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A Comparative Study on High School Students' Mathematical Modeling Cognitive Features

  • Li, Mingzhen;Hu, Yuting;Yu, Ping;Cai, Zhong
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.137-154
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    • 2012
  • Comparative studies on mathematical modeling cognition feature were carried out between 15 excellent high school third-grade science students (excellent students for short) and 15 normal ones (normal students for short) in China by utilizing protocol analysis and expert-novice comparison methods and our conclusions have been drawn as below. 1. In the style, span and method of mathematical modeling problem representation, both excellent and normal students adopted symbolic and methodological representation style. However, excellent students use mechanical representation style more often. Excellent students tend to utilize multiple-representation while normal students tend to utilize simplicity representation. Excellent students incline to make use of circular representation while normal students incline to make use of one-way representation. 2. In mathematical modeling strategy use, excellent students tend to tend to use equilibrium assumption strategy while normal students tend to use accurate assumption strategy. Excellent students tend to use sample analog construction strategy while normal students tend to use real-time generation construction strategy. Excellent students tend to use immediate self-monitoring strategy while normal students tend to use review-monitoring strategy. Excellent students tend to use theoretical deduction and intuitive judgment testing strategy while normal students tend to use data testing strategy. Excellent students tend to use assumption adjustment and modeling adjustment strategy while normal students tend to use model solving adjustment strategy. 3. In the thinking, result and efficiency of mathematical modeling, excellent students give brief oral presentations of mathematical modeling, express themselves more logically, analyze problems deeply and thoroughly, have multiple, quick and flexible thinking and the utilization of mathematical modeling method is shown by inspiring inquiry, more correct results and high thinking efficiency while normal students give complicated protocol material, express themselves illogically, analyze problems superficially and obscurely, have simple, slow and rigid thinking and the utilization of mathematical modeling method is shown by blind inquiry, more fixed and inaccurate thinking and low thinking efficiency.

Comparative Study on Dietary Habits, Unbalanced Diet and Intake of Food Groups in Middle School Students - by Gender and Region - (중학생의 식습관, 편식 및 식품군별 섭취 비교 - 성별, 지역별 비교 -)

  • Kim, Myung-Hee;Kim, Hye-Yeon;Yeon, Jee-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • This research was designed to examine the dietary habits and unbalanced diet of middle school students by gender and region. The survey was conducted using questionnaires on dietary habits and unbalanced diet administered to 726 students (urban: 367, rural: 359). The obesity index using BMI showed that the largest proportion of girls was 'underweight' in both regions, which showed a significant difference by region (p<0.001). Male students in urban areas prefer salty taste more than rural students (p<0.05). In urban areas, problems relating to dietary habits were 'unbalanced diet' and 'overeating' in male students and 'frequent snacks' and 'irregular mealtime' for female students (p<0.01). The frequencies of skipping breakfast (p<0.01), snack intake (p<0.001), eating out (p<0.001) and fast food consumption (p<0.001) were significantly higher in urban students than in rural students, and the reason for eating snacks was 'hungry' in urban students and 'habitually' and 'delicious' in rural students (p<0.01). Unbalanced diet was significantly higher in rural students compared with urban students (p<0.001) and male students compared with female students in urban (p<0.05), and the factors affecting dietary habits were mostly related to family. Male students in urban areas showed a significantly lower intake frequency of 'fish, tofu and beans' (p<0.05) and 'milk and yogurt' (p<0.05), but higher intake frequency of 'vegetables' (p<0.001) compared with female students. Male students in rural areas showed a significantly lower intake frequency of 'meat' (p<0.05) but higher intake frequency of 'milk and yogurt' (p<0.05) compared with female students. Urban students showed a significantly higher intake frequency of food groups compared with rural students. To conclude, desirable nutrition education on meal regularity, snack choice, and problems relating to unbalanced diet should be conducted in schools.

A case study on elementary school students' opportunity of class presentation by observation (수업관찰을 통해 본 학생의 발표 기회와 교육적 논의 -부산광역시의 한 초등학교 학급의 수업 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Dal-Hyo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.343-357
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    • 2008
  • Generally, schooling is implemented by instruction in the classroom. And instruction is made progress by concrete interaction through teacher's question and students' answer or presentation. According to a lot of researches on teacher-student interaction, student's opportunity of class presentation is influenced by students' self-esteem, learning attitude, academic achievement, and relationships. And students' opportunity of class presentation is very important not only students but also social equality and democracy. Therefore, teachers have to recognize the importance of students' opportunity of class presentation. However, according to many referential researches, students' opportunity of class presentation is differentiated by students' academic ability and social-economic status. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students' opportunity of class presentation was differentiated by students' academic ability and social-economic status or not. The method of this study was used checklist, interview, and class observation for a month. This study indicates that in spite of some exceptional cases, many students were taken the opportunity of class presentation differently by his/her academic ability and social-economic status. And teacher does not recognize that whether she gives student's opportunity of class presentation differently or not. To be a good teacher, teacher should reflect that teaching students is not easy, and teaching students is very important. And teacher should recognize that her speaking, action, and interaction with students including students' opportunity of class presentation influences students' self-esteem, learning attitude, academic achievement, and relationships.

