• Title, Summary, Keyword: substitution

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Estimation of the Genetic Substitution Rate of Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle Using Whole Genome Sequencing Data

  • Lee, Young-Sup;Shin, Donghyun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2018
  • Despite the importance of mutation rate, some difficulties exist in estimating it. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data yields large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can make it feasible to estimate substitution rates. The genetic substitution rates of Hanwoo and Holstein cattle were estimated using NGS data. Our main findings was to calculate the gene's substitution rates. Through estimation of genetic substitution rates, we found: diving region of altered substitution density exists. This region may indicate a boundary between protected and unprotected genes. The protected region is mainly associated with the gene ontology terms of regulatory genes. The genes that distinguish Hanwoo from Holstein in terms of substitution rate predominantly have gene ontology terms related to blood and circulatory system. This might imply that Hanwoo and Holstein evolved with dissimilar mutation rates and processes after domestication. The difference in meat quality between Hanwoo and Holstein could originate from differential evolution of the genes related to these blood and circulatory system ontology terms.

Yield Management Models for Two Substitutable Products (두 대체품에 대한 수익관리 모형 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2016
  • Yield management, which originated from the U.S. service industry, uses pricing techniques and information systems to make demand management decisions. Demand uncertainty is an important factor in the area of demand management. A key strategy to reduce the effects of demand uncertainty is substitution. The most generally known type of substitution is inventory-driven substitution, in which consumers substitute an out-of-stock product by buying a similar or other type of product. Another type of substitution is the price-driven substitution, which occurs as a result of price changes. In this research, we consider two market segments that have unique perishable products. We develop yield management optimization models with stochastic demand based on the newsvendor model where inventory-driven and price-driven substitutions are allowed between products in the two market segments. The most significant contribution of this research is that it develops analytical procedures to determine optimal solutions and considers both types of substitution. We also provide detailed theoretical analysis and numerical examples.

Market goods substitution of housework and the determinants on it in the domain of food: Focused on the married female home-based workers (기혼여성 재택근무자의 식생활영역에서 가사노농 상품대체와 그 영향요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyo-Chung;Kim, Mee-Ra
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of market goods substitution of housework and find out the determinants on it in the domain of food among married female home-based workers. The data were collected from 169 married female home-based workers in Pusan and Kyungnam province, by self-administered questionnaires. Frequencies, percentiles, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlations, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In the convenience foods, frozen foods had the highest substitution level, whereas prepared stew had the lowest. The substitution level of Korean traditional storage foods was the middle. And in dining-out service, the substitution level was mostly high: the level of delivery service was higher than that of dining-out. Compared to the previous research, these results showed that market goods substitution tended to increase, and its level in the domain of food will promote continually over time. The variables affecting the substitution level of convenience food were the number of family members, occupation, the existence of elderly/disabled person in the family, sex-role attitude, and weekly hours at home-based work. The substitution level of Korean traditional storage foods was influenced by sex-role attitude, occupation, education, monthly household income, and the existence of elderly/disabled person in the family. The significant variables affecting the substitution level of dining-out service were weekly hours at home-based work, the number of family members, occupation, monthly household income, education, and sex-role attitude.

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Studies of Element Substitution on Superconductivity in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Oxides (Bi계 치환 고온 초전도체)

  • 권오흥;박천제
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 2000
  • The high Tc phase disappeared and low Tc phase increased in the substitution of transition elements for Bi ions. The high Tc phase decreased in the substitution of Si and Sn for Bi ions. The high Tc phase increased in the substitution of Sb, As and P which were the same group of Bi for Bi ions. The substitution of P ions was the most effective and then the high Tc phase was formed in large quantity by replacing Bi ions with 30% of P ions.

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Studies of Element Substitution on Superconductivity in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Oxides (Bi계 치환 고온 초전도체)

  • 권오흥;박천제
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 2000
  • The high Tc phase disappeared and low Tc phase increased in the substitution of transistion elements for Bi ions. The high Tc phase decreased in the substitution of Si and Sn for Bi ions. The high Tc phase increased in the substitution of Sb, As and P Which Were the same group of Bi for Bi ions. The substitution of P ions was the most effective and then the high Tc phase was formed in large quantity by replacing Bi ions with 30%of P ions.

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Effect of A-Site Substitution on the Dielectric Properties of PZN Ceramics (A-자리 치환에 따른 PZN 세라믹스의 유전특성)

  • 조상희;백종갑;손정호;김정주;김남경
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 1995
  • The effects of A-site substitution with alkaline-earth ions (Ca, Sr and Ba) on the perovskite-phase formation and dielectric properties for Pb1-xMx(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (0.0 x 0.5)-based relaxors were studied. Considerable improvements in the sinterability and the extent fo perovskite formation were observed with increasing the A-site substitution (x) and sintering temperature. The maximum dielectric permittivity appeared at x=0.1 for Sr and Ba substitutiion, while the relative dielectric permittivity was almost invariant in the case of Ca ion substitution. Curie temperature decreased with increasing relative amount of Sr and Ba ions but was almost invariant in case of Ca ion substitution. With increasing the amount of x, the diffuseness parameter ($\delta$) increased but the maximum dielectric constant decreased, demonstrating an enhanced diffuse phase transition (DPT) in the presence of alkaline-earth cations.

