• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch fractions

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Evaluation of Molecular Weight Distribution, Pasting and Functional Properties, and Enzyme Resistant Starch Content of Acid-modified Corn Starches

  • Koksel, Hamit;Ozturk, Serpil;Kahraman, Kevser;Basman, Arzu;Ozbas, Ozen Ozboy;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.755-760
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch preparations from acid-modified com starches prepared at various hydrolysis levels (0.5-4.0 hr). Effect of autoclaving cycles on resistant starch (RS) formation was investigated. Molecular weight distribution, pasting and functional properties of acid-modified com starches were determined. For RS formation native and acid-modified starch samples were gelatinized and autoclaved (1 or 2 cycles). While native and acid-modified starches did not contain any RS, the levels increased to 9.0-13.5% as a result of storage at $95^{\circ}C$ after first autoclaving cycle. Second autoclaving cycle together with storage at $95^{\circ}C$ brought final RS contents of the samples incubated at 4 and $95^{\circ}C$ after the first cycle to comparable level. As acid modification level increased, the amount of high molecular weight fractions decreased, resulting in significant decreases in viscosities (p<0.05). The samples produced in this study had low emulsion stability and capacity values.

Physicochemical Properties of Cowpea Crude and Refined Starch (동부 조전분 및 정제전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • 윤혜현;이혜수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 1987
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemcal Properties of the cowpea crude and refined starch and to present the basic data for physicochemical factor which gives the properties of Mook to cowpea starch gel. Water binding capacity of crude starch was 235. In and that of refined starch was 186.0%. The pattern of change in swelling power and solubility for increasing temperature started to increase at $60^{\circ}C$ and increased rapidly from $70^{\circ}C$, for both of crude and refined starch. The optical transmittance of 0.2% crude and refined starch suspensions were increased from $65^{\circ}C$ and showed rapid increasement during 68~$80^{\circ}C$, and their curves showed two-stage processes. The gelatinization pattern for 6n crude and refined starch suspensions were investigated by the Brabender amylograph. The corves showed the pasting temperature of $72.0^{\circ}C$ and $72.1^{\circ}C$, peak height of 11303.U. ($88.0^{\circ}C$) and 970 B.U. ($83.5^{\circ}C$) for crude and refined starch, respectively, and both showed high viscosities when cooling. Blue values for crude and refined starch were 0.369 and 0.376 respectively. Alkali number of crude and refined starch were 7.77 and 7.34, and reducing values were 3.60 and 2. 10, respectively. Amylose content of cowpea starch was 33.7%. Periodate oxidation of the starch fractions resulted that amylose had the average molecular weight of 23590, degree of polymerization of 146 and amylopectin had the degree of branching of 3.42, glucose unit per segment of 29.

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Physicochemical Properties of Tongil(Indica type) and Paldal (Japonica type) Rice Starch (통일 및 팔달쌀 전분의 이화학적 성질에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Kon;Hahn, Tae-Ryong;Lee, Yang-Hee;D'Appolonia, B.L.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 1978
  • Physicochemical properties of rice starches from Paldal(japonica type) and Tongil(indica type) were investigated. There were no significant differences in water-binding capacity, blue value and amylose content between the two starches. Paldal starch showed a higher value for-swelling power than Tongil starch. Amylograph data showed that both Paldal and Tongil starches had similar paste viscosities except setback in which Tongil starch showed a higher value. No significant differences were observed for intrinsic viscosity and glucose units per segment between Paldal and Tongil amylopectin fractions. However, the intrinsic viscosity for Tongil amylose was considerably higher than Paldal amylose. The rate of retrogradation of Tongil starch gels at $21^{\circ}C$ was faster than Paldal starch gels.

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Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Hobakpyeon with Different Amounts of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata D.) Powder (늙은 호박(Cucurbita moschata D.) 가루 첨가량에 따른 호박편의 품질특성 및 저장성)

  • Jung, Kyoung-Wan;Kim, Yoo-Kyung;Lee, Gui-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different amounts of pumpkin powder on the quality characteristics of hobakpyeon using physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as on its retrogradation rate during storage. As the amount of pumpkin powder increased, the following effects on the quality characteristics were observed: moisture and amylose contents decreased while protein content increased (p<0.05), and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) decreased (p<0.05). Levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch fractions increased, while the content of rapidly digestible starch decreased. The starch digestion index and rapidly available glucose content also decreased. Among the physical properties, the L-value decreased while the b-value increased (p<0.05). Texture profile analysis revealed that all textural properties except adhesiveness decreased, and presented significant differences in hardness and chewiness (p<0.05). Sensory properties such as color, flavor, and sweetness increased while others such as wetness and chewiness decreased (p<0.05). Effects on the physicochemical properties during refrigerated storage were also compared between the control and 9% hobakpyeon (9%HP). According to the results, moisture content gradually decreased in the 9%HP compared to the control. Amylose content significantly increased in 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In both types of hobakpyeon, IVSD decreased significantly, showing higher values in 9%HP, whereas mechanical hardness increased, showing lower values in 9%HP. The L-value decreased significantly in the 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In conclusion, the above results suggest that hobakpyeon with low IVSD may be obtained by the addition of 9% pumpkin powder, and also showed that pumpkin powder delayed the rate of retrogradation in 9%HP during storage.

