• Title, Summary, Keyword: stiffness and strength degrading

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Soil structure interaction effects on structural parameters for stiffness degrading systems built on soft soil sites

  • Aydemir, Muberra Eser
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.655-676
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    • 2013
  • In this study, strength reduction factors and inelastic displacement ratios are investigated for SDOF systems with period range of 0.1-3.0 s considering soil structure interaction for earthquake motions recorded on soft soil. The effect of stiffness degradation on strength reduction factors and inelastic displacement ratios is investigated. The modified-Clough model is used to represent structures that exhibit significant stiffness degradation when subjected to reverse cyclic loading and the elastoplastic model is used to represent non-degrading structures. The effect of negative strain - hardening on the inelastic displacement and strength of structures is also investigated. Soil structure interacting systems are modeled and analyzed with effective period, effective damping and effective ductility values differing from fixed-base case. For inelastic time history analyses, Newmark method for step by step time integration was adapted in an in-house computer program. New equations are proposed for strength reduction factor and inelastic displacement ratio of interacting system as a function of structural period($\tilde{T}$, T) ductility (${\mu}$) and period lengthening ratio ($\tilde{T}$/T).

Inelastic displacement ratios for evaluation of stiffness degrading structures with soil structure interaction built on soft soil sites

  • Aydemir, Muberra Eser
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.741-758
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    • 2013
  • In this study, inelastic displacement ratios are investigated for existing systems with known lateral strength considering soil structure interaction. For this purpose, SDOF systems for period range of 0.1-3.0 s with different hysteretic behaviors are considered for a number of 18 earthquake motions recorded on soft soil. The effect of stiffness degradation on inelastic displacement ratios is investigated. The Modified Clough model is used to represent structures that exhibit significant stiffness degradation when subjected to reverse cyclic loading and the elastoplastic model is used to represent non-degrading structures. Soil structure interaction analyses are conducted by means of equivalent fixed base model effective period, effective damping and effective ductility values differing from fixed-base case. For inelastic time history analyses, Newmark method for step by step time integration was adapted in an in-house computer program. A new equation is proposed for inelastic displacement ratio of system with SSI with elastoplastic or degrading behavior as a function of structural period ($\tilde{T}$), strength reduction factor (R) and period lengthening ratio ($\tilde{T}$/T). The proposed equation for $\tilde{C}_R$ which takes the soil-structure interaction into account should be useful in estimating the inelastic deformation of existing structures with known lateral strength.

Seismic response modification factors for stiffness degrading soil-structure systems

  • Ganjavi, Behnoud;Bararnia, Majid;Hajirasouliha, Iman
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.68 no.2
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to develop response modification factors for stiffness degrading structures by incorporating soil-structure interaction effects. A comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of key SSI parameters, natural period of vibration, ductility demand and hysteretic behavior on the response modification factor of soil-structure systems. The nonlinear dynamic response of 6300 soil-structure systems are studied under two ensembles of accelograms including 20 recorded and 7 synthetic ground motions. It is concluded that neglecting the stiffness degradation of structures can results in up to 22% underestimation of inelastic strength demands in soil-structure systems, leading to an unexpected high level of ductility demand in the structures located on soft soil. Nonlinear regression analyses are then performed to derive a simplified expression for estimating ductility-dependent response modification factors for stiffness degrading soil-structure systems. The adequacy of the proposed expression is investigated through sensitivity analyses on nonlinear soil-structure systems under seven synthetic spectrum compatible earthquake ground motions. A good agreement is observed between the results of the predicted and the target ductility demands, demonstrating the adequacy of the expression proposed in this study to estimate the inelastic demands of SSI systems with stiffness degrading structures. It is observed that the maximum differences between the target and average target ductility demands was 15%, which is considered acceptable for practical design purposes.

Numerical modeling and analysis of RC frames subjected to multiple earthquakes

  • Abdelnaby, Adel E.;Elnashai, Amr S.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.957-981
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    • 2015
  • Earthquakes occur as a cluster in many regions around the world where complex fault systems exist. The repeated shaking usually induces accumulative damage to affected structures. Damage accumulation in structural systems increases their level of degradation in stiffness and also reduces their strength. Many existing analytical tools of modeling RC structures lack the salient damage features that account for stiffness and strength degradation resulting from repeated earthquake loading. Therefore, these tools are inadequate to study the response of structures in regions prone to multiple earthquakes hazard. The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) develop a tool that contains appropriate damage features for the numerical analysis of RC structures subjected to more than one earthquake; and (b) conduct a parametric study that investigates the effects of multiple earthquakes on the response of RC moment resisting frame systems. For this purpose, macroscopic constitutive models of concrete and steel materials that contain the aforementioned damage features and are capable of accurately capturing materials degrading behavior, are selected and implemented into fiber-based finite element software. Furthermore, finite element models that utilize the implemented concrete and steel stress-strain hysteresis are developed. The models are then subjected to selected sets of earthquake sequences. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the response of degrading structural systems is appreciably influenced by strong-motion sequences in a manner that cannot be predicted from simple analysis. It also confirms that the effects of multiple earthquakes on earthquake safety can be very considerable.

