• 제목, 요약, 키워드: starch fractions

검색결과 46건 처리시간 0.031초

Fusarium moniliforme이 생산하는 셀룰라아제를 이용한 소두전분제조(小豆澱粉製造) (Production of Red Bean Starch Granule with Cellulase from Fusarium moniliforme)

  • 조용권;박관화
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 1986
  • Fusarium moniliforme 액체배양으로부터 얻어진 조효소를 황산암모늄 분획침전, Sephadex G-25, Sephadex G-75, Sephadex G-150 및 DEAE-Sephadex A-50 컬럼크로마토그래피를 통하여 2개의 여지분해 효소와 2개의 ${\beta}-glucanase$를 분리하고 팥전분 제조에 이용하였다. 팥을 $50^{\circ}C$에서 2시간동안 섬유소 분해효소와 작용시킨 결과 효소처리구는 세포벽, 세포간극 그리고 전분입자간극이 일부 분해되었음을 알 수 있었다. 0.004 units/ml의 여지분해효소와 0.3 units/ml의 ${\beta}-glucanase$를 혼합 처리했을 때 팥전분 입자의 침강 속도가 최대가 되였고 0.004 units/ml의 여지분해효소와 0.2 units/ml의 ${\beta}-glucanase$를 혼합하여 처리했을 때 수율증가는 약 7%이었다. 증자후와 마쇄후의 폐수에서 혼탁물질은 효소처리구가 대조구보다 약 40% 정도 감소되었다.

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미분쇄/공기분급을 이용한 동부전분의 추출 (Cowpea Starch Extraction Process using Microparticulation/Air classification Technology)

  • 구경형;박동준
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 1998
  • Dehulled cowpea was microparticulated and coarse fractions and fine fractions were collected by air classification at air classifying wheel speed (ACWS) of 15,000 rpm, 12,000 rpm and 9,000 rpm, respectively. Protein content in fine fraction after air classification was 2 times higher than that of microparticulated cowpea, emulsion capacity was about 3 times than coarse fraction. The coarse fraction of the highest viscosity on the gelatinization properties were detected by amylograph, was C-3 (9,000 rpm coarse)fraction. The majority of microparticulated cowpea particles were oval shaped starch and the rest of them were indeterminate minute particles which had some sharp corners. As an application test, microparticulated cowpea and coarse fraction (C-3) were used for mook (Korea traditional starch jelly) preparation and the wet milled cowpea starch was compared as a control. Some impurities induced discoloring was detected by sensory evaluation but after washing, it made no difference in sensory scores between washed starch and the control cowpea mook. And also syneresis of washed cowpea was less than control. At the above result, it can be to recovery about 85% of cowpea starch using microparticulation/air classification technology.

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아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성 (Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content)

  • 이귀주;김정은;김윤선
    • 한국식생활문화학회지
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

쌀 품종에 따른 증편의 조직특성에 관한 연구 (A Study on Texture of Jeung-pyun According the Kinds of Rice)

  • 김효진;이숙미;조정순
    • 한국식품조리과학회지
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 1997
  • The composition and polymeric structure of starch are the most important factors to determine the functional properties of rice. In an effort to relate the structural characteristics and its functional properties of starch in rice, molecular structural properties of starch from 6 rice cultivars were analysed. To relate the structure and function of starch the texture of Jeung-pyun made of rice were analyzed during retrogradation. The polymeric structure of rice starch was analyzed by debranching with isoamylase after gelatinization and fractionated with Sephadex G-75 gel filteration. The size fractionated debranched starch was categorized into four groups such as Fraction I, II, III and Intermediate Fraction depending in their max, The fractions with the max higher than 620 nm were designated as Fraction I, while those in the range of 600-620 nm and 540-600 nm as the Intermediate Fraction and Fraction II, respectively. The Fractions with the max lower than 540 were described as Fraction III. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the Fraction I was estimated to be higher than 200, and those of other fractions, i.e. the Intermediate Fraction I, Fraction II and III were 150,45 and 25, respectively. The levels of Fraction I were varied from II to 35% of total sugar. The Fraction I showed the linear relationship with the amylse contents, and the Intermediate Fraction, which might contain the mixture of short chain of amylose and debranched long chain of amylopectin, were measured to be in the range of 2.7∼8.4%. The levels of fraction II and III, both to be considered as the branches of amylopectin, were ranged 14.5∼23.6% and 39.7∼73.0%, respectively. The ratio of Fraction III to Fraction II describing the degree of branch or compactness of amylopectin was estimated to be around 4.0 for waxy varieties and around 2.0 for high amylose cultivars. With these results, it can be suggested that the degree of branch of the amylopectin may effect on amylose contents of starch or rice versa, To invertigate processing aptitude of different rice cultivars for the preparation of Jeung-pyun, its texture was analyzed by Instron, hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness of Jeung-pyun made of rice showed the significant relationship with the amylose content. Hardness was increased during retrogradation of product, but the relationship between hardness and amylose content due to not only difference in amylose content but also difference in structural characteristics of starch. In analysis of relationship between structure of rice starch and mechanical properties of Jeung-pyun during retrogradation elasticity did not show any relationship before retrogradation bur during retrogradation showed significant correlation. With these result, it can be suggested that the degree of branch of the amylopectin may effect on elasticity during retrogradation. However hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness which were significant different before retrogradation, showed some correlation with structure of rice starch during retrigradation.

