• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch fractions

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Production of Red Bean Starch Granule with Cellulase from Fusarium moniliforme (Fusarium moniliforme이 생산하는 셀룰라아제를 이용한 소두전분제조(小豆澱粉製造))

  • Cho, Yong-Kweon;Park, Kwan-Hwa
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 1986
  • Two fractions of ${\beta}-glucanase$(CMCase), two fractions of filter paper degradation enzyme (FPase) and one ${\beta}-glucanase$ fraction were partially purified from Fusarium moniliforme and applied to recovery process of red bean starch. Red bean were incubated with the fractions of CMCase and FPase at $50^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours and the starch granules are separated. Maximal sedimentation rate of red bean starch granules was obtained with treatment of the mixture solution of 0.004 units/ml of FPase and 0.3 units/ml of CMCase. In the enzyme treated process percent recovery of red bean starch granule increased about 7% and suspended solid in waste water was reduced about 40%, compared with those of control. The results indicated that red bean cell treated with cellulase fractions absorbed water more rapidly and specific gravity of starch granule increased.

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Cowpea Starch Extraction Process using Microparticulation/Air classification Technology (미분쇄/공기분급을 이용한 동부전분의 추출)

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Dong-June
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 1998
  • Dehulled cowpea was microparticulated and coarse fractions and fine fractions were collected by air classification at air classifying wheel speed (ACWS) of 15,000 rpm, 12,000 rpm and 9,000 rpm, respectively. Protein content in fine fraction after air classification was 2 times higher than that of microparticulated cowpea, emulsion capacity was about 3 times than coarse fraction. The coarse fraction of the highest viscosity on the gelatinization properties were detected by amylograph, was C-3 (9,000 rpm coarse)fraction. The majority of microparticulated cowpea particles were oval shaped starch and the rest of them were indeterminate minute particles which had some sharp corners. As an application test, microparticulated cowpea and coarse fraction (C-3) were used for mook (Korea traditional starch jelly) preparation and the wet milled cowpea starch was compared as a control. Some impurities induced discoloring was detected by sensory evaluation but after washing, it made no difference in sensory scores between washed starch and the control cowpea mook. And also syneresis of washed cowpea was less than control. At the above result, it can be to recovery about 85% of cowpea starch using microparticulation/air classification technology.

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Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content (아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Kim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

A Study on Texture of Jeung-pyun According the Kinds of Rice (쌀 품종에 따른 증편의 조직특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김효진;이숙미;조정순
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 1997
  • The composition and polymeric structure of starch are the most important factors to determine the functional properties of rice. In an effort to relate the structural characteristics and its functional properties of starch in rice, molecular structural properties of starch from 6 rice cultivars were analysed. To relate the structure and function of starch the texture of Jeung-pyun made of rice were analyzed during retrogradation. The polymeric structure of rice starch was analyzed by debranching with isoamylase after gelatinization and fractionated with Sephadex G-75 gel filteration. The size fractionated debranched starch was categorized into four groups such as Fraction I, II, III and Intermediate Fraction depending in their max, The fractions with the max higher than 620 nm were designated as Fraction I, while those in the range of 600-620 nm and 540-600 nm as the Intermediate Fraction and Fraction II, respectively. The Fractions with the max lower than 540 were described as Fraction III. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the Fraction I was estimated to be higher than 200, and those of other fractions, i.e. the Intermediate Fraction I, Fraction II and III were 150,45 and 25, respectively. The levels of Fraction I were varied from II to 35% of total sugar. The Fraction I showed the linear relationship with the amylse contents, and the Intermediate Fraction, which might contain the mixture of short chain of amylose and debranched long chain of amylopectin, were measured to be in the range of 2.7∼8.4%. The levels of fraction II and III, both to be considered as the branches of amylopectin, were ranged 14.5∼23.6% and 39.7∼73.0%, respectively. The ratio of Fraction III to Fraction II describing the degree of branch or compactness of amylopectin was estimated to be around 4.0 for waxy varieties and around 2.0 for high amylose cultivars. With these results, it can be suggested that the degree of branch of the amylopectin may effect on amylose contents of starch or rice versa, To invertigate processing aptitude of different rice cultivars for the preparation of Jeung-pyun, its texture was analyzed by Instron, hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness of Jeung-pyun made of rice showed the significant relationship with the amylose content. Hardness was increased during retrogradation of product, but the relationship between hardness and amylose content due to not only difference in amylose content but also difference in structural characteristics of starch. In analysis of relationship between structure of rice starch and mechanical properties of Jeung-pyun during retrogradation elasticity did not show any relationship before retrogradation bur during retrogradation showed significant correlation. With these result, it can be suggested that the degree of branch of the amylopectin may effect on elasticity during retrogradation. However hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness which were significant different before retrogradation, showed some correlation with structure of rice starch during retrigradation.

