• Title, Summary, Keyword: steel-concrete composite

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Optimization of steel-concrete composite beams considering cost and environmental impact

  • Tormen, Andreia Fatima;Pravia, Zacarias Martin Chamberlain;Ramires, Fernando Busato;Kripka, Moacir
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.409-421
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    • 2020
  • In the optimized structure sizing, the optimization methods are inserted in this context in order to obtain satisfactory solutions, which can provide more economical structures, besides allowing the consideration of the factors related to the environmental impacts in the structural design. This work proposes a mathematical model for the optimization of steel-concrete composite beams aiming to minimize the monetary cost and the environmental impact, using the Harmonic Search optimization method. Discrete variables were the dimensions of the steel profiles and the thickness of the collaborating slab of the composite steel-concrete beam. The proposed model was implemented in Fortran programming language and based on improvements in the structure of the optimization method proposed by Medeiros and Kripka (2017). To prove the effectiveness and applicability of the model, as well as the Harmonic Search method, analyzes were performed with different configurations of steel-concrete composite beams, in order to provide guidelines that make the use of these systems more streamlined. In general, the Harmonic Search optimization method has proved to be efficient in the search for the optimized solutions, as well as important considerations on the optimization of the monetary and environmental costs of steel-concrete composite beams were obtained from the developed examples.

Strengthening of steel-concrete composite beams with prestressed CFRP plates using an innovative anchorage system

  • Wan, Shi-cheng;Huang, Qiao;Guan, Jian
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.21-35
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the flexural behavior of steel-concrete composite beams strengthened with prestressed carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. An innovative mechanical anchorage system was developed. The components of the system can be easily assembled on site before applying a prestressing force, and removed from the structures after strengthening is completed. A total of seven steel-concrete composite specimens including four simply supported beams strengthened at the positive moment region and three continuous beams strengthened at the negative moment region were tested statically until failure. Experimental results showed that the use of prestressed CFRP plates enhanced the flexural capacity and reduced the mid-span deflection of the beams. Furthermore, by prestressing the CFRP laminates, the material was used more efficiently, and the crack resistance of the continuous composite specimens at the central support was significantly improved after strengthening. Overall, the anchorage system proved to be practical and feasible for the strengthening of steel-concrete composite beams. The theoretical analysis of ultimate bearing capacity is reported, and good agreement between analytical values and experimental results is achieved.

Behavior of steel-concrete composite beam using angle shear connectors at fire condition

  • Davoodnabi, Seyed Mehdi;Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohammad;Shariati, Mahdi
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2019
  • Fire is one of the environmental parameters affecting the structure causing element internal forces to change, as well as reducing the strength of the materials. One of the common types of floors in tall steel structures is the steel concrete composite slab. Shear connectors are used in steel and concrete composite beam in various shapes also has played significant role in a burning fire event of building with a steel concrete composite beam. The current study has reviewed the effects of temperature raising on the angle connector behavior through the use of push out tests and monotonic static force. The results have shown (1) the ductility of the samples is acceptable based on EC4 standard; (2) temperature raising has reduced the stiffness; (3) the shear ductility increment; and (4) the shear capacity reduction. Also, the amount of angle shear connector resistance has been decreased from 18.5% to 41% at ambient temperature up to $850^{\circ}C$.

An Experimental Study on the Fatigue Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridge Deck (강-콘크리트 합성 교량 바닥판의 피로거동에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • 심정욱;김상효;정연주;박휘립
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.499-504
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    • 2003
  • Future bridge decks must have high load-resistance capacity as well as fatigue strength to withstand the increase in traffic loading and the increase in span length between girders due to the decrease in the number of main girders. Steel-concrete composite bridge decks may be proper deck types to satisfy such requirements. To promote the application of composite bridge decks, a rational process to predict and evaluate the fatigue behavior of steel concrete composite bridge deck is required. Various types of steel-concrete composite bridge decks have been developed in many countries. In this study, combining advantages of the existing composite deck types, a new type of composite bridge deck is proposed. An experimental study is performed to examine the fatigue behavior of the proposed composite bridge deck. This composite bridge deck consists of corrugated steel sheet, welded T-beams, stud-type shear connectors and reinforced concrete filler. The fatigue tests are conducted under four-point bending test with three different stress ranges in constant amplitude. The fatigue category of the fillet welding between corrugated steel sheet and the T-beam is evaluated based on the S-N data obtained from the experiment.

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Structural behavior of slender circular steel-concrete composite columns under various means of load application

  • Johansson, Mathias;Gylltoft, Kent
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.393-410
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    • 2001
  • In an experimental and analytical study on the structural behavior of slender circular steel-concrete composite columns, eleven specimens were tested to investigate the effects of three ways to apply a load to a column. The load was applied eccentrically to the concrete section, to the steel section or to the entire section. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models were established and verified with the experimental results. The analytical models were also used to study how the behavior of the column was influenced by the bond strength between the steel tube and the concrete core and the by confinement of the concrete core offered by the steel tube. The results obtained from the tests and the finite element analyses showed that the behavior of the column was greatly influenced by the method used to apply a load to the column section. When relying on just the natural bond, full composite action was achieved only when the load was applied to the entire section of the column. Furthermore, because of the slenderness effects the columns did not exhibit the beneficial effects of composite behavior in terms of increased concrete strength due to the confinement.

