• Title, Summary, Keyword: stand density management

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Optimum Stand Density Control Considering Stability in Larix kaempferi Forests (임분 안정성을 고려한 일본잎갈나무 임분밀도 관리의 적정 수준)

  • Park, Joon Hyung;Chung, Sang Hoon;Kim, Sun Hee;Lee, Sang Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.2
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the optimal levels of stand density control considering the stability of Larix kaempferi stands. A stand density management diagram was developed from 259 sample plots. Based on these data, we determined an optimal level of the stand density control by identifying the relationship between the relative yield index (Ry) and height-to-diameter ratio. The estimated r-square (R2) of the stand density management diagram is 0.600. The analysis of the relationship between Ry and the slender tree incidence showed that when the stand density exceeded a certain threshold and the ratio of slender trees rapidly increased. The critical value of Ry was 0.63. The results of this study are expected to contribute to the establishment of stand management strategies that can reduce damage from natural causes, such as wind and snow, and to develop stand practice systems for the improved productivity of commercial forests.

Development of a Stand Density Management Diagram for Teak Forests in Southern India

  • Tewari, Vindhya Prasad;Alvarez-Gonz, Juan Gabriel
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2014
  • Stand Density Diagrams (SDD) are average stand-level models which graphically illustrate the relationship between yield, density and mortality throughout the various stages of forest development. These are useful tools for designing, displaying and evaluating alternative density regimes in even-aged forest ecosystems to achieve a desired future condition. This contribution presents an example of a SDD that has been constructed for teak forests of Karnataka in southern India. The relationship between stand density, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter, relative spacing and stand volume is represented in one graph. The relative spacing index was used to characterize the population density. Two equations were fitted simultaneously to the data collected from 27 sample plots measured annually for three years: one relates quadratic mean diameter with stand density and dominant height while the other relates total stand volume with quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height.

Prediction of Mortality and Yield for Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Stand Density Management Diagram (임분밀도관리도를 이용한 편백림의 고사량 및 수확량 예측)

  • Park, Joon Hyung;Yoo, Byung Oh;Lee, Kwang Soo;Park, Yong Bae;Kim, Hyung-Ho;Jung, Su Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.107 no.2
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    • pp.174-183
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to make the stand density management diagram which is useful for establishing stand density management system in Chamaecyparis obtusa forest. By using 216 sample plots to estimate Yield-Density relationship ($R^2=0.743$), the stand density management diagram was modeled by the estimated parameters. As a result of this diagram, after planting 3,000 trees per hectare the mortality rate of this unthinned C. obtusa stands over 80 years was estimated to be equal to $12.0{\sim}18.1trees{\cdot}ha^{-1}{\cdot}year^{-1}$, and stand volume was $463.1{\sim}695.4m^3{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, and stand density was $1,555{\sim}2,038trees{\cdot}ha^{-1}$. Developed stand density management diagram for C. obtusa is effective to establish the management criteria and production objective. Therefore, this study allowed us to make the optimal forest working plan.

Development and Validation of the Stand Density Management Diagram for Pinus densiflora Forests in Korea (소나무 임분밀도관리도 작성 및 실용성 검정)

  • Park, Joon Hyung;Lee, Kwang Soo;Yoo, Byung Oh;Park, Yong Bae;Jung, Su Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.3
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    • pp.342-350
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to make the stand density management diagram which is very useful for establishing systematic management plan and obtaining management goal in Pinus densiflora forest. To estimate 5 models mainly composed of stand density management diagram, we used total of 1,886 sample plots having more than 75% of the total basal area of the pine trees in each stand. To test the goodness of fit, $X^2$ was computed with a significance level of 5%, and the acceptable error range as 20%. Also standard deviation of the model was $34.59m^3{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, minimum acceptable error range was 16.59% and coefficient of variation was 22.11%. If we use the stand density management diagram, it would be useful to establish the timber yield and thinning plan understanding the pathway of stand density management.

The Production Objectives and Optimal Standard of Density Control Using Stand Density Management Diagram for Pinus densiflora Forests in Korea (임분밀도관리도를 이용한 소나무림의 적정 임분밀도 관리 기준 및 수확목표)

  • Park, Joon-hyung;Jung, Su-Young;Yoo, Byung-oh;Lee, Kwang-Soo;Park, Yong-bae;Kim, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.106 no.4
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    • pp.457-464
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    • 2017
  • This study has utilized the stand density management diagram to devise an efficient management standard for the stand density for Pinus densiflora that secures the health of the stands and predicted the harvest goals. The appropriate stand control level was estimated by modeling the relationship of the relative yield index (Ry) to the ratio of slender trees within the stand through an exponential function; the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) was found to be 0.424 according to the estimation. The ratio of slender trees within the stand showed a tendency of rapid increase at a certain relative yield index; with this relational function, the appropriate Ry value of 0.84 was obtained. By estimating the curve of the Ry value 0.84, which was the appropriate stand density management level, as well as the height of dominant trees in the central region of Korea, the production objective for each site index was set. Assuming that the final age by the site indices ranged from 10 to 16 for the P. densiflora in central region of Korea, the number of production was estimated to be between 426 to 1,311 trees per ha. It was predicted that the production of medium-diameter logs larger than 30 cm in diameter is possible for the target DBH at a site index of more than 16; small-diameter logs larger than 20 cm in diameter for site indices 12 and 14 enabled, and small-diameter logs of less than 20 cm for site index 10.

