• Title, Summary, Keyword: stereotactic radiotherapy

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Volumetric-Modulated Arc Radiotherapy Using Knowledge-Based Planning: Application to Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

  • Jeong, Chiyoung;Park, Jae Won;Kwak, Jungwon;Song, Si Yeol;Cho, Byungchul
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.94-103
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of knowledge-based planning (KBP) for volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: Forty-eight VMAT plans for spine SBRT was studied. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined for simultaneous integrated boost: PTV for boost (PTV-B: 27 Gy/3fractions) and PTV elective (PTV-E: 24 Gy/3fractions). The expert VMAT plans were manually generated by experienced planners. Twenty-six plans were used to train the KBP model using Varian RapidPlan. With the trained KBP model each KBP plan was automatically generated by an individual with little experience and compared with the expert plan (closed-loop validation). Twenty-two plans that had not been used for KBP model training were also compared with the KBP results (open-loop validation). Results: Although the minimal dose of PTV-B and PTV-E was lower and the maximal dose was higher than those of the expert plan, the difference was no larger than 0.7 Gy. In the closed-loop validation, D1.2cc, D0.35cc, and Dmean of the spinal cord was decreased by 0.9 Gy, 0.6 Gy, and 0.9 Gy, respectively, in the KBP plans (P<0.05). In the open-loop validation, only Dmean of the spinal cord was significantly decreased, by 0.5 Gy (P<0.05). Conclusions: The dose coverage and uniformity for PTV was slightly worse in the KBP for spine SBRT while the dose to the spinal cord was reduced, but the differences were small. Thus, inexperienced planners could easily generate a clinically feasible plan for spine SBRT by using KBP.

Huge Size Intracranial Plasmacytoma Treated with Surgery and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy

  • Choi, Woo-Jin;Yee, Gi-Taek;Choi, Chan-Young;Whang, Choong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.110-113
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    • 2006
  • Surgery and radiotherapy are mainly used for plasma cell neoplasm which constitutes about $1{\sim}2%$ of human malignancy. The authors carried out Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy[FSRT] on the residual tumor after the subtotal removal of Intracranial plasmacytoma. A huge mass lesion was observed on MRI [magnetic resonance image] in the left anterior and middle cranial fossa of a 63-year-old man with left exophthalmus which lasted for a month, and was suspected as a meningioma with strong contrast enhancement. Extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed on histopathological examination. After the surgery, FSRT was also carried out on the residual tumor which invaded the skull base. One-year follow up after FSRT showed contrast enhancement only in the left sphenoid bone on MRI, which indicated significant decrease in the size of the tumor without any abnormal neurologic deficits. We treated intracranial plasmacytoma which invaded left anterior and middle cranial fossa and surrounded cavernous sinus without cranial nerve deficit through subtotal tumor removal and FSRT.

Predictive factors of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in primary and metastatic lung tumors treated with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy

  • Kim, Kangpyo;Lee, Jeongshim;Cho, Yeona;Chung, Seung Yeun;Lee, Jason Joon Bock;Lee, Chang Geol;Cho, Jaeho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Although stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is widely used therapeutic technique, predictive factors of radiation pneumonitis (RP) after SABR remain undefined. We aimed to investigate the predictive factors affecting RP in patients with primary or metastatic lung tumors who received SABR. Materials and Methods: From 2012 to 2015, we reviewed 59 patients with 72 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated with SABR, and performed analyses of clinical and dosimetric variables related to symptomatic RP. SABR was delivered as 45-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions, which were over 100 Gy in BED when the ${\alpha}/{\beta}$ value was assumed to be 10. Tumor volume and other various dose volume factors were analyzed using median value as a cutoff value. RP was graded per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Results: At the median follow-up period of 11 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 13 lesions (12 patients, 18.1%), including grade 2 RP in 11 lesions and grade 3 in 2 lesions. Patients with planning target volume (PTV) of ${\leq}14.35mL$ had significantly lower rates of symptomatic RP when compared to others (8.6% vs. 27%; p = 0.048). Rates of symptomatic RP in patients with internal gross tumor volume (iGTV) >4.21 mL were higher than with ${\leq}4.21mL$ (29.7% vs. 6.1%; p = 0.017). Conclusions: The incidence of symptomatic RP following treatment with SABR was acceptable with grade 2 RP being observed in most patients. iGTV over 4.21 mL and PTV of over 14.35 mL were significant predictive factors related to symptomatic RP.

