• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch fractions

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Some Physical Properties of Starch Granules from Giant Embryonic Rice Endosperm (거대배 돌연변이 계통벼 쌀 배유 전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kang, Mi-Young;Lee, Yun-Ri;Koh, Hee-Jong;Nam, Seok-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2003
  • Starches from 4 rice cultivars, including Whachungchalbyeo and Whachungbyeo, together with two correspondiug conversion mutants with giant embryonic phenotype, Whachungchal-giant embryonic rice and Whachung-giant embryonic rice, were isolated to compare its physico-chemical properties. The amylose content and the length of glucose chains in the fractionated amylose was reduced in response to conversion of the rice cultivars for developing giant embryonic phenotype. For the fine structure of amylopectin, conversion to giant embyonic rice cultivars accompanied with slight increase in the length of B chain plus decrease in the amount of A chain, and also a slight increase in average glucose chains length of amylopectin fractions could be observed. X-ray diffractogram revealed 4 cultivars to be the representative A types. We could also obtain the results that the hydrolysis rate by glucoamylase in the waxy rice cultivars decreased in response to conversion to the giant embryonic rice cultivars, while the rate increased in the non-waxy rice cultivas. Termination temperature for gelatinization was observed to decrease in response to conversion into the giant embryonic rice cultivars, however, the enthalpy for gelatinization was found to increase with the same conversion process.

Inhibitory Effects of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract against α-amylase (지충이 에탄올 추출물의 α-amylase 저해활성)

  • Lee, So-Jeong;Song, Eu-Jin;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Lee, Chung-Jo;Jung, Ji-Yeon;Kwak, Ji-Hee;Choi, Moon-Kyoung;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Tae-Wan;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.648-653
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of Sargassum thunbergii (ST) against ${\alpha}$-amylase and elucidate the availability of ST extract as a functional food agent. To test the inhibitory activity of ST against ${\alpha}$-amylase, porcine pancreatic ${\alpha}$-amylase and potato starch were used as substrates. It was revealed that ST crude ethanol extracts have high ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitory activity. Subsequently, ST crude ethanol extract was separated into five partition layers by solvent extraction: n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Chloroform and n-hexane fractions showed higher inhibitory activities than did acarbose (positive control). To confirm the changes in enzyme inhibitory activity by physical treatments, ST crude ethanol extract was subjected to heat, pH, and ${\gamma}$-irradiation treatments. In all heat treatments with the exception of one ($121^{\circ}C$, 15 min), the inhibitory activity was increased compared with the untreated group. With regard to pH stability, ST extract showed no significant changes at pH 4.6, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2, 8, and 10. On the other hand, ST ethanol extract was stable under ${\gamma}$-irradiation under all conditions (3.20 kGy). In summary, ST ethanol extract can be used in the food industry as a natural ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitor.

Studies on the Effects of Amylase Addition to Rice Extrusion on the Rheological Properties of the Extrudate for Weaning Food Base (압출조리를 이용한 쌀 이유식 제조에서 아밀라제 첨가가 물성변화에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Gang-Gweon;Kim, Ji-Yong;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.670-678
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    • 1994
  • The effects of amylase addition during extrusion cooking of rice on the physico-chemical properties of the extrudates were investigated in order to develop rice-based Korean style weaning food products. A laboratory-built single screw extruder was used, the enzymes used were Termamyl 120LS(amylase from Bacillus licheniformis, NOVO Co.), BAN 240L(amylase from Bacillus amylolichuefaciens, NOVO Co.) and malt powder. By the addition of enzymes, the water soluble index of the extrudates increased by 3 times compared to that of the extrudates without enzyme and the concentration of reducing sugar in the extrudates increased drastically at 28 feed moisture. The gel permeation chromatographic pattern showed that the large molecular starch fractions diminished by the addition of enzyme during extrusion and the low molecular fraction increased. The residual enzyme activity in the extrudate were 27% for the most thermo-resistance enzyme by treating at $140^{\circ}C$ in the metering section of the extruder. The sediment volume of the extrudate dispersion increased as the metering section temperature increased to $140^{\circ}C$ . By the addition of enzymes the viscosity of extrudate dispersion was redused $1/4{\sim}1/200$ of that of the extrudates without enzyme. It allowed to use 1.8 times of solid material to the weaning food formulation to attain the same level of consistency as the commercial products. It proves that the addition of amylase during rice extrusion is effective to increase the energy density of weaning food by starch degradation, which results in the increases of water solubility, reducing sugar content, dispersibility and fluidability.

