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Experimental Investigations on the Flexural Behavior of One-Way Concrete Slabs Reinforced with GFRP Re-Bar Bundle (유리섬유 보강 플래스틱 Re-Bar 다발로 보강된 1방향 콘크리트 슬래브의 휨거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 윤순종;김병석;유성근;정재호;정상균
    • Composites Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 2003
  • In recent years, the investigation on the development of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) Re-Bar has been greatly increased due to the attractive physical and mechanical properties of FRP. The primary reason of such a tendency is in the fact that it does not ordinarily cause durability problems such as those associated with steel reinforcement corrosion. This study is an experimental investigation on the flexural behavior of one-way concrete slabs, which can be used to construct bridge deck, reinforced with GFRP Re-Bar bundle. The tensile tests of GFRP Re-Bar produced by domestic industry and third point bending tests of one-way slab specimens reinforced with GFRP Re-Bar bundle are peformed. For all slab specimens, load-deflection relations are predicted by using the ACI committee 440 and the results are compared with experimental ones. In order to establish the design criteria or guidelines of concrete flexural member reinforced with FRP Re-Bar, it is needed to evaluate the serviceability limit state as well as the strength limit state.

Strengthen Effect of RC Beam Overlaid or Repaired by VES-LMC (초속경 라텍스개질콘크리트로 덧씌우기 및 보수된 철근콘크리트보의 보강효과)

  • Choi, Sung-Yong;Yun, Kyong-Ku;Choi, Seung-Sic
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.423-430
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    • 2008
  • VES-LMC (very-early strength latex-modified concrete) has been widely used as repair material for bridge deck overlay or rehabilitation, because the overlaid or repaired could be opened to the traffic after 3 hours of curing. Although the field performance of VES-LMC generally indicates that it has an excellent bonding to the substrate and shows a long term performance, little quantitative data or research results have been presented in the literature on structural studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the flexural behavior, interfacial performance, crack propagation, and strengthen effect of RC beam overlaid or repaired by VES-LMC through the 4-point flexural loading test. Two different types of RC beam were fabricated for repair and rehabilitation types. The test result showed that the strengthen effect, in term of flexural stiffness, increases as the depth of repair or overlay increases. More than 40% of stiffness was improved when the depth of repair was up to steel position. However, there was a little difference between 80 mm and 120 mm repaired beam. This means the repair depth must be considered. The interfacial behavior data showed that the repaired or overlaid beams had a little relative displacement. This means that two materials behave comparatively acting together. However, there were two specimens which had large displacement at the interface, because of poor bond strength. This suggested that interface treatment is one of the most important jobs in composite beams.

Evaluation of Static Strength of Group Stud Shear Connection in Precast Concrete Deck Bridges (프리캐스트 콘크리트 바닥판 교량의 그룹 스터드 전단연결부 강도평가)

  • Shim, Chang Su;Jeon, Seung Min;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.333-345
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    • 2008
  • concrete deck bridges are increasingly aplied to twin- girder bridges and open-stel box girder bridges.One of the most dificult isues in the design of shear conect ors is the mater of achieving ful composite action. Many connectors in smal area require a significant section los of precast decks resulting in difficult reinforcement details. In this closer spacing than the required minimum spacing in the design codes was evaluated through static tests. Test results s howed that the ultimate strength decreased as the conector spacing was reduced. The strength enhancement was observed due to aditional reinforcement for precast slabs or for shear pockets. Thus, the design of group stud shear connection needs to anticipate failure modes and the conector failure should be induced. Based on the test results, an empirical equation consi dering stud spacing was proposed to evaluate the ultimate strength of group stud shear conection. Fatigue tests showed n o reduction in fatigue life of the group stud shear conection in the range of this research. Details of the precast decks wer e enhanced using the findings of the study.

Analysis on the Shear Behavior of Existing Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Structures Infilled with U-Type Precast Wall Panel (U형 프리캐스트 콘크리트 벽패널로 채운 기존 철근 콘크리트 보-기둥 구조물의 전단 거동 분석)

  • Ha, Soo-Kyoung;Son, Guk-Won;Yu, Sung-Yong;Ju, Ho-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a new seismic resistant method by using precast concrete wall panels for existing low-rise, reinforced concrete beam-column buildings such as school buildings. Three quasi-static hysteresis loading tests were performed on one unreinforced beam-column specimen and two reinforced specimens with U-type precast wall panels. The results were analyzed to find that the specimen with anchored connection experienced shear failure, while the other specimen with steel plate connection principally manifested flexural failure. The ultimate strength of the specimens was determined to be the weaker of the shear strength of top connection and flexural strength at the critical section of precast panel. In this setup of U-type panel specimens, if a push loading is applied to the reinforced concrete column on one side and push the precast concrete panel, a pull loading from upper shear connection is to be applied to the other side of the top shear connection of precast panel. Since the composite flexural behavior of the two members govern the total behavior during the push loading process, the ultimate horizontal resistance of this specimen was not directly influenced by shear strength at the top connection of precast panel. However, the RC column and PC wall panel member mainly exhibited non-composite behavior during the pull loading process. The ultimate horizontal resistance was directly influenced by the shear strength of top connection because the pull loading from the beam applied directly to the upper shear connection. The analytical result for the internal shear resistance at the connection pursuant to the anchor shear design of ACI 318M-11 Appendix-D, agreed with the experimental result based on the elastic analysis of Midas-Zen by using the largest loading from experiment.

