the contents of butter and sugar, and the taste and overall quality were sensitive to all three factors. Color had a positive correlation(p<.05) with the taste, texture and overall quality. There were high positive correlations(p<.001) between the taste, texture and overall quality. The preference data showed an up-swollen, parabolic shape in the center of the 34 graph, which enabled the optimum value to be determined and the optimum mixture ratio which fulfilled all sensory items was Jinuni bean 93g, butter 188.5g and sugar 155g, indicating a substitution of flour by $44\%$.

Role of Sugars in Early Stage of Spore Germination in Filamentous Fungi, Aspergillus nidulans (사상균인 Aspergillus nidulans의 무성포자 발아와 당의 역할)

  • Chung, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Jae Won
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
    • /
    • v.46 no.4
    • /
    • pp.511-518
    • /
    • 2018
  • Initiation of spore germination in filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Botrytis cinerea requires the presence of nutrients. In this study, involvement of sugar sensing machinery was suggested in the germination of A. nidulans spores. Germination did not occur when the spores of A. nidulans were incubated in distilled water, whereas they were successfully germinated in the presence of 5% glucose with a germination rate of over 98% after 6hr incubation. Similar results were obtained when the spores were incubated in the presence of various sugars such as fructose, sucrose, and starch. Interestingly, spore germination was not observed in the presence of D-arabinose, whereas L-arabinose could induce germination as determined by the formation of germ tubes, indicating the presence of sugar sensing machinery that distinguish between the enantiomers of sugars. This inference was further supported by a decrease in germination rate (less than 25%) upon treatment of spores with trypsin. Subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the surface proteins of spores identified ten proteins among which eight were involved in sugar metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that spore germination in A. nidulans is initiated by the interaction of sugars with sugar binding proteins on the surface of spores.

Scientific Study for the Standardization of the Preparation Methods for Paeksolgi(II) -for the Focus on the Volume of Adding Sugar and Steaming Time- (백설기 조리법의 표준화를 위한 조리과학적 연구(II) -첨가하는 설탕의 양과 찌는 시간을 중심으로-)

  • 한경선;김기숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.60-64
    • /
    • 1997
  • This study attempted to examine the effect on sensory characteristics and texture of Paeksolgi in various volume of adding sugar and steaming time. The most favorite tendency on the quality was over 15% adding sugar and 20 minute steaming time. Evaluation was conducted through objective evaluation firstly and sensory evaluation secondly. The volume of adding sugar was the significant factors which affected the textual characteristics of Paeksolgi. But steaming time and interaction had not affected. In sensory evaluation on the various steaming time Paeksolgi made by steaming time for 20min and over 15% adding sugar showed the most favorite tendency on the overall quality. This condition corresponded to the high level of hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess in comparison with Rheoner measurement. In summary the most favorite factor was 12 hours of soaking time, 10% adding water, 1% of adding salt, over 15% adding sugar, 20 minutes steaming time.

  • PDF

Physiological Responses to Mineral-Excessive Conditions: Mineral Uptake and Carbohydrate Partitioning in Tomato Plants

  • Sung, Jwakyung;Lee, Suyeon;Lee, Yejin;Kang, Seongsoo;Ha, Sangkeun;Sonn, Yeonkyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.47 no.6
    • /
    • pp.563-570
    • /
    • 2014
  • The shortage or surplus of minerals directly affects overall physiological metabolism of plants; especially, it strongly influences carbohydrate metabolism as a primary response. We have studied mineral uptake, synthesis and partitioning of soluble carbohydrates, and the relationship between them in N, P or K-excessive tomato plants, and examined the interaction between soluble carbohydrates and mineral elements. Four-weeks-old tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic growth container adjusted with excessive N ($20.0mmol\;L^{-1}$ $Ca(NO_3)2{\cdot}4H_2O$ and $20.0mmol\;L^{-1}$ $KNO_3$), P ($2.0mmol\;L^{-1}$ $KH_2PO_4$), and K ($20.0mmol\;L^{-1}$ $KNO_3$), respectively, for 30 days. Shoot growth rates were significantly influenced by excessive N or K, but not by excessive P. The concentrations of water soluble N (nitrate and ammonium), P and K were clearly different with each tissue of tomato plants as well as the mineral conditions. The NPK accumulation in all treatments was as follows; fully expanded leaves (48%) > stem (19%) = roots (16%) = petioles (15%) > emerging leaves (1). K-excessive condition extremely contributed to a remarkable increase in the ratio, which ranged from 2.79 to 10.34, and particularly potassium was dominantly accumulated in petioles, stem and roots. Fresh weight-based soluble sugar concentration was the greatest in NPK-sufficient condition ($154.8mg\;g^{-1}$) and followed by K-excessive (141.6), N-excessive (129.2) and P-excessive (127.7); whereas starch was the highest in K-excessive ($167.0mg\;g^{-1}$) and followed by P-excessive (146.1), NPK-sufficient (138.2) and N-excessive (109.7). Soluble sugar showed positive correlation with dry weight-based total N content (p<0.01) whereas was negatively correlated with soluble P (p<0.01) and dry weight-based total P (p<0.01). On the other hand, starch production was negatively influenced by total N (p<0.001), but, it showed positive relation with total K concentration (p<0.05). This study shows that uptake pattern of NPK and production and partitioning of soluble carbohydrate were substantially different from each mineral, and the relationship between water soluble- and dry weight-based-mineral was positive.

