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Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Lumbar Lordotic Angle and Low Back Pain in University Students

  • Ga, Heayoung;Gim, Mina
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.1834-1839
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    • 2019
  • Background: Lumbar lordosis is a result of muscle shortening and may cause low back pain. Objective: To examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching on lumbar lordosis and low back pain in university students. Stretching is an intervention that can be applied to shortened muscles; however, very few studies have compared the effects of static and dynamic stretching on lumbar lordosis and low back pain. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single-blind) Methods: The 12 selected subjects were randomly assigned static stretching and dynamic stretching groups each containing six students. The subjects in each group performed their respective stretching programs for 17 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Lumbar lordotic angle, low back pain, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Intragroup comparisons showed significant reductions in lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain in the static stretching group while the dynamic stretching group showed significant decreases in lumbar lordotic angle, low back pain, and ODI. The intergroup comparisons showed significantly greater differences between pre- and post-intervention in lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain in the dynamic stretching group compared to those in the static stretching group while ODI did not show any intergroup difference. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that, while both static and dynamic stretching helped to reduce the lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain, dynamic stretching was more effective in alleviating lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain compared to static stretching.

The effect of stretching type on hamstring flexibility

  • Hwang, Hyun Sook
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.1461-1467
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static stretching or Thera-band stretching of hamstrings is more effective in improving the flexibility of hamstrings. A total of 40 participants performed stretching 3 times a week for 4 weeks, and a sitting trunk flexion meter was used to measure the flexibility of the hamstrings. Differences in hamstring flexibility before and after the application of static and Thera-band stretching were analyzed, and differences between the stretching methods were also analyzed. As a result, hamstring flexibility increased significantly after the static stretching program (p=.000), and also increased significantly after the Thera-band stretching program (p=.000). Although both programs were effective in improving hamstring flexibility, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.058). Therefore, static stretching and Thera-band stretching are effective interventions to improve and maintain hamstring flexibility.

The Effects of Static Hamstring Stretching on Hip Motion and Lumbo-Pelvic Kinematics

  • Oh, Jaeseop;Kang, Minhyeok
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.2102-2106
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    • 2020
  • Background: Static hamstring stretching exercises have been widely used to improve flexibility of the hamstring muscles. However, few studies have examined the influence of standing static hamstring stretching (e.g., jack-knife stretching) on movements of the lumbopelvic-hip complex. Objectives: To examine the short-term effects of jack-knife stretching on movements of the lumbopelvic-hip complex. Design: Case series. Methods: Fourteen participants with hamstring tightness (8 male, 6 female) were recruited. Participants performed jack-knife stretching for 150 s. Before and after stretching, participants performed the finger-to-floor distance (FFD), sit and reach (SRT), active knee extension (AKE), passive straight leg raising (PSLA), and active straight leg raising (ASLR) tests as well as pelvic tilt while standing to identify the effects of stretching. Results: There were significant improvements in the FFD, SRT, AKE, PSLA, and ASLR tests after stretching. However, pelvic tilt angle while standing did not significantly change. Conclusion: Jack-knife stretching can be a useful exercise to improve flexibility of the hamstring muscles, but not pelvic alignment while standing.

Immediate Effect of Intermittent Versus Continuous Hamstring Static Stretching on the Muscle Tone and Range of Motion

  • Chen, Jin-Gyi;Choi, Eun-Hong;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2019
  • PURPOSE: This study examined which stretching exercise had the most positive effect on increasing the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint in healthy people and whether there was a difference between continuous stretching and intermittent stretching. METHODS: This study included 30 healthy university students from OOO University. The subjects were asked to sit on a mat and perform hamstring-stretching exercise during which the ROM and muscle tone were measured with pre and post-tests. Each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous stretching group (stretching without relaxation time group, n=10, G1) or intermittent stretching group (stretching with 10s relaxing time group, n=10, G2; and stretching with 20s relaxing time group, n=10, G3). The participants conducted hamstring stretching exercises with a sit-and-reach box at three different rest times (0s, 10s, and 20s). Subsequently, they underwent passive knee extension (PKE) tests, in which the ROM of the knee joint was measured with a goniometer, and the muscle tone was evaluated using a MyotonPro. RESULTS: Significant differences in muscle tone, stiffness, and ROM were observed between pre-test and post-test in each groups (p<.05). Although the post hoc tests indicated no significant differences in muscle tone and ROM between the continuous stretching group and intermittent stretching group (p>.05), the rate of change of the ROM showed that the intermittent stretching group developed more effective maintenance of the hamstring flexibility. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in the muscle tone of the hamstring and ROM of the knee joint were observed according to the hamstring stretching exercises with three different rest times. On the other hand, the rate of change of the ROM showed that intermittent stretching maintained the hamstring flexibility more effectively.