Response Evaluation after Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer (초기 폐암의 정위방사선치료후 반응평가 분석)

  • Choi, Ji Hoon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.229-233
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    • 2015
  • We retrospectively reviewed lung cancer patients who were treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We investigated the value of response evaluation after treatment by measuring the volume change of tumors on serial chest computed tomography (CT) examinations. The study included 11 consecutive patients with early-stage (T1-T2aN0M0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with SABR. The median dose of SABR was 6,000 cGy (range 5,000~6,400) in five fractions. Sequential follow-up was performed with chest CT scans. Median follow-up time was 28 months. Radiologic measurement was performed on 51 CT scans with a median of 3 CT scans per patient. The median time to partial response ($T_{PR}$) was 3 months and median time to complete remission ($T_{CR}$) was 5 months. Overall response rate was 90.9% (10/11). Five patients had complete remission, five had partial response, and one patient developed progressive disease without response. On follow-up, three patients (27.2%) developed progressive disease after treatment. We evaluated the the response after SABR. Our data also showed the timing of response after SABR.

Efficient approach for determining four-dimensional computed tomography-based internal target volume in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer

  • Yeo, Seung-Gu;Kim, Eun Seog
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.247-251
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate efficient approaches for determining internal target volume (ITV) from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images used in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: 4D CT images were analyzed for 15 patients who received SBRT for stage I NSCLC. Three different ITVs were determined as follows: combining clinical target volume (CTV) from all 10 respiratory phases ($ITV_{10Phases}$); combining CTV from four respiratory phases, including two extreme phases (0% and 50%) plus two intermediate phases (20% and 70%) ($ITV_{4Phases}$); and combining CTV from two extreme phases ($ITV_{2Phases}$). The matching index (MI) of $ITV_{4Phases}$ and $ITV_{2Phases}$ was defined as the ratio of $ITV_{4Phases}$ and $ITV_{2Phases}$, respectively, to the $ITV_{10Phases}$. The tumor motion index (TMI) was defined as the ratio of $ITV_{10Phases}$ to $CTV_{mean}$, which was the mean of 10 CTVs delineated on 10 respiratory phases. Results: The ITVs were significantly different in the order of $ITV_{10Phases}$, $ITV_{4Phases}$, and $ITV_{2Phases}$ (all p < 0.05). The MI of $ITV_{4Phases}$ was significantly higher than that of $ITV_{2Phases}$ (p < 0.001). The MI of $ITV_{4Phases}$ was inversely related to TMI (r = -0.569, p = 0.034). In a subgroup with low TMI (n = 7), $ITV_{4Phases}$ was not statistically different from $ITV_{10Phases}$ (p = 0.192) and its MI was significantly higher than that of $ITV_{2Phases}$ (p = 0.016). Conclusion: The $ITV_{4Phases}$ may be an efficient approach alternative to optimal $ITV_{10Phases}$ in SBRT for early-stage NSCLC with less tumor motion.

Prognostic Factors in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Brain Metastases: a Malaysian Perspective