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Changes in Allergenicity and Quality of Nuruk during Fermentation (전통 누룩 발효과정 중 품질 및 항원성 변화)

  • Lee, Hyo-Hyung;Lee, Jin-Hyeong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Park, Mi-Hwa;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2009
  • Wheat is the most widely cultivated cereal and an important source of dietary protein worldwide. Wheat allergy, defined as an adverse immunologic reaction to wheat, encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders with different pathomechanisms and clinical manifestation. The Nuruk, a traditional Korean Koji for brewing, was made with wheat flour and fermenting microbes such as bacteria, yeast and mold. The strains grown on Nuruk secrete various enzymes as amylase and protease. By the activation of such enzymes, starch and proteins in Nuruk are hydrolyzed to sugar and amino acid. Therefore, it is supposed to reduce allergic proteins in wheat. To study quality properties and degradation degree of allergenicity in Nuruk by fermentation, we investigated the changes of general ingredients and allergenicity in Nuruk during fermentation. Moisture contents was decreased from 24.2% to 13.6% during fermentation. Crude lipid and protein contents were gradually increased during fermentation. After 15 days of fermentation, reducing sugar and total sugar contents were reached its maximum level, and they were 27.45% and 39.00%, respectively. Acid and neutral protease activity were significantly increased during fermentation, but alkaline protease activity was not detected. ${\alpha}$-amylase activity was gradually increased and showed maximum level about 2,833.00 U/g after 15 days of fermentation. Glucoamylase activity was the highest level about 497.9 U/g after 10 days of fermentation. The increase of these proteolytic and saccharogenic enzyme activities will provide efficient condition for production of rice wine. Also, protein fractions were isolated from Nuruk, and degradation of these proteins during fermentation were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. IgE immunoblotting using patient's sera with wheat allergy was performed to confirm allergenic protein in Nuruk. These results as fermentation of Nuruk will provide a useful tool for developing safer wheat products to prevent wheat allergy.