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Analysis of Substitution Events in HIV-1 vif Gene of the Korean Clade

  • Park, Chan-Seung;Kim, Mi-Sook;Yi, Hyun-Ah;Lee, Dong-Hun;Lee, Keon-Myung;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 2007
  • Nucleotide and amino acid substitution pattern in vif gene of the Korean clade of HIV-1 isolated from Koreans were analyzed using consensus sequences. At nucleotide level, transition/transversion substitution ratio was 1.88, and nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratio was 2.67, suggesting a divergent evolution in the Korean clade. At amino acid level, there were 17 substitutions and $G{\rightarrow}E$ substitution at position 37 may be responsible for change in predicted secondary structure.

Substitution Effect on Electronic Transition of Bi-substituted Benzyl-type Radicals: Symmetric Substitution

  • Ahn, Hyeon-Geun;Lee, Gi-Woo;Kim, Tae-Kyu;Lee, Sang-Kuk
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1993-1995
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    • 2007
  • A substitution effect on the electronic transition of bi-substituted benzyl-type radicals was discovered. The origin of the electronic D1 → D0 transition of benzyl-type radicals was red-shifted upon substitution to the benzene ring. For symmetric bi-substituted benzyl-type radicals, it was found that the predicted shift obtained from mono-substituted benzyl-type radicals agreed well with the observation. The reason for this agreement is believed that the substituent contributes independently to the electronic energy. The substitution effect was applied to the symmetric bi-substituted difluoro-, dichloro- and dimethylbenzyl radicals.

A Study on the Electrical and Optical Characteristics of CLN-PZT Ceramics (CLN-PZT 세라믹스의 전기, 광학 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Won-Koo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.799-801
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    • 1988
  • This paper was studied on the effects of Ca-La-Nb substitution and Zr/Ti ratio variation to Pb(Zr, Ti)$O_3$ system on structural, electrical, optical and sound level characteristics in order to develope the piezoelectric and electrooptic ceramic devices. Also the specimens were prepared by the two stage sintering technique. The molecular formular was X($CaO{\cdot}1/4La_{2}O_{3}{\cdot}1/4Nb_{2}O_{5}){\cdot}(1-X)Pb(Zr_{Y}Ti_{1-Y})O_{3}$(x=100X, y=100Y), and the variation of x was $6{\sim}12$, y was 60${\sim}$49 and second stage sintering time was 20${\sim}$40 hours. The experimental results obtained from this study are as follows : 1. The density was decreased, the grain size was increased according to increase of Ca-La-Nb substitution. 2. The crystal structure was rhombohedral in composition 6/60/40, and the crystal structure was tetragonal and cubic according to increase of Ca-La-Nb substitution. 3. The Ca substitution of PZT system enhanced the sintering property. The Pb site vacancy resulting from the substitution of La-Nb increased the dielectrical constant, the piezoelectric charge constant, the dielectric loss and decreased the coercive field. 4. The resistivity of PZT system which has the P type conduction mechanism increased according to substitution of La-Nb because of the substituent acting as donor. 5. The PZT ceramics varied from ferroelectric substance according to increase of Ca-La-Nb substituent. The coercive field and saturation remanent polarization decreased, and at last straight line according to increase of La-Nb substitution. 6. The amount of Ca-La-Nb substitution to improve the light transmittance of speciment was 10 mol%, the Zr/Ti ratio was 49/51, and the second stage sintering time was 40 hours. 7. According to Ca-La-Nb substitution, the specimens was to be transparent. The 7.5/51/49 specimen was suitable for transparent sound vibrator because it had 58% light transmittance (thick 0.2[mm], wave length 700[mm]) and 48% electromechanical coupling factor.

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Comparison among methods of effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle

  • Wei, Ming;Chen, Zhiqiang;Wei, Shengjuan;Geng, Guangduo;Yan, Peishi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.851-858
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to compare different methods on effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle. Methods: Twenty Wandong bulls (Chinese indigenous yellow cattle) with initial body weight of $281{\pm}15.6kg$, were assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 4 animals per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Five dietary treatments included group 1 with corn silage only diet, group 2 with corn silage-concentrate basal diet (BD) and 3 groups with 3 test diets, which were the BD partly substituted by corn silage at 10%, 30%, and 60%. The total collection digestion trial was conducted for 5 d for each block after a 10-d adaptation period, and then an open-circuit respiratory cage was used to measure the gas exchange of each animal in a consecutive 4-d period. Results: The direct method-derived metabolizable energy and net energy of corn silage were 8.86 and 5.15 MJ/kg dry matter (DM), expressed as net energy requirement for maintenance and gain were 5.28 and 2.90 MJ/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression method-derived estimates were 8.96, 5.34, 5.37, and 2.98 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The direct method-derived estimates were not different (p>0.05) from those obtained using the regression method. Using substitution method, the nutrient apparent digestibility and effective energy values of corn silage varied with the increased corn silage substitution ratio (p<0.05). In addition, the corn silage estimates at the substitution ratio of 30% were similar to those estimated by direct and regression methods. Conclusion: In determining the energy value of corn silage using substitution method, there was a discrepancy between different substitution ratios, and the substitution ratio of 30% was more appropriate than 10% or 60% in the current study. The regression method based on multiple point substitution was more appropriate than single point substitution on energy evaluation of feedstuffs for beef cattle.