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Effects of Micronization on the In situ and In vitro Digestion of Cereal Grains

  • McAllister, T.A.;Sultana, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.929-939
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    • 2011
  • The effects of micronization on in situ and in vitro nutrient disappearances of wheat, barley and corn were investigated in a series of experiments. In Experiment 1, chemical composition and in situ dry matter disappearance (DMD) of six varieties of wheat were determined. In addition, an in vitro study was completed using ground micronized and unmicronized wheat (var. Kansas). In Experiment 2, three varieties of wheat (Kansas, Sceptre and Laura) and in Experiment 3, three cereal grains (wheat, barley and corn) were either micronized for 1 min to attain internal kernel temperatures of 90-100$^{\circ}C$ or not (controls), and DM, protein and starch disappearances were estimated. In Experiment 2, an in vitro study was also completed using ground micronized and unmicronized wheat (var. Kansas). Wheat samples varied with respect to crude protein (10.0-21.2%), starch (61.6-73.9%), NDF (8.5-11.8%), volume weight (753-842 g/L) and kernel hardness (0.0-32.0). Rate (p = 0.003) and extent (p = 0.001) of in situ DMD differed among wheat varieties. Correlations between in situ kinetics, and chemical and physical properties of wheat varieties showed that protein content was negatively correlated with the rate of disappearance ($r^2$ = -0.77). Micronization of all grains markedly reduced (p = 0.001) the rate and extent of DM, and protein disappearances as compared to control samples. Micronization increased (p<0.05) the digestion of starch in wheat. However, release of ammonia into the incubation medium was markedly reduced (p<0.05), suggesting that micronization increased the resistance of protein to microbial digestion. Disappearances of DM, protein and starch differed (p = 0.001) among cereal grains with wheat>barley>corn. Micronization reduced the rate of DM disappearance (p = 0.011) and slowly degradable protein fractions (p = 0.03), however, increased (p = 0.004) slowly degradable starch fractions of all three cereals. Examination of in situ samples by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that microbial colonization focused on starch granules in micronized grains, and that the protein matrix exhibited resistance to microbial colonization. These results suggest that micronization may be used to increase the ruminal escape value of protein in cereal grains, but may lead to increased starch digestion if grains are finely ground.

벼에서의 아밀로즈 생합성 관련 Wx 단백질의 동정 및 분리 (Identification and purification of Wx protein involved in biosynthesis of amylose in Rice)

  • 남백희;김진구;최해춘
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 1993
  • 아밀로즈는 ${\alpha}-1,4$ 결합으로 이루어진 포도당의 중합체로 곡류에서의 식품학적 기능성을 결정하는 가중 중요한 전분의 구성성분으로, 이의 함량은 단일 우성유전인자인 Wx 유전인자에 의하여 결정된다고 알려지고 있다. 지금까지 Wx 단백질이라고 알려지는 전분 합성 효소(starch-bound starch synthase)는 아밀로즈의 생합성에 관련된 효소로 아밀로즈의 함량을 조절하는 단백질로 알려져 왔다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 아밀로즈의 생합성 기작 연구의 한단계로 Wx 단백질인 아밀로즈 합성 효소를 동정하고 분리하였다. 아밀로즈의 함량이 매우 다양한 변이품종들로부터 전분 결합 단백질을 추출하고 이를 전기영동 분석을 통하여 비교분석하였다. 그 결과 전분과 결합하여 존재하는 66 kDa의 단백질이 전분 중 아밀로즈의 함량과 매우 높은 연관관계를 전기영동상에서 보여주고 있어, 이를 Wx 단백질로 동정하였다. 아울러 이 단백질을 전분으로부터 분리하고, gel filtration 과정을 통하여 순수 분리하는 정제 방법을 확립하였다.

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일반계와 통일계 쌀 전분과 분획의 몇가지 구조적 성질 비교 (Comparision of Some Structural Characteristics of Japonica and Tongil Rice Starches and their Fractions)

  • 김관;강길진;김성곤
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 1992
  • 일반계와 통일계 쌀 전분에 대한 구조적 성질을 조사하고 그 차이점을 비교하였다. 쌀 성분의 호화온도 범위는 일반계가 통일계보다 넓었고 쌀 전분의 최대 흡수파장은 일반계가 통일계 보다 높았다. 고유점도는 전분, 아밀로오스와 아밀로펙틴 모두 일반계가 통일계 보다 낮았다. ${\beta}$-아밀라아제 분해 한도는 전분에서는 차이가 없으나 아밀로오스와 아밀로펙틴은 일반계가 통일계 보다 약간 낮았다. 아밀로펙틴의 평균 사슬 길이와 바깥 사슬 길이는 일반계가 통일계 보다 짧았으나 안쪽 사슬 길이는 차이가 없었다. 열수 가용성 전분과 아밀로오스 함량은 일반계가 통일계 보다 높았다. 또한 열수 가용성 전분을 겔 크로마토그래피한 결과는 품종마다 독특한 용출모양을 보였다.

