• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch fractions

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Present State and Prospect of Starch Sugar (전분단의 현황과 전망)

  • 임번삼;황두연
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.46-59
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    • 1977
  • To screen biologically active components of the higher fungi of Korea, the carpophores of Auricularia polytricha, a well-known edible mushroom, were extracted with 0.14M NaCl solution. The extractive was successively fractionated by adding ammonium sulfate in various amounts, the respective precipitates being weparated by centrifugation, dialyzed and freeze-dried. When a dose of 60mg/kg of each was, i.p., injected into ICR mice, the fraction shich was precopitated at 20% (NH$_{4}$)$_{2}$SO$_{4}$ showed the highest toxicity, killing seven mice within two days. The fraction obtained at 40% (NH$_{4}$)$_{2}$SO$_{4}$ showed the second highest toxicity. The two fractions were named auratoxin I and II after the genus name. The symptoms of the intoxication were convulsion during the first 30 minutes after the injection, then sleeping within an hour, and tremor, lacrimation, nasal and ophthalmic bleeding, congestion and death in 24 hours. Particularly the spleen of the mice was fonud to be enlarged remarkably. The chemical analysis of the toxins showed that auratoxin I consisted of 4.4% protein and 84.5% polysaccharide and that auratoxin II 35.8% protein and 48.0% polysaccharide.

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Anti-diabetic effects and the evaluation of the immune response by F3-ESS from Cordyceps militaris in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

  • Yun, Yun-Ha;Han, Shin-Ha;Lim, Hee-Jung;Park, Eun-Jung;Son, Han-Shik;Lee, Seung-Jeong;Lee, M-In-Won;Lim, Yeong-Seon;Kim, Kyung-Jae
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.133.1-133
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    • 2003
  • The antidiabetic effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) extracted fractions, Fl (CCCA, Crude Cordycepin Containing Adenosine), F2 (Ethanol precipitation), F3 (Ethanol soluble supernatant) and F4 (fraction of through SK-1B), was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. The results indicated F3 of CM lowered the blood glucose level than control in STZ-diabetic mice. High blood glucose was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injections of STZ (150 mg/kg). The F3-ESS, which contents cordycepin, strongly showed inhibitory actibity by 33.4% in mice loaded with starch (2 g/kg). (omitted)

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Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv. Caloona) Nodules

  • Lee, Hoi-Seon;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 1998
  • The activities of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism have been determinated in the host cytosolic and bacteroid fractions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules formed with B. japonicum I 16 and in roots of nodulated cowpeas. The host cytosolic fraction of the nodules contained the enzymes of glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, whereas the bacteroids had only limited capacity for carbohydrate metabolism and appeared to be insufficient for the complete glycolytic pathway as well as starch synthesis and degradation. In a time-course study, using plants grown in a glasshouse, the acetylene-reducing activity (ARA) of the nodules increased in parallel with the total N content of plants and protein of the nodules until approximately 8 weeks after planting. Subsequently, the weight and size of the nodules and the weight of the plants continued to increase, but there was a sharp decrease in the ARA and the total N content of the plants.

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Effect of Amylose and Amylopectin on the Texture of Mook (아밀로오스와 아밀로펙틴이 묵의 텍스쳐에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyang-Sook;Ahn, Seung-Yo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 1997
  • Studies were carried out to investigate formation of Mook and its physical properties as well as the effects of amylose and amylopectin on the texture of Mook which were made from cowpea, mung bean, acorn, buckwheat, kidney bean, potato, rice, corn and wheat starches. Texture parameters of 10% starch gels were significantly different depending on the kind of starches. However, there were no significant differences in those of gels of starches commonly used for the preparation of mook. It was appeared that gel indices of cowpea, mung bean, acorn and buckwheat starch gels were in the range of 2.11-2.37, elastic limits were more than 0.60, gel strength coefficients were in the range of 700-1400 and brittlnesses were 0.23-0.62. It was also appeared that gel index and elastic limit were affected by amylopectin and gel strength coefficient and brittleness, by amylose, and that these two fractions were not able to form gel like Mook unless they were combined with proper proportion. Effect of addition of amylose from cereal and potato starches to cowpea starch or cowpea amylopectin were different from that of cowpea amylose. When cereal starches were supplemented by cowpea starches, gel strength coefficients and brittlenesses of their gels were increased, but gel indices and elastic limits were not changed. However, potato starch gel was improved to be similar to Mook with increasing of gel strength coefficient and appearance of brittleness by addition of cowpea amylose.