Effect of NaCl Addition on Rheological Behaviors of Commercial Gum-Based Food Thickener Used for Dysphagia Diets

  • Cho, Hyun-Moon;Yoo, Whachun;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.137-142
    • /
    • 2015
  • Rheological properties of thickened fluids used for consumption by people with dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) are very sensitive to several factors, such as thickener type, temperature, pH, sugar, protein, and NaCl. In this study, steady and dynamic rheological properties of thickened water samples mixed with five commercial xanthan gum-based food thickeners (A~E) were studied in the presence of NaCl at different concentrations (0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%). The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (${\eta}_{a,50}$), consistency index (K), yield stress (${\sigma}_{oc}$), and dynamic moduli (G' and G") showed significant differences in rheological behaviors between thickened samples with various NaCl concentrations. Dynamic moduli values of all thickened samples, except for samples with thickener C, were much higher than those of the control (0% NaCl). All rheological parameter values (K, G', and G") in a thickener A were much higher than those in other thickeners. These results suggest that rheological properties of thickened samples containing NaCl are strongly affected by xanthan gum-NaCl interaction and depended on the type of thickener.

Effect of cooling water and inverse lighting on short chain fatty acid and blood lipid of broiler chickens in closed poultry house during hot weather (혹서기 무창계사에서 육계의 혈액지질 및 짧은 사슬지방산에 관한 역전점등과 냉각수 효과)

  • Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-43
    • /
    • 2014
  • This experiment evaluated the interaction effect of extreme heat diet(EHD), inverse lighting, and cool water on the growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress. There were 4 experimental groups (T1: EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cold water $9^{\circ}C$; T2: EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cold water $9^{\circ}C$; T3: EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cold water $14^{\circ}C$; T4: EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cold water $14^{\circ}C$), each group composed of 25 broilers and the experiment was repeated 3 times. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. As a result, T1 and T2 displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake compared to T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The weights of their liver and gizzard were similar but the weights of the thymus and bursa F were higher for T1 and T2 compared to that of T3 and T4 (p<0.05). It was observed that T1 and T2 displayed higher concentrations of blood triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and blood sugar compared to that of T3 and T4 but LDL-C level was higher for T3 and T4 compared to that of T1 and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T2 displayed higher levels of immunity substances such as IgG, IgA and IgM compared to T3 and T4 but the blood level of corticosterone displayed to be lower for T1 and T2 compared to T3 and T4 (p<0.05). The T1 and T2 contained a higher amount of fecal lactobacillus compared to that of T3 and T4 but the T3 and T4 contained a higher amount of fecal E. coli, total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria compared to that of T1 and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T2 displayed higher concentrations of cecal acetic acid, propionic acid and total short chain fatty acids compared to T3 and T4 but T3 and T4 displayed higher concentrations of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid compared to T1 and T2 (p<0.05). These results have been observed that broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress with feeding EHD, inverse lighting and cold water would improve blood lipid, and elevate the production of immunity substance, beneficial microorganisms, and short chain fatty acids. This provision would also reduce the blood sugar consumption rate as energy sources and these effects will improve the growth performance of the broilers exposed to extreme heat.