The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Static Stretching Performed at Various Intensities on Hamstring Flexibility (다양한 강도에서 수행된 고유감각신경근육촉진 스트레칭과 정적 스트레칭이 뒤넙다리근의 유연성에 미치는 효과)

  • Lim, Woo-taek
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2020
  • Background: To prevent or reduce the risk of strain injury, various approaches, including stretching techniques are currently being used. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and static stretching on flexibility has been demonstrated; however, it is not clear which one is superior. Objects: This study aimed to evaluate the differences between the effects of PNF and static stretching performed at various intensities on muscle flexibility. Methods: The maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the hamstrings using the PNF stretching technique was performed in the P100 group, while 70% of the MVIC was performed in the P70 group. The MVIC value obtained during the PNF stretching in both groups was used as a reference for setting the intensity of static stretching. Static stretching was performed at 130% (S130), 100% (S100), and 70% of the MVIC (S70). The active knee extension (AKE) values, defined as the knee flexion angle were measured before stretching (baseline), immediately after stretching (post), and at 3 minutes, 6 minutes, and 15 minutes. Results: PNF stretching produce a greater improvement in flexibility compared with static stretching. Specifically, the ΔAKE was significantly higher in the S100 and S70 groups than in the P100 group at Post. In the comparison of ΔAKE over time in each group, the ΔAKE at Post showed a significant decrease compared to the value at Baseline in the S130 group; however, no significant difference was observed at 6 minutes while a significant increase was noted at 15 minutes. Conclusion: This study found that PNF stretching is more effective than static stretching with respect to increasing and maintaining the flexibility of muscles. In addition, the increase in flexibility at maximal intensity was similar to that observed at submaximal intensity during both PNF and static stretching.

A Review of Conception and Developmental Process of Stretching in Sports Physical Therapy (스포츠 물리치료에서의 스트레칭의 개념 및 발달과정)

  • Chang Chung-Hoon;Jeong Dong Hyeog;Lee Rae Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.423-440
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the conception and developmental process of stretching in sports physical therapy. This study is to find conception of stretching, feature and effect, principles and fundamental rule, consideration of enforcement and developmental process in order to use the basic material which is very helpful in the every field and the scene of sports needing stretching. Flexibility is the ability to move muscles and joints through their full ranges of motion. Flexibility is developed by stretching. About player who insufficiency of flexibility, patient and disabled person who restrict of range of motion, older adult who reduce of flexibility, promote of flexibility for upgrading stability and efficiency of body on the based of scientific principles is completed by stretching. The method of stretching has been developed with passive stretching, CR, PNF stretching, PIC stretching, MET stretching in the order. The effects that we can get through stretching are as follows : 1. Enhance physical fitness. 2. Optimize learning, practice and performance of many types of skilled movement. 3. Increase mental and physical relaxation. 4. Promote development of body awareness. 5. Reduce risk of joint sprain or muscle strain. 6. Reduce risk of back problem. 7 Reduce muscular soreness. 8. Reduce the severity of painful menstruation for female athletes. 9. Reduce muscular tension. 10. Advance recognition of body.

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Effects of Static, Dynamic, PNF Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torque

  • Lim, Chang-Hun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to suggest the basic materials for proposing effective and efficient methods when stretching by measuring isokinetic muscular strength according to static, dynamic and PNF stretching. Methods: This study was conducted on 45 healthy persons (male and female) in their twenties who are attending universities. The subjects are randomly divided into three (3) groups, and static stretching is applied in group 1, dynamic stretching is applied in group 2 and PNF stretching is applied in group 3. After carrying out static, dynamic and PNF stretching, peak torque was measured using isokinetic muscular strength measurement. Results: According to the results, at $60^{\circ}$/sec and $180^{\circ}$/sec isokinetic peak torque of the knee joint according to types of stretching, the largest changes were shown in Group 2 extension and flexion, and the least changes were shown in Group 1. There were significant differences among the three groups (p<0.05), and the result of after-analysis by LSD showed that there were significant differences between Groups 1 and 2, and Groups 1 and 3 (p<0.05). Conclusion: The intention of this study was to determine the peak torque using Cybex after applying three stretching methods to hamstring muscles, and the case of dynamic and PNF stretching was found to be more significant in both the $60^{\circ}$/sec and $180^{\circ}$/sec angular speeds than that of static stretching. Using the results of such studies, if dynamic and PNF stretching are applied together with warming-up before performing sports, the risk of suffering wounds would reduce and the exactness of sports would increase.