Comparative study on body shape satisfaction and body weight control between Korean and Chinese female high school students

  • Ro, Yoo-Na;Hyun, Wha-Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.334-339
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of Korean students and 72.7% of Chinese students wanted a thinner body shape than their present body shapes. Experiences of weight control, laxative or diuretics uses, eating during weight control, and vomiting after eating were significantly higher in Korean students (P < 0.05-P < 0.001) compared to Chinese students. The score for dietary habits was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students, suggesting a more desirable dietary habit among Chinese students. Students of both countries showed a significantly positive correlation between body shape satisfaction and dietary habits, suggesting that as body shape satisfaction increases, dietary habits become more desirable. In conclusion, Korean female students showed a more distorted body image perception and had more poor dietary habits than Chinese students. Nutritional education for the establishment of normal body weight, proper body image perception, and healthy dietary habits are needed.

Studies on Self-Perceived Health and Appearance, Health-Related Lifestyles and Dietary Behaviors of Korean College Students Attending Web Class

  • Cheong, Sun-Hee;Kim, Jin-Sook;Lee, Mi-Young;Lee, Jeong-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate self-perception and practices of health and appearance, health-related lifestyles and dietary behaviors of college students(137 male, 115 female) attending web class via the Internet. This cross-sectional survey was conducted by a self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed by SPSS program. The average height, weight and BMI of the male and female college students were 174.4cm, 67.8kg, 22.3kg/㎡ and 162.3cm, 52.1kg, 19.8kg/㎡, respectively. Male collage students perceived their health statuses significantly better compared to female students. As for self-evaluation of anemia, female college students perceived significantly more anemia symptoms compared to male college students. Female college students perceived their body image to be obese compared to male college students. Underweight college students perceived significantly less healthy statuses, more anemia symptoms, and worse hair conditions compared to other college students. The rate of male students who exercise was significantly higher compared to that of female students. Male students reported significantly more smoking and drinking of alcohol compared to female students. The rate of female college students skipping meals was significantly higher than that of male college students. Frequency of eating out in female college students was significantly higher compared to that in male students. These results may provide some basic information in developing a nutrition education program for Korean college students using Internet.

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A study of Elementary Students' Satisfaction in School Food Service and Their Dietary Behaviors in Gunsan City (군산지역 일부 초등학교 학생의 학교급식에 대한 만족도 및 식행동 조사)

  • Chang, Hye-Soon;Park, Hyo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.477-489
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    • 2009
  • In this study, elementary school students' satisfaction in school food service and their dietary behaviors were investigated, based on survey performed on 453 elementary school students (233 boy and 221 girl students) in the range of 4th grade to 6th grade. 85.7% of the students had agreed to the necessity of school food service. The point of overall satisfaction in school food service was $3.53{\pm}0.83$. The highest satisfactory factor was menu of school food service$(3.64{\pm}0.77)$, while the lowest satisfactory was service$(3.41{\pm}0.85)$. The point of boy students' satisfaction in menu(p<0.05), sanitation & facility(p<0.001), and service(p<0.05) of school food service was higher than girl students'. The students' responses indicate that: 36.9% of the students wash their hands before meal; 19.9% of the students brush their teeth after meal; 36.1% of the students arrange their table after meal; 22.1% of the students do not disturb others during their meal. 46.5% of the students always have meals pleasantly, while 22.8% of the students have meals without any particular feelings. 74.6% of the students always eat proper amount. 51.3% of the students turned out to eat snacks between meals out of hunger (50.7%) once a day with their friends(59.8%). 61.8% of the students believe that their tastes are affected by their parents and 57.8% of the students are aware of their unbalanced diet to be corrected. In summary, to provide satisfactory school food service for students, the improvements in the facilities and hygienic standard and the taste and nutrition have to be preceded, and the students have to be advised about the healthy dietary habits and the hazard of biased diet.