Seismic Performance Assessment of a Composite Modular System Considering Stiffness of Connections (접합부 강성을 고려한 합성 모듈러 시스템의 내진 성능평가)

  • Choi, Young-Hoo;Lee, Ho-Chan;Kim, Jin-Koo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2018
  • Modular system can be divided into two types based on the methods of resisting load. The one is the open-sided modular system composed of beams and columns. The other is the enclosed modular system composed of panels and studs. Of the Modular systems, the use of open-sided modular system is limited because it consists of closed member sections. In order to solve this problem, Choi et al.(2017) proposed a composite modular system with folded steel members filled with concrete. However, it was assumed in the previous study that the connections between modules are composed of rigid joint. Therefore it didn't identify the effect of connection behavior in structure. This study used finite element analysis to calculate stiffness of the connections in the proposed modular system. The linearization method presented in FEMA 440 is used for seismic performance assessment of structures, considering the connection stiffness computed in this study. The result of analysis shows that the capacity and story drift ratio obtained in the model considering stiffness of connection are less than those in the model not considering connection stiffness. Based on this observation, it is concluded that the stiffness of connection has a considerable effect on structural behavior.

Seismic Performance Assessment of a Composite Modular System Considering Stiffness of Connections (접합부 강성을 고려한 합성 모듈러 시스템의 내진 성능평가)

  • Choi, Young-Hoo;Lee, Ho-Chan;Kim, Jin-Koo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2019
  • Modular system can be divided into two types based on the methods of resisting load. The one is the open-sided modular system composed of beams and columns. The other is the enclosed modular system composed of panels and studs. Of the Modular systems, the use of open-sided modular system is limited because it consists of closed member sections. In order to solve this problem, Choi et al.(2017) proposed a composite modular system with folded steel members filled with concrete. However, it was assumed in the previous study that the connections between modules are composed of rigid joint. Therefore it didn't identify the effect of connection behavior in structure. This study used finite element analysis to calculate stiffness of the connections in the proposed modular system. The linearization method presented in FEMA 440 is used for seismic performance assessment of structures, considering the connection stiffness computed in this study. The result of analysis shows that the capacity and story drift ratio obtained in the model considering stiffness of connection are less than those in the model not considering connection stiffness. Based on this observation, it is concluded that the stiffness of connection has a considerable effect on structural behavior.

Development of Insulation Sheet Materials and Their Sound Characterization

  • Ni, Qing-Qing;Lu, Enjie;Kurahashi, Naoya;Kurashiki, Ken;Kimura, Teruo
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.25-40
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    • 2008
  • The research and development in soundproof materials for preventing noise have attracted great attention due to their social impact. Noise insulation materials are especially important in the field of soundproofing. Since the insulation ability of most materials follows a mass rule, the heavy weight materials like concrete, lead and steel board are mainly used in the current noise insulation materials. To overcome some weak points in these materials, fiber reinforced composite materials with lightweight and other high performance characteristics are now being used. In this paper, innovative insulation sheet materials with carbon and/or glass fabrics and nano-silica hybrid PU resin are developed. The parameters related to sound performance, such as materials and fabric texture in base fabric, hybrid method of resin, size of silica particle and so on, are investigated. At the same time, the wave analysis code (PZFlex) is used to simulate some of experimental results. As a result, it is found that both bundle density and fabric texture in the base fabrics play an important role on the soundproof performance. Compared with the effect of base fabrics, the transmission loss in sheet materials increased more than 10 dB even though the thickness of the sample was only about 0.7 mm. The results show different values of transmission loss factor when the diameters of silica particles in coating materials changed. It is understood that the effect of the soundproof performance is different due to the change of hybrid method and the size of silica particles. Fillers occupying appropriate positions and with optimum size may achieve a better effect in soundproof performance. The effect of the particle content on the soundproof performance is confirmed, but there is a limit for the addition of the fillers. The optimization of silica content for the improvement of the sound insulation effect is important. It is observed that nano-particles will have better effect on the high soundproof performance. The sound insulation effect has been understood through a comparison between the experimental and analytical results. It is confirmed that the time-domain finite wave analysis (PZFlex) is effective for the prediction and design of soundproof performance materials. Both experimental and analytical results indicate that the developed materials have advantages in lightweight, flexibility, other mechanical properties and excellent soundproof performance.