Studies on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. isolated from Magnolia kobus DC. in Korea (목련(Magnolia kobus DC.)에서 분리한 흰비단병균(Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Kichung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.105-133
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    • 1974
  • The present study is an attempt to solve the basic problems involved in the control of the Sclerotium disease. The biologic stranis of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., pathogen of Sclerotium disease of Magnolia kobus, were differentiated, and the effects of vitamins, various nitrogen and carbon sources on its mycelial growth and sclerotial production have been investigated. In addition the relationship between the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. and the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the tolerance of its mycelia or sclerotia to moist heat or drought and to Benlate (methyl-(butylcarbamoy 1)-2-benzimidazole carbamate), Tachigaren (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) and other chemicals were also clarified. The results are summarizee as follows: 1. There were two biologic strains, Type-l and Type-2 among isolates. They differed from each other in the mode of growth and colonial appearance on the media, aversion phenomenon and in their pathogenicity. These two types had similar pathogenicity to the Magnolia kobus and Robinia pseudoacasia, but behaved somewhat differently to the soybaen and cucumber, the Type-l being more virulent. 2. Except potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and glycine, all of the 12 nitrogen sources tested were utilized for the mycelial growth and sclerotial production of this fungus when 10r/l of thiamine hydrochloride was added in the culture solution. Considering the forms of nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen was more available than nitrate nitrogen for the growth of mycelia, but nitrate nitrogen was better for sclerotia formation. Organic nitrogen showed different availabilities according to compounds used. While nitrite nitrogen was unavailable for both mycelial growth and sclerotial formation whether thiamine hydrochlioride was added or not. 3. Seven kinds of carbon sources examined were not effective in general, as long as thiamine hydrochloride was not added. When thiamine hydrochloride was added, glucose and saccharose exhibited mycelial growth, while rnaltose and soluble starch gave lesser, and xylose, lactose, and glycine showed no effect at all,. In the sclerotial production, all the tested carbon sources, except lactose, were effective, and glucose, maltose, saccharose, and soluble starch gave better results. 4. At the same level of nitrogen, the amount of mycelial growth increased as more carbon Sources were applied but decreased with the increase of nitrogen above 0.5g/1. The amount of sclerotial production decreased wi th the increase of carbon sources. 5. Sclerotium rolfsii was thiamine-defficient and required thiamine 20r/l for maximun growth of mycelia. At a higher concentration of more than 20r/l, however, mycelial growth decreased as the concentration increased, and was inhibited at l50r/l to such a degree of thiamine-free. 6. The effect of the nitrogen sources on the mycelial growth under the presence of thiamine were recognized in the decreasing order of $NH_4NO_3,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4,\;asparagine,\;KNO_3$, and their effects on the sclerotial production in the order of $KNO_3,\;NH_4NO_3,\;asparagine,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4$. The optimum concentration of thiamine was about 12r/l in $KNO_3$ and about 16r/l in asparagine for the growth of mycelia; about 8r/l in $KNO_3$ and $NH_4NO_3$, and 16r/l in asparagine for the production of sclerotia. 7. After the fungus started to grow, the pH value of cultural filtrate rapidly dropped to about 3.5. Hereafter, its rate slowed down as the growth amount increased and did not depreciated below pH2.2. 8. The role of thiamine in the growth of the organism was vital. If thiamine was not added, the combination of biotin, pyridoxine, and inositol did not show any effects on the growth of the organism at all. Equivalent or better mycelial growth was recognized in the combination of thiamine+pyridoxine, thiamine+inositol, thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine, and thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine+inositol, as compared with thiamine alone. In the combinations of thiamine+biotin and thiamine+biotin+inositol, mycelial growth was inhibited. Sclerotial production in dry weight increased more in these combinations than in the medium of thiamine alone. 9. The stimulating effects of the Penicillium cultural filtrate on the mycelial growth was noticed. It increased linearly with the increase of filtrate concentration up to 6-15 ml/50ml basal medium solution. 10. $NH_4NO_3$. as a nitrogen source for mycelial growth was more effective than asparasine regardless of the concentration of cultural filtrate. 11. In the series of fractionations of the cultural filtrate, mycelial growth occured in unvolatile, ether insoluble cation-adsorbed or anion-unadsorbed substance fractions among the fractions of volatile, unvolatile acids, ether soluble organic acids, ether insoluble, cation-adsorbed, cation-unadsorbed, anion-adsorbed and anion-unadsorbed. and anion-un-adsorbed substance tested. Sclerotia were produced only in cation-adsorbed fraction. 12. According to the above results, it was assumed that substances for the mycelial growth and sclerotial formation and inhibitor of sclerotial formation were include::! in cultural filtrate and they were quite different from each other. I was further assumed that the former two substances are un volatile, ether insotuble, and adsorbed to cation-exchange resin, but not adsorbed to anion, whereas the latter is unvolatile, ether insoluble, and not adsorbed to cation or anion-exchange resin. 13. Seven amino acids-aspartic acid, cystine, glysine, histidine, Iycine, tyrosine and dinitroaniline-were detected in the fractions adsorbed to cation-exchange resin by applying the paper chromatography improved with DNP-amino acids. 14. Mycelial growth or sclerotial production was not stimulated significantly by separate or combined application of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, and glysine. Tyrosine gave the stimulating effect when applied .alone and when combined with other amino acids in some cases. 15. The tolerance of sclerotia to moist heat varied according to their water content, that was, the dried sclerotia are more tolerant than wet ones. The sclerotia harvested directly from the media, both Type-1 and Type-2, lost viability within 5 minutes at $52^{\circ}C$. Sclerotia dried for 155 days at$26^{\circ}C$ had more tolerance: sclerotia of Type-l were killed in 15 mins. at $52^{\circ}C$ and in 5 mins. at $57^{\circ}C$, and sclerotia of Type-2 were killed in 10 mins. both at $52^{\circ}C$ or $57^{\circ}C$. 16. Cultural sclerotia of both strains maintained good germinability for 132 days at$26^{\circ}C$. Natural sclerotia of them stored for 283 days under air dry condition still had good germinability, even for 443 days: type-l and type-2 maintained $20\%$ and $26.9\%$ germinability, respectively. 17. The tolerance to low temperature increased in the order of mycelia, felts and sclerotia. Mycelia completely lost the ability to grow within 1 week at $7-8^{\circ}C$> below zero, while mycelial felts still maintained the viability after .3 weeks at $7-20^{\circ}C$ below zero, and sclerotia were even more tolerant. 18. Sclerotia of type-l and type-2 were killed when dipped into the $0.05\%$ solution of mercury chloride for 180 mins. and 240 mins. respectively: and in the $0.1\%$ solution, Type-l for 60 mins. and Type-2 for 30 mins. In the $0.125\%$ uspulun solution, Type-l sclerotia were killed in 180 mins., and those of Type-2 were killed for 90 mins. in the$0.125\%$solution. Dipping into the $5\%$ copper sulphate solution or $0.2\%$ solution of Ceresan lime or Mercron for 240 mins. failed to kill sclerotia of either Type-l or Type-2. 19. Inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Benlate or Tachi-garen in the liquid culture increased as the concentration increased. 6 days after application, obvious inhibitory effects were found in all treatments except Benlate 0.5ppm; but after 12 days, distingushed diflerences were shown among the different concentrations. As compared with the control, mycelial growth was inhibited by $66\%$ at 0.5ppm and by $92\%$ at 2.0ppm of Benlate, and by$54\%$ at 1ppm and about $77\%$ at 1.5ppm or 2.0ppm of Tachigaren. The mycelial growth was inhibited completely at 500ppm of both fungicides, and the formation of sclerotia was checked at 1,000ppm of Benlate ant at 500ppm or 1,000ppm of Tachigaren. 20. Consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution usually increased with the increment of mycelial growth, but when Benlate or Tachigaren were applied, consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen were inhibited with the increment of concentration of the fungicides. At the low concentrations of Benlate (0.5ppm or 1ppm), however, ammonium nitrogen consumption was higher than that of the ontrol. 21. The amount of mycelia produced by consuming 1mg of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution was lowered markedly by Benlate or Tachigaren. Such effects were the severest on the third day after their treatment in all concentrations, and then gradually recovered with the progress of time. 22. In the sand culture, mycelial growth was not inhibited. It was indirectly estimated by the amount of $CO_2$ evolved at any concentrations, except in the Tachigaren 100mg/g sand in which mycelial growth was inhibited significantly. Sclerotial production was completely depressed in the 10mg/g sand of Benlate or Tachigaren. 23. There was no visible inhibitory effect on the germination of sclerotia when the sclerotia were dipped in the solution 0.1, 1.0, 100, 1.000ppm of Benlate or Tachigaren for 10 minutes or even 20 minutes.