  • Tang, Weng Heng;Alip, Adlinda;Saad, Marniza;Phua, Vincent Chee Ee;Chandran, Hari;Tan, Yi Hang;Tan, Yan Yin;Kua, Voon Fong;Wahid, Mohamed Ibrahim;Tho, Lye Mun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1901-1906
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    • 2015
  • Background: Brain metastases occur in about 20-40% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and are usually associated with a poor outcome. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is widely used but increasingly, more aggressive local treatments such as surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are being employed. In our study we aimed to describe the various factors affecting outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving local therapy for brain metastases. Materials and Methods: The case records of 125 patients with NSCLC and brain metastases consecutively treated with radiotherapy at two tertiary centres from January 2006 to June 2012 were analysed for patient, tumour and treatment-related prognostic factors. Patients receiving SRS/SRT were treated using Cyberknife. Variables were examined in univariate and multivariate testing. Results: Overall median survival was 3.4 months (95%CI: 1.7-5.1). Median survival for patients with multiple metastases receiving WBRT was 1.5 months, 1-3 metastases receiving WBRT was 3.6 months and 1-3 metastases receiving surgery or SRS/SRT was 8.9 months. ECOG score (${\leq}2$ vs >2, p=0.001), presence of seizure (yes versus no, p=0.031), treatment modality according to number of brain metastases (1-3 metastases+surgery or $SRS/SRT{\pm}WBRT$ vs 1-3 metastases+WBRT only vs multiple metastases+WBRT only, p=0.007) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment (yes versus no, p=0.001) emerged as significant on univariate analysis. All four factors remained statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: ECOG ${\leq}2$, presence of seizures, oligometastatic disease treated with aggressive local therapy (surgery or SRS/SRT) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment are favourable prognostic factors in NSCLC patients with brain metastases.

Clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Lee, Eonju;Kim, Tae Gyu;Park, Hee Chul;Yu, Jeong Il;Lim, Do Hoon;Nam, Heerim;Lee, Hyebin;Lee, Joon Hyeok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of patients with spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), who were treated by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 23 patients who underwent SBRT from October 2008 to August 2012 for 36 spinal metastases from HCC. SBRT consisted of approximately 2 fractionation schedules, which were 18 to 40 Gy in 1 to 4 fractions for group A lesions (n = 15) and 50 Gy in 10 fractions for group B lesions (n = 21). Results: The median follow-up period was 7 months (range, 2 to 16 months). Seven patients developed grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, and one developed grade 2 leucopenia. Compression fractures occurred in association with 25% of the lesions, with a median time to fracture of 2 months. Pain relief occurred in 92.3% and 68.4% of group A and B lesions, respectively. Radiologic response (complete and partial response) occurred in 80.0% and 61.9% of group A and B lesions, respectively. The estimated 1-year spinal-tumor progression-free survival rate was 78.5%. The median overall survival period and 1-year overall survival rate were 9 months (range, 2 to 16 months) and 25.7%, respectively. Conclusion: SBRT for spinal metastases from HCC is well tolerated and effective at providing pain relief and radiologic response. Because compression fractures develop at a high rate following SBRT for spinal metastases from primary HCC, careful follow up of the patient is required.

Maximum standardized uptake value at pre-treatment PET in estimating lung cancer progression after stereotactic body radiotherapy

  • Park, Jisun;Choi, Yunseon;Ahn, Ki Jung;Park, Sung Kwang;Cho, Heunglae;Lee, Ji Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the feasibility of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) as a predictive factor for prognosis in early stage primary lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven T1-3N0M0 primary lung cancer patients treated with curative SBRT between 2010 and 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients (14.8%) treated with SBRT to address residual tumor after wedge resection and one patient (3.7%) with local recurrence after resection were included. The SUVmax at baseline PET/CT was assessed to determine its relationship with prognosis after SBRT. Patients were divided into two groups based on maximum SUVmax on pre-treatment FDG PET/CT, estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The median follow-up period was 17.7 months (range, 2.3 to 60.0 months). The actuarial 2-year local control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 80.4%, 66.0%, and 78.2%, respectively. With regard to failure patterns, 5 patients exhibited local failure (in-field failure, 18.5%), 1 (3.7%) experienced regional nodal relapse, and other 2 (7.4%) developed distant failure. SUVmax was significantly correlated with progression (p = 0.08, optimal cut-off point SUVmax > 5.1). PFS was significantly influenced by pretreatment SUVmax (SUVmax > 5.1 vs. SUVmax ≤ 5.1; p = 0.012) and T stage (T1 vs. T2-3; p = 0.012). Conclusion: SUVmax at pre-treatment FDG PET/CT demonstrated a predictive value for PFS after SBRT for lung cancer.