The Conceptions of Homeostasis, Classification of Animals and Plants, and Food Production in Plants of Students and The Teacher Factor as a Possible Source of Students' Misconception (항상성, 동.식물 분류, 식물의 양분생산에 대한 학생의 개념 조사와 오개념 형성 원인으로써 교사 요인의 분석)

  • Kim, Soo-Mi;Chung, Young-Lan
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 1997
  • This study evaluates on students' understanding and misunderstanding of homeostasis, classification of animals and plants, and food production in plants, and analyzes the teacher factor as a possible source of students' misconception. A total number of 863 students and 47 biology teachers at the middle and high school were randomly selected. Students' conceptions and misconceptions were measured with concept evaluation statements (CES) which was translated into Korean by author. The CES was developed and validated by Simson and Marek (1988). Teacher's misconceptions were investigated the way in which teachers marked students' work. The supposed answer given to the teachers to mark was based on misconceptions held by students tested in concept evaluation statements. The results of this study are as follows : 1. 0% of 7th Grade students, 4.5% of 9th Grade students and 5.4% of 11th Grade students understood homeostasis. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of homeostasis according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Many students had a tendency of understanding the conception of the homeostasis by experiences and unscientific use of everyday language rather than a scientific concept. 2. 0.4% of 7th Grade students, 3.1% of 9th Grade students and 2.9% of 11th Grade students understood classification of animals and plants. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of classification of animals and plants according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Students classified animals and plants through personal experiences and observations instead of trying to classify through microscopic analysis of animals and plants cell. 3. 1.2% of 7th Grade students, 10.3% of 9th Grade students and 19.4% of 11th Grade students understood food production in plants. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of food production in plants according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Students had a misconception that food production in plants was done by an absorption of nutrients from soil not by photosynthesis. 4. A large proportion of teachers surveyed in this study appear to have misconceptions about homeostasis (38.1%), classification of animals and plants (34.1%), food production in plants (40.4%). The male teachers had. more misconceptions than female teachers(P<0.05). However, they didn't show any significant differences according to schools and teaching experience(P<0.05). 5. According to the investigation of teachers' perception, 29.8% of the teachers acknowledged that they might be a cause for students' misconceptions. This study shows that 38.3% of teachers did not understand the analyzed biological concepts precisely. By comparing the data of students and teachers, it turned out that teachers participate in the students' misconceptions. And teachers themselves acknowledged that students' misconceptions could be caused by them. Therefore. teachers' right understanding of fundamental biological concepts should precede to students' biology education. New training programs for biology teachers seem to be urgent.

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A Study on the Smoking Status of the Korean Middle and High School Students (한국인(韓國人) 중고교생(中高校生)들의 흡연실태(吸煙實態)에 관(關)한 연구)

  • Park, Soon-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 1994
  • I investigated actual conditions of smoking of teenagers who were randomly chosen middle and high school students. 1. Juvenile smoking 1) Parents' opinions of juvenile smoking Most parents do not want their children to smoke after growth : 88.6% of fathers (middle school students: 88.9%, high school students: 88.4%) and 95.1% of mothers (middle school students: 93.4%, high school students :95.5%). 2) Teenagers' opinions of smoking after growth The rate of students who will smoke after growth is 10.8% (middle school students: 12.0%, high school students: 9.9%): students in agricultural areas show the higher rate than those in cities. 3) Parents' opinions of their children's smoking now 1.5% of fathers want their children to smoke now (middle school students: 1.3%, high school students: 1.6%) and 1.1% of mothers do (middle school students: 0.6%, high school students: 1.5%). This shows that most parents do not want their children to smoke now. 4) Students' opinions of their friends' smoking now Students who want their friends smoke now cover 7.8% (middle school students: 7.1%, high school students: 8.4%). This rates are higher than those of parents shown in (3). And more high school students and more girl students gave the positive reponse than middle school boy and girl students, respectively. 5) Students' views of smoking "Look like an adult" covers the rate of 4.0% (boy: 7.8%, girl:3.6%) 6.7% of middle school students have this view, while 3.7% of high school students have. 16.1% of students had an experience of smoking during the last one year (boy: 29.9%, girl: 8.6%): this shows that the rate of the boy students is more than 3 times greater than that of the girl students and high students who experienced smoking last year covers 20.2%, while middle school students shows 10.9%. 6) Actual conditions of students' smoking The present rate of students' smoking is 22.4% (boy:38.3%, girl:13.8%): the rate of boy students is greater than that of girl students. Students who smoke more than pack of cigarettes a day cover 8.2% (boy: 17.5%, girl: 3.2%): 5.2% of middle school students (boy:11.4%, girl: 2.1%) smoke more than one pack while 10.7% of high school students do (boy:21.5%, girl: 4.2%). This shows that the rate of boy students' smoking is greater than that of girl students' smoking. 7) The rate of smoking of students' parents 75.4% of fathers (city: 74.5%, agricultural area:75.9%) smoke: and more than a half (62.4%) smoke more than a pack cigarettes a day. On the other hand, the rate of smoking mothers is 5.2%(city: 4.3%, agricultural area: 7.3%): the rate is higher in agricultural areas. 8) Opinions of smoking population in the future 61.4% of students answered that smoking population will increase, while 27.0% have the opinion that smoking population will decrease. 2. Opinions of the effects of smoking on health 1) Have you heard that smokers are likely to suffer from tuberclosis? 78.3% of students said yes (boy: 80.8%, girl: 76.4%): it is shown that the rate of boys is greater than that of girls. 2) Have you heard that smokers are likely to get out of endurance? 76.6% of students (boy: 69.3%, girl: 49.7%) answered yes: it is shown that the rate of boys is greater than that of girls. 3) Have you heard that heart-beats get fast when one smokes? 32.5% of students (boy: 35.5%, girl: 30.9%) answered yes: 32.2% in cities(boy: 33.0%, girl: 31.8%) and 33.5% in agricultural areas(boy: 41.8%, girl: 28.8%): and 28.7% middle students and 35.5% of high school students answered yes. 4) Have you heard that smokers are likely to have heart-diseases? 35.1% of students (boy: 34.0%, girl: 34.1%) answered yes: 35.3% in cities (boy: 37.2%, girl: 34.2%) and 36.7% in agricultural areas (boy: 39.0%, girl: 33.9%): 34.8% of middle school students and 35.4% of high school students. 5) Have you heard that smokers are likely to have a lung cancer? 91.4% of students (boy: 93.2%, girl: 89.9%) answered yes: 90.35% in cities and 94.2% in agricultural areas. 6) Have you heard that the life of smokers gets shorter? 94.3% of students (boy:94.6%, girl: 92.2%) answered yes. 7) Have you heard that pregnant smokers will deliver a baby with low birth weight? 29.6% of students (boy: 29.8%, girl: 29.4%) answered yes: the rates of boys and girls almost the same. 8) Have you heard that one feels calm when one smokes? 80.1% of students (boy: 81.8%, girl: 79.2%) answered yes: boys and girls showed almost the same rate. 3. Preventive measures Smoking people continued to increase all over the world because smoking not only mitigated emotional uneasiness such as loneliness, nervousness and so on, but also could be very helpful from the social perspective. This was so because they did not consider harmful effects of smoking on health, and victims. However, because any -one can have physical disorders caused by smoking, people should always keep in mind the following preventive measures. 1) Doctors or teachers should set an example of giving up smoking. Informing patients or students of harmful effects of smoking to persuade their family and relatives not to smoke. 2) Through mass media like newspapers, periodicals or broadcasting, to make people know harmful effects of smoking and not smoke. 3) To prohibit selling teenagers cigarette by law. 4) To prohibit smoking in public places like work places, offices, lecture rooms, recreation rooms, buses, trains and so on. 5) To decrease the rate of life insurance for non-smokers as in foreign countries and to give a warming of the harmful effects on cigarette packets or ads.