Hydro-mechanical analysis of non-uniform shrinkage development and its effects on steel-concrete composite slabs

  • Al-Deen, Safat
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2018
  • Drying shrinkage in concrete caused by drying and the associated decrease in moisture content is one of the most important factors influencing the long-term deflection of steel-concrete composite slabs. The presence of profiled steel decking at the bottom of the composite slab causes non-uniform drying from top and bottom of the slab resulting non-uniform drying shrinkage. In this paper, a hydro-mechanical analysis method is proposed to simulate the development of non-uniform shrinkage through the depth of the composite slab. It also demonstrates how this proposed analysis method can be used in conjunction with previously presented structural analysis model to calculate the effects of non-uniform shrinkage on the long-term deflection of the slab. The method uses concrete moisture diffusion model to simulate the non-uniform drying of composite slab. Then mechanical models are used to calculate resulting shrinkage strain from non-uniform drying and its effect on the long-term behaviour of the composite slabs. The performance of the proposed analysis method is validated against experimental data.

Cracking and bending strength evaluations of steel-concrete double composite girder under negative bending action

  • Xu, Chen;Zhang, Boyu;Liu, Siwei;Su, Qingtian
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.371-384
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    • 2020
  • The steel-concrete double composite girder in the negative flexural region combines an additional concrete slab to the steel bottom flange to prevent the local steel buckling, however, the additional concrete slab may lower down the neutral axis of the composite section, which is a sensitive factor to the tensile stress restraint on the concrete deck. This is actually of great importance to the structural rationality and durability, but has not been investigated in detail yet. In this case, a series of 5.5 m-long composite girder specimens were tested by negative bending, among which the bottom slab configuration and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio in the concrete deck were the parameters. Furthermore, an analytical study concerning about the influence of bottom concrete slab thickness on the cracking and sectional bending-carrying capacity were carried out. The test results showed that the additional concrete at the bottom improved the composite sectional bending stiffness and bending-carrying capacity, whereas its effect on the concrete crack distribution was not obvious. According to the analytical study, the additional concrete slab at the bottom with an equivalent thickness to the concrete deck slab may provide the best contributions to the improvements of crack initiation bending moment and the sectional bending-carrying capacity. This can be applied for the design practice.

Long-term Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders due to Concrete Shrinkage (콘크리트 건조수축에 의한 합성거더의 장기거동)

  • Bae, Doo Byong;Youn, Seok Goo;Ham, Sang Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.807-818
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    • 2004
  • Experimental tests and theoretical methods of the analysis of the concrete shrinkage behaviors of steel-concrete composite girders are described herein. Steel-concrete composite test specimens were fabricated in the laboratory, and long-term behaviors such as deflections, curvatures, and strains were measured for one year. Test results were compared to the analytical results obtained by using the age-adjusted effective modulus method (AEMM). In addition, composite girders have been analyzed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the concrete shrinkage behaviors. From the long-term test results, it could be used to validate AEMM for the evaluation of the shrinkage behavior of composite girders. Because the shrinkage of the reinforced concrete slab in composite girders may lead to large tensile stresses in the concrete section, the transverse cracking of the slab could occur both in the positive and negative regions. Therefore, if the cracking of concrete would be ignored,it might lead to an overestimation of the stresses of the steel section of composite girders. Based on this research, it is proposed that the effect of transverse concrete cracking on the shrinkage behavior of steel-concrete composite bridges be considered.

A numerical study on the seismic behavior of a composite shear wall

  • Naseri, Reza;Behfarnia, Kiachehr
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.279-289
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    • 2018
  • Shear walls are one of the important structural elements for bearing loads imposed on buildings due to winds and earthquakes. Composite shear walls with high lateral resistance, and high energy dissipation capacity are considered as a lateral load system in such buildings. In this paper, a composite shear wall consisting of steel faceplates, infill concrete and tie bars which tied steel faceplates together, and concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) as boundary columns, was modeled numerically. Test results were compared with the existing experimental results in order to validate the proposed numerical model. Then, the effects of some parameters on the behavior of the composite shear wall were studied; so, the diameter and spacing of tie bars, thickness and compressive strength of infill concrete, thickness of steel faceplates, and the effect of strengthening the bottom region of the wall were considered. The seismic behavior of the modeled composite shear wall was evaluated in terms of stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, and energy dissipation capacity. The results of the study showed that the diameter of tie bars had a trivial effect on the performance of the composite shear wall, but increasing the tie bars spacing decreased ductility. Studying the effect of infill concrete thickness, concrete compressive strength, and thickness of steel faceplates also showed that the main role of infill concrete was to prevent buckling of steel faceplates. Also, by strengthening the bottom region of the wall, as long as the strengthened part did not provide a support performance for the upper part, the behavior of the composite shear wall was improved; otherwise, ductility of the wall could be reduced severely.

Simulations of PEC columns with equivalent steel section under gravity loading

  • Begum, Mahbuba;Ghosh, Debaroti
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.305-323
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents numerical simulations of partially encased composite columns (PEC) with equivalent steel sections. The composite section of PEC column consists of thin walled welded H- shaped steel section with transverse links provided at regular intervals between the flanges. Concrete is poured in the space between the flanges and the web plate. Most of the structural analysis and design software do not handle such composite members due to highly nonlinear material behavior of concrete as well as due to the complex interfacial behaviour of steel and concrete. In this paper an attempt has been made to replace the steel concrete composite section by an equivalent steel section which can be easily incorporated in the design and analysis software. The methodology used for the formulation of the equivalent steel section is described briefly in the paper. Finite element analysis is conducted using the equivalent steel section of partially encased composite columns tested under concentric gravity loading. The reference test columns are obtained from the literature, encompassing a variety of geometric and material properties. The finite element simulations of the composite columns with equivalent steel sections are found to predict the experimental behaviour of partially encased composite columns with very good accuracy.