Relationship between the Methane Production and the CNCPS Carbohydrate Fractions of Rations with Various Concentrate/roughage Ratios Evaluated Using In vitro Incubation Technique

  • Dong, Ruilan;Zhao, Guangyong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1708-1716
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    • 2013
  • The objective of the trial was to study the relationship between the methane ($CH_4$) production and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate fractions of feeds for cattle and the suitability of CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as the dietary variables in modeling the $CH_4$ production in rumen fermentation. Forty-five rations for cattle with the concentrate/roughage ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 were formulated as feed samples. The Menke and Steingass's gas test was used for the measurement of $CH_4$ production. The feed samples were incubated for 48 h and the $CH_4$ production was analyzed using gas chromatography. Statistical analysis indicated that the $CH_4$ production (mL) was closely correlated with the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g), i.e. CA (sugars); $CB_1$ (starch and pectin); $CB_2$ (available cell wall) in a multiple linear pattern: $CH_4=(89.16{\pm}14.93)$ $CA+(124.10{\pm}13.90)$ $CB_1+(30.58{\pm}11.72)$ $CB_2+(3.28{\pm}7.19)$, $R^2=0.81$, p<0.0001, n = 45. Validation of the model using 10 rations indicated that the $CH_4$ production of the rations for cattle could accurately be predicted based on the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions. The trial indicated that the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, $CB_1$ and $CB_2$ were suitable dietary variables for predicting the $CH_4$ production in rumen fermentation in vitro.

Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Fractions and Improvement of Yoogwa Processing by Microparticulation/Air-classification (찹쌀의 초미세분쇄/공기분급 특성과 유과제조공정 개선)

  • Park, Dong-June;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Mok, Chul-Kyoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1008-1012
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    • 1995
  • Glutinous rice was microparticulated and air-classified at different air classifying wheel speeds (ACWS) of 20,000 rpm and 15,000 rpm in a Turboplex classifier. The starch was concentrated to a coarse fraction and the protein was shifted to a fine fraction. The degree of starch damage of the coarse fraction was comparable to that of traditionally soaked glutinous rice. Yoogwa(Korean cracker) made from the fractions of $ACWS\;15,000{\sim}20,000\;rpm$ and below ACWS 15,000 rpm was very comparable to that made by the traditional method in degree of puffing, hardness and internal structure. It was also confirmed by the sensory evaluation, indicating that the microparticulation/air classification technology could be applied to produce raw material of Yoogwa. The developed noble process could exclude the long soaking step in the traditional Yoogwa process and reduce the pretest time remarkably.

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Soy Oligosaccharides and Soluble Non-starch Polysaccharides: A Review of Digestion, Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Effects in Pigs and Poultry

  • Choct, M.;Dersjant-Li, Y.;McLeish, J.;Peisker, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1386-1398
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    • 2010
  • Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.

Solublity Patterns and Gelatinization Properties of Waxy Rice Starches (가열에 따른 찹쌀전분 호화액의 특성)

  • Song, Ji-Young;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.516-521
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    • 1998
  • Solubility patterns and gelatinization properties of two waxy rice starches, Sinsunchalbyeo and Hwasunchalbyeo, were investigated. Shapes of all starch granules were round and polygonal, and their X-ray diffraction patterns were all A type. Amylose content and water binding capacity of Sinsunchalbyeo were similar to those of Hwasunchalbyeo. The swelling powers and solubilities of two starches were increased with increasing temperature in range of $65{\sim}95^{\circ}C$, and those of Hwasunchalbyeo was higher. Iodine affinities of soluble fractions in Sinsunchalbyeo starch were higher than those in Hwasunchalbyeo at the same temperature and both were increased with increasing temperature. λmax of soluble fraction of Sinsunchalbyeo starch was highest at $75^{\circ}C$ of heating temperature. The transmittance of starch suspensions were increased rapidly at $60{\sim}65^{\circ}C$. By Rapid Visco Analyzer, initial gelatinization temperature of Sinsunchalbyeo was $67.2^{\circ}C$, and that of Hwasunchalbyeo was $68.2^{\circ}C$. In DSC analysis, onset temperature for gelatinization of Sinsunchalbyeo and Hwasunchalbyeo were $61.3^{\circ}C\;and\;62.9^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Effect of Arrow Root Flour on the Flow Property of Rice Flour-water System (쌀가루 수용액 계의 유동 특성에 미치는 칡 분말의 첨가 효과)

  • Lee, Shin-Young;Oh, Kun-Jun;Jung, Kwang-Seung;Park, Heung-Cho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1254-1261
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    • 1999
  • The influence of addition of arrow(Pueraria hirsuta Matsum) root flour and its fractions by ultrafiltration on the flow properties of the rice flour-water systems were investigated. The flow properties of rice flour pastes during cold storage$(5^{\circ}C)$ were measured and the components from arrow root flour responsible for changes of flow properties were screened. Addition of arrow root flour significantly changed the flow properties of rice flour pastes. Permeate fractions by ultrafiltration, representing low molecular weight component fraction, significantly affected the flow property of rice flour paste stored at $5^{\circ}C$. Addition of permeate fraction to rice flour pastes rapidly decreased the consistency index, yield stress and pseudoplasticity, and showed a stability of flow property during storage suggesting the retardation of rice starch retrogradation. Permeate fractions of ultrafiltration were identified as puerarin, daidzein and daidzin known to representive isoflavonoid from arrow root.

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Enzymatic Radioiodination of Insulin for Radioimmunoassay Use

  • Awh, Ok-Doo;Kim, Jae-Rok
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1980
  • Insulin was labelled with $^{125}$ I using lactoperoxidase as an oxidizing agent. The reaction product was purified via two stages: a starch gel electrophoresis(SGE) and a Sephadex gel filtration (SF). Upon comparison of the labelling yields and the bindabilities of the labelled insulin to its antibody, it has been found that the enzyme method shows higher yields (50%) and the better bindability to its antibody than the conventional chloramine-T method (35%). By checking the insulin blank labelling mixture with a SGE, a paper chromatography, and a radioautography technique, a by-product in the lactoperoxidase method has been identified. The separated fractions in SGE and SF were also analyzed and discussed.

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