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Studies on the Pulmonary Functions of College Students (대학생(大學生)의 폐기능(肺機能)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -의과대학생(醫科大學生)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Shim, Dong-Won;Yoon, Pyung-Jin
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.41-43
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    • 1977
  • In pulmonary function which is important place which national physical power, in maximal grade of physical power, and end growth and development whom aged 20 years old that whole members 74 students, and taken pulmonary functions examination records, and took as the following results. 1) Frequency of breathing: Pertaining of the frequency of breathing are about form 15, to 16 times per minute at male and female students. 2) Vital capacity: Measures of vital capacity are in case of male students, whom was about 4.3 liter, and female students was about 3.6, liter which different between male and female students was more low quantity at female students with comparison male students. 3) Tidal volume: Pertaining of the volume are in case of male students, whom was 521ml, and female students was 497m1, and was slightly low quantity at female students with comparison male students, 4) Breathing holding time: Breathing holding time are in case of male students, whom was 64 sec, and female students was 55 sec, and was sbout 10 sec more high quantity at male students than female students.

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A Study on the Attitude toward Control, Diet Behavior and Food Habits of College Students (대학생의 체중조절태도와 식이행동양상 및 식습관에 관한 연구)

  • 김복란;한용봉;장은재
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.530-538
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    • 1997
  • 148 male and 153 female college students attitude toward weight control, diet behaviors and food habits were investigated by self questionnaire. Among the students, underweight students were 11.0$\%$, normal weight students were 63.5$\%$ and obese students were 25.6$\%$ by RBW standard, and underweight students were 16.0$\%$, nromal weight students were 70.4$\%$ and obese students were 13.6% by BMI standard. However, more than 10% of male and 38$\%$ of female students thought they were obese even thought their body weight were normal. Female students tended to overeat when they were stressed or in a bad mood and generally all participants had poor scores on the dietary attitudes test, however, male students had significantly higher scores than female students. Female students tended to choose food more for its taste. Collegestudents are in early stage of adult life and their dietary attitudes, food behaviors and life style will continue to their later life. Therefore college students need more good nutrition knowledge, positive dietary attitudes, modified life styles to prevent and treat collegestudents obesity. (Korean J Community Nutrition 2(4) : 530-538, 1997)

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