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Effect of particle size of naked oat flours on physicochemical and antioxidant property (쌀귀리 가루의 입도별 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Jun, Hyun-Il;Yoo, Sun-Hee;Song, Geun-Seoup;Kim, Young-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.965-974
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of particle size of naked oat flour (NOF) on physicochemical property and antioxidant activity. The NOF was passed through $250{\mu}m$ and $160{\mu}m$ size sieves to obtain three fractions (fraction A: $250{\mu}m$ or more, fraction B: $160-250{\mu}m$, and fraction C: $160{\mu}m$ or less). Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash contents of NOF were 8.4, 15.7, 10.0, and 1.8%, respectively, and these contents were increased as the particle size of NOF decreased. The mineral and free amino acid contents of NOF also had a similar tendency. The contents of total starch, amylose, starch damage, total dietary fiber, ${\beta}$-glucan, total phenolics, and flavonoids in NOF were 56.4%, 21.4%, 11.7%, 11.0%, 4.7%, $237.8{\mu}g/g$ and $90.9{\mu}g/g$, respectively. As the particle size of NOF decreased, total starch, amylose, and starch damage contents increased, whereas total dietary fiber, ${\beta}$-glucan, total phenolic and flavonoid contents decreased. Also, three antioxidant activities of NOF were closely correlated with their total phenolics and flavonoids contents, showing high correlation coefficient values ($R^2=0.87$ and 0.81, respectively).

Study on the Pattern of Isoenzymes in Pancreatic Juice, Serum and Saliva of Rabbit (정상 및 병적체액중 동종효소분획에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Joon;Kim, Hea-Young;Lee, Hyang-Woo;Hong, Sa-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 1980
  • [${\alpha}$]-Amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of starch, glycogen, and related poly- and oligosac-charide by random cleavage of ${\alpha}$-D-(l-4) glucan linkage. In man large amounts of amylase are secreted into the digestive tract by the salivary and exocrine pancreatic gland, minimal amount being produced also in other tissues. It has been known that ${\alpha}$-amylase exists in multiple molecular forms, isoenzyme which can be separated from each other because of difference in their physicochemical properties. By using various methods, several groups of investigator have separated the many isoenzyme in serum, saliva and pancreatic juice. Furthermore, changes of the normal serum isoenzyme pattern is diagnostically useful even when the total serum enzyme activity is noninformative, such as the clinical use of isoenzyme of serum lactate dehydrogenase. Procarboxypeptidase-A which is one of the pancreatic enzymes is also present as isoenzymes. Four forms of procarboxypeptidase-A haye been found in the bovine enzyme and three forms of the porcine enzyme. In human pancreatic juice four forms of procarboxypeptidase-A isoenzyme were found by isoelectric focusing method. Recently, the so-called isoamylase analysis was developed for the diagnostic use of amylase in pancreatic diseases. In alcohotic patients, the serum concentration of pancreatic isoamylase is subnormal and this lowered activity provides strong evidence for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the variations of the isoenzyme of amylase and procarboxypeptidase-A in serum, saliva and pancreatic juice of the experimental animals. The results are as follow. 1) Three main forms of isoenzyme of amylase by isoelectric focusing were found in pancreatic juice of normal rabbit. However, many new bands were appeared in the pancreatic juice of cholic acid administered animal intravenously while the infusion of cholic acid or elastase into pancreatic duct produced the decrease of number of the fractions on the isoelectric focusing. In the case of serum isoenzyme from normal animal, two major and a few minor isoamylases were observed. By injecting alcohol intravenousely the fractions of serum isoamylase were significantly decreased and in contrary to the pattern in the pancreatic juice the infusion of cholic acid or elastase into pancreatic duct exhitited a significant decrease of the isoenzyme of amylase fractions. In saliva from normal animal three main isoamylase were produced of the administration of alcohol. 2) In the case of procarboxypeptidase-A isoenzyme, two major fractions which have isoelectric point at 6.2 and 6.4 and other two minor bands were observed in the pancreatic juice of normal rabbit. By the treatment of the juice with trypsin, only one band was produced on the isoelectric focusing. No procarboxypeptidase was appeared on the electrofocusing by the infusion of cholic acid or phospholipase A into the pancreatic duct of rabbit. However, a single major fraction of procarboxypeptidase-A was appeared at 3 hr after simple ligation of the pancreatic duct. No significant changes were observed in the juice of the alcohol or cholic acid administered group.