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밥의 종류에 따른 in vitro 분해율 및 관능적 특성 (In vitro Digestibility and Sensory Properties of different Bap(Cooked Rice))

  • 김윤선;이귀주
    • 한국식생활문화학회지
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.820-826
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    • 2007
  • Different types of bap(cooked rice) was cooked using barley or/and SoRiTae with rice as the base. Total(TS), rapidly digestible(RDS), slowly digestible(SDS) and resistant(RS) starch fractions were determined. Other physicochemical properties such as moisture, protein, amylose contents, protein digestion in vitro and color values as well as sensory properties of different bap were also investigated. Cooked rice with SoRiTae(RiSo) showed the highest moisture content of 63.9%, whereas other bap showed simillar content ranging from 62.3-63.0%. Crude protein content of RiSo was the highest, while that of cooked rice(Ri) was the lowest(p<0.05). Amylose content of RiBa was the highest, while that of RiSo was the lowest(p<0.05). In in vitro protein digestibility(IVPD), cooked rice with barley and SoRiTae(RiBaSo) was the highest, while Ri was the lowest, showing no significant difference at p<0.05. In starch fractions, as barley or/and SoRiTae were added to rice, a decrease in RDS content and increases in SDS and RS contents were observed. In addition, starch digestion index(SDI), which derived as an indicator of their in vitro starch digestibility and rapidly available glucose(RAG) value, which determined as a predictor of potential glycemic response decreased. A decrease in L value from RiSo and RiBaSo, which comprised of SoRiTae and increases in a and b values in RiSo and RiBa were observed, respectively. All sensory parameters involving color, glossiness, sweet taste, wetness, roughness, hardness and stickiness were shown to be a significant difference except sweet taste among different bap(p<0.05). L value of instrumental characteristic was negatively correlated with color of sensory characteristic and a value was positively correlated. Significant negative correlation was found between RS content and glossiness, however, positive correlation with roughness and hardness, respectively. These results suggested that cooked rice mixed with barley and SoRiTae contain significant RS and SDS contents and may improve diabetes and hyperlipidemia, due to the lowering RDS and RAG, respectively.

찰보리 전분 추출에 있어서 β-Glucanase 처리 효과 (β-Glucanase-assisted extraction of starch from glutinous barley)

  • 배재석;이의석;정용선;김정원;이미자;홍순택
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, ${\beta}$-glucanase-assisted extraction of starch from glutinous barley(Hinchal ssalbory) was investigated. ${\beta}$-glucanase was added to a coarse starch suspension obtained after wet milling in the starch extraction process. It was found that in the isolated starch with enzyme treatment, protein content was lower by 0.03%, compared to that with non-enzyme treatment. More importantly it was observed that the extraction yield of starch from enzyme treatment was found to be about 12% higher than the one from non-enzyme treatment (enzyme treated: 90.56%, non-enzyme treated: 78.46%). In order to elucidate this finding, the mass-balance determination of starch in each extraction step was carried out and found that the enzyme treatment might influence on the insoluble residues(R3 and R4 fractions) to hydrolyze ${\beta}$-glucan and other materials (e.g., mucilages etc.), thereby facilitated the separation of starch from it and a next filtration process. With a phase-contrast microscope it was observed that the isolated starch with enzyme treatment contained small starch granules more than the one with non-enzyme treatment and this might result in higher extraction yield observed with the former. In order to confirm this hypothesis, further experiments would be necessary.

열처리 밀기울의 수용성 분획의 특징 (Characteristics of Water Soluble Fractions of Wheat Bran Treated with Various Thermal Processes)

  • 황재관;김종태;조성자;김철진
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.934-938
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    • 1995
  • Autoclaving, microwaving, 압출성형 등의 열 및 기계적 에너지에 대한 밀기울 세포벽의 반응성을 구명하기 위하여 수용성 분획의 특정을 연구하였다. 수용성 분획의 화학적 분석과 겔여과 크로마토그래피 결과에 의하면 밀기울에 포함되어 있는 전분의 호화가 가장 중요한 수용화 기작으로 작용하며, 이 과정에서 비전분성 세포벽 구성물질의 수용화도 일어냐는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 수용성의 비전분 다당류의 GC 분석결과 적용된 열처리 과정에서 세포벽의 arabinoxylan 부위가 많이 수용화되는 현상을 보였다. 특히, 고온파 고전단력을 동시에 제공하는 압출성형은 밀기울의 수용화에 가장 효율적이었으며, 또한 상대적으로 고분자량의 비전분성 구성성분을 수용 화시켰다.

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