Load Distribution Factors for Two-Span Continuous I-Girder Bridges (2경간 연속 I-형교의 하중분배계수)

  • Back, Sung Yong;Shin, Gi Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.233-245
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    • 2007
  • Previous finite element studies have shown that AASHTO Standard load distribution factor (LDF) equations appear to be conservative for longer spans and larger girder spacing, but too permissible for short spans and girder spacing. AASHTO LRFD specification defines the distribution factor equation for girder spacing, span length, slab thickness, and longitudinal stiffness. However, this equation requires an iterative procedure to correctly determine the LDF value due to an initially unknown longitudinal stiffness parameter. This study presents a simplified LDF equation for interior and exterior girders of two-span continuous I-girder bridges that does not require an iterative design procedure. The finite element method was used to investigate the effect of girder spacing, span length, slab thickness, slab width, and spacing and size of bracing. The computer program, GTSTRUDL, was used to idealize the bridge superstructures as the eccentric beam model, the concrete slab by quadrilateral shell elements, steel girders by space frame members, and the composite action between these elements by rigid links. The distribution factors obtained from these analyses were compared with those from the AASHTO Standard and LRFD methods. It was observed through the parametric studies that girder spacing, span length, and slab thickness were the dominant parameters compared with others. The LRFD distribution factor for the interior girder was found to be conservative in most cases, whereas the factor for the exterior girder to be unconservative in longer spans. Furthermore, a regression analysis was performed to develop simplified LDF formulas. The formulas developed in this study produced LDF values that are always conservative to those from the finite element method and are generally smaller than the LDF values obtained from the AASHTO LRFD specification. The proposed simplified equation will assist bridge engineers in predicting the actual LDF in two-span continuous I-girder bridges.

Evaluating Local Damages and Blast Resistance of RC Slabs Subjected to Contact Detonation (접촉 폭발 하중을 받는 RC 슬래브의 국부 손상 및 내폭 성능 평가)

  • Li, Ling;Lee, Jin Young;Min, Kyung Hwan;Yoon, Young Soo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the resistance of various reinforced concrete (RC) slabs subjected to contact detonation was assessed. In order to enhance the blast resistance, fibers and external FRP sheets were reinforced to RC slabs. In the experiment, the $2,000{\times}1,000{\times}100mm$ sized RC slabs were fabricated using normal concrete (NC), steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced cementitious composite (PVA FRCC), and ultra-high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC). The damage levels of RC slabs subjected to contact detonation were evaluated by measuring the diameter and depth of crater, spall and breach. The experimental results were compared to the analyzed data using LS-DYNA program and three different prediction equations. The diameter and depth of crater, spall and breach were able to be predicted using LS-DYNA program approximately. The damage process of RC slabs under blast load was also well expressed. Three prediction equations suggested by other researchers had limitations to apply in terms of empirical approaches, therefore it needs further research to set more analytical considerations.

Computational estimation of the earthquake response for fibre reinforced concrete rectangular columns

  • Liu, Chanjuan;Wu, Xinling;Wakil, Karzan;Jermsittiparsert, Kittisak;Ho, Lanh Si;Alabduljabbar, Hisham;Alaskar, Abdulaziz;Alrshoudi, Fahed;Alyousef, Rayed;Mohamed, Abdeliazim Mustafa
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.743-767
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    • 2020
  • Due to the impressive flexural performance, enhanced compressive strength and more constrained crack propagation, Fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) have been widely employed in the construction application. Majority of experimental studies have focused on the seismic behavior of FRC columns. Based on the valid experimental data obtained from the previous studies, the current study has evaluated the seismic response and compressive strength of FRC rectangular columns while following hybrid metaheuristic techniques. Due to the non-linearity of seismic data, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been incorporated with metaheuristic algorithms. 317 different datasets from FRC column tests has been applied as one database in order to determine the most influential factor on the ultimate strengths of FRC rectangular columns subjected to the simulated seismic loading. ANFIS has been used with the incorporation of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic algorithm (GA). For the analysis of the attained results, Extreme learning machine (ELM) as an authentic prediction method has been concurrently used. The variable selection procedure is to choose the most dominant parameters affecting the ultimate strengths of FRC rectangular columns subjected to simulated seismic loading. Accordingly, the results have shown that ANFIS-PSO has successfully predicted the seismic lateral load with R2 = 0.857 and 0.902 for the test and train phase, respectively, nominated as the lateral load prediction estimator. On the other hand, in case of compressive strength prediction, ELM is to predict the compressive strength with R2 = 0.657 and 0.862 for test and train phase, respectively. The results have shown that the seismic lateral force trend is more predictable than the compressive strength of FRC rectangular columns, in which the best results belong to the lateral force prediction. Compressive strength prediction has illustrated a significant deviation above 40 Mpa which could be related to the considerable non-linearity and possible empirical shortcomings. Finally, employing ANFIS-GA and ANFIS-PSO techniques to evaluate the seismic response of FRC are a promising reliable approach to be replaced for high cost and time-consuming experimental tests.