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Dynamic changes and characterization of the protein and carbohydrate fractions of native grass grown in Inner Mongolia during ensiling and the aerobic stage

  • Du, Zhumei;Risu, Na;Gentu, Ge;Jia, Yushan;Cai, Yimin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.556-567
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To improve the utility of native grass resources as feed in China, we investigated the dynamics of protein and carbohydrate fractions among Inner Mongolian native grasses, during ensiling and the aerobic stage, using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Methods: Silages were prepared without or with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant. We analyzed the protein and carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality of silages at 0, 5, 15, 20, 30, and 60 d of ensiling, and the stability at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 d during the aerobic stage. Results: Inner Mongolian native grass contained 10.8% crude protein (CP) and 3.6% water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on a dry matter basis. During ensiling, pH and CP and WSC content decreased (p<0.05), whereas lactic acid and ammonia nitrogen (N) content increased (p<0.05). Non-protein N (PA) content increased significantly, whereas rapidly degraded true protein (PB1), intermediately degraded true protein (PB2), total carbohydrate (CHO), sugars (CA), starch (CB1), and degradable cell wall carbohydrate (CB2) content decreased during ensiling (p<0.05). At 30 d of ensiling, control and LAB-treated silages were well preserved and had lower pH (<4.2) and ammonia-N content (<0.4 g/kg of fresh matter [FM]) and higher lactic acid content (>1.0% of FM). During the aerobic stage, CP, extract ether, WSC, lactic acid, acetic acid, PB1, PB2, true protein degraded slowly (PB3), CHO, CA, CB1, and CB2 content decreased significantly in all silages, whereas pH, ammonia-N, PA, and bound true protein (PC) content increased significantly. Conclusion: Control and LAB-treated silages produced similar results in terms of fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and protein and carbohydrate fractions. Inner Mongolian native grass produced good silage, nutrients were preserved during ensiling and protein and carbohydrate losses largely occurred during the aerobic stage.

Some Physicochemical Properties of Potato Yam(D. bulbifera) Starches (Potato Yam(Dioscorea bulbifera) 전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Seog, Ho-Moon;Park, Yong-Kon;Nam, Young-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.753-761
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    • 1990
  • The physicochemical properties of starches from aerial and subterranean tuber of yam were compared with those of rice and sweet potato. Aerial tuber yam contained higher level of amylose than others, whereas water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was highest in subterranean tuber yam starch. Brabender amylograms of 5% starch suspensions indicated that the initial pasting temperature of yam starches were slightly higher than that of rice and sweet potato starches, the maximum viscosities of starches from subterranean and aerial tuber yam were 860 and 590 B.U., respectively. Yam starches were more difficult to hydrolyze by ${\alpha}-amylase$ than rice and sweet potato starches. ${\beta}-Amylolysis\;limit$ for yam starches and their amylose and amylopectin were higher than rice and sweet potato starches. The elution profiles of starches on Sepharose CL-2B were different from each other but they were similar between yam starches. Incomplete debranched fractions in the aerial tuber yam amylopectin was particularly higher than other samples. The weight ratio of short chains to long chains for debranched amylopectins was the lowest in aerial tuber yam.

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Molecular Structural Properties of Legume Starches (두류 전분의 분자구조적 특성)

  • Kweon, Mee-Ra;Ahn, Seung-Yo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 1993
  • Molecular structural properties of legume starches were investigated. In intrinsic viscosity and degree of Polymerization of amylose and amylopectins, cow pea and mung bean were high, but kidney bean was low. Low molecular weight fractions for kidney bean starch were much eluted by gel chromatography. In the elution profiles of their amylose by Sepharose 2B-CL, molecular weight of kidney bean amylose was smaller than that of other amylose Molecular weights of cow pea and mung bean amyloses were large, but that of kidney bean amylose was small and red bean amylose was medium. The elution profiles by Sephadex G-50 after debranching amylopectins with pullulanase showed similar patterns.

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Partial Purification and Properties of Polygalacturonase Produced by Botrytis cinerea (잿빛곰팜이병균 Botrytis cinera가 분비하는 Polygalacturonase의 부분정제와 특성)

  • 나유진;김재원;정영륜;허남응;조광연
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.215-221
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    • 1994
  • Polygalacturonase (PG) produced by Botrytis cinerea in the culture broth containing citrus pectin as a carbon source was partially purified and characterized. PG was produced on a range of carbon sources such as starch, glycerol, cellobiose, and Na+-PAG with total activities of 34.8, 32.0, 29.2, 27.8 units, respectively. The specific activity was highest with 2316.7 units on Na+-PGA. Proteins of culture filtrate were concentrated with polyethylene glycol and acetone and applied to a hydroxyapatite column. Among three active fractions collected from the column, the reaction containing the highest PG activity was resolved by a Q-sepharose column. The active fraction from the Q-sepharose column was further purified by HPLC Mono Q column. The partially purified enzyme was analyzed by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Among a few protein bands revealed, the amount of the protein of which molecular weight estimated to be 43 kDa coincided with the PG activity. The partially purified PG had optimal temperatures between 35~55$^{\circ}C$ and pH between 4.5~5.5.

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