Displacement Response of Degrading Systems to Near-Fault Ground Motions (근접-단층 지진에 대한 저하시스템의 변위응답)

  • 송종걸
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2000
  • 단층에 근접한 지진동에 대하여 성능이 저하되는 단자유도계의 변위응답에 대하여 연구하였다 5% 의 감쇠비를 갖는 세단계의 성능저하시스템을 5개의 단층에 근접한 지진동에 대하여 해석하였다 해석결과로부터 성능저하시스템의 비탄성 변위응답은 비저하시스템에 비하여 큰 값을 나타냄을 알 수 있었다 또한 성능저하 특성이 증가할수록 변위응답은 커지는 경향이 있다 이러한 변위증폭은 구조물의 고유주기 강도와 성능저하특성에 영향을 받으며 짧은 주기영역에서는 큰 값을 나타내며 긴 주기영역에서는 변위증폭이 거의 발생하지 않는다 단층에 근접한 각각의 지진동에 대한 변위증폭의 최대값은 1초 보다 작은 주기영역에서 비저하시스템의 4배 정도이다 변위증폭계수의 평균값은 짧은 주기영역에서는 2의 값을 가지면 구조물의 고유주기가 길어질수록 1에 수렴해 감을 알 수 있었다.

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Effect of Stiffness and Strength Degrading Model on Evaluating the Response Modification Factor (강성 및 강도저하 모델이 반응수정계수 산정에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • 오영훈;한상환;이리형
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1998
  • Most recent seismic design codes include Response Modification Factor(RMF) for determining equivalent lateral forces. The RMF is used to reduce the linear elastic design spectrum to account for the energy dissipation capacity, overstrength and damping of the structure. In this study the RMF is defined as the ratio of the absolute maximum linear elastic base shear to the absolute maximum nonlinear base shear of a structure subject to the same earthquake accelerogram. This study investigates the effect of hysteretic model, as well as target ductility ratio and natural period on duct based RMF using nonlinear dynamic analyses of the SDOF systems. Special emphasis is given to the effects of the hysteretic characteristics such as strength deterioration and stiffness degradation. Results indicate that RMFs are dependent on ductility, period and hysteretic model.

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Time Dependent Reliability Analysis of the Degrading RC Containment Structures Subjected to Earthquake Load (지진하중을 받는 RC 격납건물의 열화에 따른 신뢰성 해석)

  • 오병환
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2000
  • Nuclear power plant structures may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects than may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease over their service lives, Although the physics of these damage mechanisms are reasonably well understood and quantitative evaluation of their effects on time-dependent structural behavior is possible in some instances such evaluations are generally very difficult and remain novel. The assessment of existing RC containment in nuclear power plants for continued service must provide quantitative evidence that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during a service period with an acceptable level of reliability. Rational methodologies to perform the reliability assessment can be developed from mechanistic models of structural deterioration using time-dependent structural reliability analysis to take earthquake loading uncertainties into account. The final goal of this study is to develop the reliability analysis of RC containment structures. The cause of the degrading is first clarified and the reliability assessment has been conducted. By introducing stochastic analysis based on random vibration theory the reliability analysis which can determine the failure probabilities has been established.

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Time Dependent Reliability Analysis of the Degrading RC Containment Structures Subjected to Earthquake Load (지진하중을 받는 RC 격납건물의 열화에 따른 신뢰성 해석)

  • 오병환;최성철;현창헌
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.559-564
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    • 2000
  • Nuclear power plant structures amy be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease over their service lives. Although the physics of these damage mechanisms are reasonably well understood and quantitative evaluation of their effects on time-dependent structural behavior is possible in some instances, such evaluations are generally very difficult and remain novel. The final goal of this study is to develop the reliability analysis of RC containment structures. The cause of the degrading is first clarified and the reliability assessment has been conducted. By introducing stochastic analysis based on random vibration theory, the reliability analysis which can determine the failure probabilities has been established.

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Hysteretic Behavior Characteristics of R/C Shear Walls Evaluated by Nonlinear Analysis (비선형 해석으로 평가한 전단벽의 이력거동 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김덕주;한상환;이리형
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 1998
  • Most of tall apartment buildings constructed in our county are wall-type R/C structures composed of hear walls and slabs. It is necessary to evaluate of hysteretic properties of shear walls in wall-type R/C structures which resist lateral loads as well as axial loads. In this study, first to evaluate the wall's hysteretic behavior nonlinear analyses with IDARC 4.0 are performed for eight specimens subjected to horizontal load reversals. As a result of nonlinear analyses of specimens we can obtain three parameters which determined the hysteretic parameters such as stiffness degrading, strength deterioration and inching behavior respectively. With this three parameters, strength and deformation capacity of 5, 10, 20-story shear wall of apartment building is estimated from the results of push-over analysis.

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Seismic response of nonstructural components considering the near-fault pulse-like ground motions

  • Zhai, Chang-Hai;Zheng, Zhi;Li, Shuang;Pan, Xiaolan;Xie, Li-Li
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.1213-1232
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    • 2016
  • This paper investigates the response of nonstructural components in the presence of nonlinear behavior of the primary structure considering the near-fault pulse-like ground motions. A database of 81 near-fault pulse-like ground motions is used to examine the effect of these ground motions on the response of nonstructural components. For comparison, a database of 573 non-pulse-like ground motions selected from the PEER database is also employed. The effects of peak ground velocity (PGV), maximum incremental velocity (MIV), primary structural degrading behavior and damping of nonstructural components are evaluated and discussed statistically. Results are presented in terms of amplification factor which quantifies the effect of inelastic deformations of the primary structure on subsystem responses. The results indicate that the near-fault pulse-like ground motions can significantly increase the amplification factors of nonstructural components with primary structural period and the magnitude of increase can reach 17%. The effect of PGV and MIV on amplification factors tends to increase with the increase of primary structural ductility. The near-fault pulse-like ground motions are more dangerous to components supported by structures with strength and stiffness degrading behavior than ordinary ground motions. A new simplified formulation is proposed for the application of amplification factors for design of nonstructural components for near-fault pulse-like ground motions.