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Identification and purification of Wx protein involved in biosynthesis of amylose in Rice (벼에서의 아밀로즈 생합성 관련 Wx 단백질의 동정 및 분리)

  • Nahm, Baek-Hie;Kim, Jin-Ku;Choi, Hae-Choon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 1993
  • The Wx protein, known as starch synthase or starch glucosyl transferase (E.C. 2.4.1.11), is responsible for the amylose synthesis. In an effort to explain the mechanism of amylose biosynthesis, the starch synthase known as Wx protein was identified by analyzing the various wx rice mutants with SDS-PAGE of proteins extracted from rice starch. Finally, the 66 kDa protein was purified by extracting the starch-bound protein fractions followed by Suprose 12 gel filtration chromatography.

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Comparision of Some Structural Characteristics of Japonica and Tongil Rice Starches and their Fractions (일반계와 통일계 쌀 전분과 분획의 몇가지 구조적 성질 비교)

  • Kim, Kwan;Kang, Kil-Jin;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 1992
  • Some structural characteristics of Japonica and Tongil type rice starches and their fractions were investigated to elucidate the differences between the two rice types. Japonica rice starches showed broader gelatinization temperature ranges and had higher ${\lambda}_{max}$ than those of Tongil ones. Intrinsic viscosity of starch, amylose and amylopectin for Japonica type were lower compared with those of Tongil type. ${\beta}-amylolysis$ limit of rice starch were not different between two rice types, but those of amy_lose and amylopectin of Japonica ty_p_e were lower than Tongil type. The average unit chain length(${\overline}CL$) and average outer chain length(${\overlne}OCL$) of Japonica type amylopectin were shorter than those of Tongil one. Sepharose CL-2B chromatography of hot water soluble starch revealed that each starch had unique elution profile.

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β-Glucanase-assisted extraction of starch from glutinous barley (찰보리 전분 추출에 있어서 β-Glucanase 처리 효과)

  • Bae, Jae-Seok;Lee, Eui-Suk;Jeong, Yong-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Won;Lee, Mi-Ja;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, ${\beta}$-glucanase-assisted extraction of starch from glutinous barley(Hinchal ssalbory) was investigated. ${\beta}$-glucanase was added to a coarse starch suspension obtained after wet milling in the starch extraction process. It was found that in the isolated starch with enzyme treatment, protein content was lower by 0.03%, compared to that with non-enzyme treatment. More importantly it was observed that the extraction yield of starch from enzyme treatment was found to be about 12% higher than the one from non-enzyme treatment (enzyme treated: 90.56%, non-enzyme treated: 78.46%). In order to elucidate this finding, the mass-balance determination of starch in each extraction step was carried out and found that the enzyme treatment might influence on the insoluble residues(R3 and R4 fractions) to hydrolyze ${\beta}$-glucan and other materials (e.g., mucilages etc.), thereby facilitated the separation of starch from it and a next filtration process. With a phase-contrast microscope it was observed that the isolated starch with enzyme treatment contained small starch granules more than the one with non-enzyme treatment and this might result in higher extraction yield observed with the former. In order to confirm this hypothesis, further experiments would be necessary.