Effects of positive and negative stretching on the structure and properties of polyacrylonitrile fibers in the pre-oxidation process

  • Wang, Liang;Lu, Wei;Zhang, Li;Xue, Liwei;Ryu, Seung-Kon;Jin, Ri-guang
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 2011
  • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were pre-oxidized in a temperature range of 180-275$^{\circ}C$. The effects of positive and negative stretching on the structure and morphology of PAN fiber in the pre-oxidation process were studied by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and SEM. Mechanical property changes were also investigated. No changes in the movement and intensity of functional groups of PAN fibers were caused by positive stretching of up to 10% and negative stretching down to -8%. The crystal structure can be affected by the positive stretching and negative stretching. The maximum strength is 479.81 MPa when the stretching is positive, and the maximum strength is 420.55 MPa when the stretching is negative.

Effectiveness of Iliopsoas Self-Stretching on Hip Extension Angle, Gluteus Maximus Activity, and Pelvic Compensations during Prone Hip Extension in Subjects with Iliopsoas Shortness

  • Kim, Ki-Song;Jeon, In-Cheol
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of iliopsoas self-stretching on the hip extension angle, gluteus maximus (GM) activity, and pelvic compensated angle during prone hip extension (PHE) in subjects with iliopsoas shortness. Methods: Twenty-healthy subjects with iliopsoas shortness were recruited. Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine erector spinae (ES), multifidus (MF), GM, and biceps femoris (BF) while performing PHE. An electromagnetic tracking motion analysis device was used to measure the pelvic compensations. The pelvic compensations while performing PHE were considered to be anterior tilting and rotation. A modified Thomas test was used to monitor the hip extension angle before and after iliopsoas self-stretching. A paired t-test was used to investigate the significant difference after iliopsoas self-stretching during PHE. The level of statistical significance was set to ${\alpha}=0.05$. Results: Muscle activity of GM and hip extension angle were significantly greater after iliopsoas self-stretching compared to that before iliopsoas self-stretching during PHE (p<0.05). BF and pelvic rotation angle were significantly lower after iliopsoas self-stretching compared to that before iliopsoas self-stretching during PHE (p<0.05). The muscle activity of ES was not significantly different between PHE before and after iliopsoas self-stretching (p>0.05). Conclusion: Iliopsoas self-stretching can be effective in selectively strengthening the GM muscles with minimized pelvic compensation in subjects with iliopsoas shortness.

Effects of Strengthening and Stretching Exercise for Individuals with Intrinsic Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (잠재적인 슬개대퇴동통증후군에 대한 근력 및 유연성운동의 효과)

  • Kim, Myung-Chul;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Han, Seul-Ki;Kim, Yong-Seong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study examined the effect of the strengthening exercise and stretching exercise to decrease symptom patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods: The Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) and Clark's test performed for diagnosis of intrinsic PFPS among young adults. Selected thirty young adults subjects who aged 20~26 years participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to strengthening, stretching, or control groups. Strengthening group consisted of quadriceps, hamstring and iliotibia band training used elastic band. Stretching group consisted of quadriceps, hamstring and iliotibia band trainings used stretching exercises program. Participants received 50-minute individualized exercise sessions, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Results: The results were as follow: there were significantly difference stretching exercise group by all muscles on muscular strength test (p<.05). there were significantly difference both strengthening and stretching exercise group by all muscles on flexibility test (p<.05). There were significantly difference stretching exercise group by all muscles on step-down test (p<.05). There were significantly difference both strengthening and stretching exercise group by all muscles on visual analog scale (p<.05). Conclusion: Results suggest important implications for exercise programs of PFPS that stretching exercise is more improved knee pain, functional performance, patella mobility than strengthening exercise.