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Studies on the analysis of phytin by the Chelatometric method (Chelate 법(法)에 의(依)한 Phytin 분석(分析)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Jai-Doo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.10
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1968
  • Phytin is a salt(mainly calcium and magnesium) of phytic acid and its purity and molecular formula can be determined by assaying the contents of phosporus, calcium and magnesium in phytin. In order to devise a new method for the quantitative analysis of the three elements in phytin, the chelatometric method was developed as follows: 1) As the pretreatment for phytin analysis, it was ashfied st $550{\sim}600^{\circ}C$ in the presence of concentrated nitric acid. This dry process is more accurate than the wet process. 2) Phosphorus, calcium and megnesium were analyzed by the conventional and the new method described here, for the phytin sample decomposed by the dry process. The ashfied phytin solution in hydrochloric acid was partitioned into cation and anion fractions by means of a ration exchange resin. A portion of the ration fraction was adjusted to pH 7.0, followed by readjustment to pH 10 and titrated with standard EDTA solution using the BT [Eriochrome black T] indicator to obtain the combined value of calcium and magnesium. Another portion of the ration fraction was made to pH 7.0, and a small volume of standard EDTA solution was added to it. pH was adjusted to $12{\sim}13$ with 8 N KOH and it was titrate by a standard EDTA solution in the presence of N-N[2-Hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxy-4-sulfo-1-naphytate)-3-naphthoic acid] diluted powder indicator in order to obtain the calcium content. Magnesium content was calculated from the difference between the two values. From the anion fraction the magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitate was obtained. The precipitate was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and a standard EDTA solution was added to it. The solution was adjusted to pH 7.0 and then readjusted to pH 10.0 by a buffer solution and titrated with a standard magnesium sulfate solution in the presence of BT indicator to obtain the phosphorus content. The analytical data for phosphorus, calcium and magnesium were 98.9%, 97.1% and 99.1% respectively, in reference to the theoretical values for the formula $C_6H_6O_{24}P_6Mg_4CaNa_2{\cdot}5H_2O$. Statical analysis indicated a good coincidence of the theoretical and experimental values. On the other hand, the observed values for the three elements by the conventional method were 92.4%, 86.8% and 93.8%, respectively, revealing a remarkable difference from the theoretical. 3) When sodium phytate was admixed with starch and subjected to the analysis of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium by the chelatometric method, their recovery was almost 100% 4) In order to confirm the accuracy of this method, phytic acid was reacted with calcium chloride and magnesium chloride in the molar ratio of phytic: calcium chloride: magnesium chloride=1 : 5 : 20 to obtain sodium phytate containing one calcium atom and four magnesium atoms per molecule of sodium phytate. The analytical data for phosporus, calcium and magnesium were coincident with those as determine d by the aforementioned method. The new method employing the dry process, ion exchange resin and chelatometric assay of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium is considered accurate and rapid for the determination of phytin.

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