In vitro Digestibility and Sensory Properties of different Bap(Cooked Rice) (밥의 종류에 따른 in vitro 분해율 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Sun;Lee, Gui-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.820-826
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    • 2007
  • Different types of bap(cooked rice) was cooked using barley or/and SoRiTae with rice as the base. Total(TS), rapidly digestible(RDS), slowly digestible(SDS) and resistant(RS) starch fractions were determined. Other physicochemical properties such as moisture, protein, amylose contents, protein digestion in vitro and color values as well as sensory properties of different bap were also investigated. Cooked rice with SoRiTae(RiSo) showed the highest moisture content of 63.9%, whereas other bap showed simillar content ranging from 62.3-63.0%. Crude protein content of RiSo was the highest, while that of cooked rice(Ri) was the lowest(p<0.05). Amylose content of RiBa was the highest, while that of RiSo was the lowest(p<0.05). In in vitro protein digestibility(IVPD), cooked rice with barley and SoRiTae(RiBaSo) was the highest, while Ri was the lowest, showing no significant difference at p<0.05. In starch fractions, as barley or/and SoRiTae were added to rice, a decrease in RDS content and increases in SDS and RS contents were observed. In addition, starch digestion index(SDI), which derived as an indicator of their in vitro starch digestibility and rapidly available glucose(RAG) value, which determined as a predictor of potential glycemic response decreased. A decrease in L value from RiSo and RiBaSo, which comprised of SoRiTae and increases in a and b values in RiSo and RiBa were observed, respectively. All sensory parameters involving color, glossiness, sweet taste, wetness, roughness, hardness and stickiness were shown to be a significant difference except sweet taste among different bap(p<0.05). L value of instrumental characteristic was negatively correlated with color of sensory characteristic and a value was positively correlated. Significant negative correlation was found between RS content and glossiness, however, positive correlation with roughness and hardness, respectively. These results suggested that cooked rice mixed with barley and SoRiTae contain significant RS and SDS contents and may improve diabetes and hyperlipidemia, due to the lowering RDS and RAG, respectively.

Characteristics of Water Soluble Fractions of Wheat Bran Treated with Various Thermal Processes (열처리 밀기울의 수용성 분획의 특징)

  • Hwang, Jae-Kwan;Kim, Chong-Tai;Cho, Sung-Ja;Kim, Chul-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.934-938
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    • 1995
  • Water soluble fractions (WSF) of wheat bran treated with thermal processes such as autoclaving, microwaving and extrusion were characterized to investigate the structural response of plant cell wall to thermal and mechanical energy. From the chemical analysis and gel filtration chromatography of WSF, gelatinization of starch was found to be the primary solubilizing mechanism of wheat bran, followed by the structural disintegration of fibrous non-starch cell wall materials. It was also found that extrusion process resulted in degrading relatively higher molecular weight non-starch polysaccharides from the cell wall. GC analysis of water soluble non-starch polysaccharides indicates that the arabinoxylan residues of cell wall are the most susceptible site to thermal treatments studied. In particular, the degrading degree of cell wall of wheat bran is the most significant for extrusion accompanying both high temperature and high shear.

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Evaluation of Molecular Weight Distribution, Pasting and Functional Properties, and Enzyme Resistant Starch Content of Acid-modified Corn Starches

  • Koksel, Hamit;Ozturk, Serpil;Kahraman, Kevser;Basman, Arzu;Ozbas, Ozen Ozboy;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.755-760
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch preparations from acid-modified com starches prepared at various hydrolysis levels (0.5-4.0 hr). Effect of autoclaving cycles on resistant starch (RS) formation was investigated. Molecular weight distribution, pasting and functional properties of acid-modified com starches were determined. For RS formation native and acid-modified starch samples were gelatinized and autoclaved (1 or 2 cycles). While native and acid-modified starches did not contain any RS, the levels increased to 9.0-13.5% as a result of storage at $95^{\circ}C$ after first autoclaving cycle. Second autoclaving cycle together with storage at $95^{\circ}C$ brought final RS contents of the samples incubated at 4 and $95^{\circ}C$ after the first cycle to comparable level. As acid modification level increased, the amount of high molecular weight fractions decreased, resulting in significant decreases in viscosities (p<0.05). The samples produced in this study had low emulsion stability and capacity values.