The Comparison of Tree Growth by the Residual Stand Density in Artificial Coniferous Forests (침염수 조림지에서의 잔존임분밀도에 따른 임목생장 비교에 관한 연구)

  • 강성기;김완수;이원섭;김지홍
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to provide tending operation information for the effective management in unmanaged artificial forests of Pinus densiflora for. erecta, Pinus rigida, and larix leptolepis, based on the study of the comparison of tree growth pattern by residual stand density after thinning practices. Followings are summarized results of this study. 1. The diameter growth of residual trees was increased as residual stand density decreased by thinning practices in the stands of Pinus densiflora for. erecta, and Pinus rigida, and subcompartment (Ga) and (Na) of Larix leptolepis. The statistical analysis noted that the tree growth was significantly different by the residual stand density. 2. The height growth did not show corresponding results by stand density treatment pattern, which indicated that the height growth was not directly influenced by residual stand density, but by site quality of the stand. 3. The diameter increment for the last six years was proportionately increased in larger diameter classes and less dense stands.

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Assessment of Biomass and Carbon Stock in Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) Forests under Two Management Regimes in Tripura, Northeast India

  • Banik, Biplab;Deb, Dipankar;Deb, Sourabh;Datta, B.K.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.209-223
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    • 2018
  • We investigated tree composition, stand characteristics, biomass allocation pattern and carbon storage variability in Sal forests (Shorea robusta Garten.) under two forest management regimes (Sal forest and Sal plantation) in Tripura, Northeast India. The results revealed higher species richness (29 species), stand density of $1060.00{\pm}11.12stems\;ha^{-1}$ and diversity index ($1.90{\pm}0.08$) in Sal forest. and lower species richness (4 species), stand density of $ 230.00{\pm}37.22stems\;ha^{-1}$ and diversity index ($0.38{\pm}0.15$) in Sal plantation. The total basal cover $33.02{\pm}4.87m^2ha^{-1}$) and dominance ($0.76{\pm}0.08$) were found higher in Sal plantation than the Sal forest ($22.53{\pm}0.38m^2ha^{-1}$ and $0.23{\pm}0.02$ respectively). The total vegetation carbon density was recorded higher in Sal plantation ($219.68{\pm}19.65Mg\;ha^{-1}$) than the Sal forest ($167.64{\pm}16.73Mg\;ha^{-1}$). The carbon density estimates acquired in this study suggest that Sal plantation in Tripura has the potentiality to store a large amount of atmospheric carbon inspite of a very low species diversity. However, Sal forests has also an impending sink of carbon due to presence of large number of young trees.

Stand Density Management Studies on Pine Stands in Korea (I) - The Simple Logistic Growth Curve and Its Application to Pine Stands - (소나무림(林)의 밀도관리(密度管理)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) - 단순(單純) logistic 곡선(曲線)과 소나무림(林)에 대한 그의 적용(適用) -)

  • Kwon, O Bok;Lee, Heung Kyun;Woo, Chong Chun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1982
  • The simple logistic growth model on the logistic curve, being originally a kind of population growth curve has also been sometimes utilized to describe growth curves in herbaceous plants such as duckweed and sun-flowers. It has already been recognized that the agreement between the theoretical calculations and the empirical observations is quite satisfactory form a practical point of view. It remains, however, still doubtful whether the logistic curve could be applied to the growth or ordinary woody plants which is quite different in its character from that of herbaceous plants. In this study, the simple logistic model, being a basic tool of stand density management, is applied to yield data from pine stands in order to test the adequacy of the model An attempt of testing the significance of the fit is made by applying the Chi-square test.

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Prosopis juliflora invasion and environmental factors on density of soil seed bank in Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia

  • Shiferaw, Wakshum;Bekele, Tamrat;Demissew, Sebsebe;Aynekulu, Ermias
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.400-420
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    • 2019
  • The aims of the study were to analyze (1) the effects of Prosopis juliflora (Prosopis) on the spatial distribution and soil seed banks (SSB) diversity and density, (2) the effects of environmental factors on SSB diversity and density (number of seeds in the soil per unit area), and (3) the effects of animal fecal droppings on SSB diversity, density, and dispersal. Aboveground vegetation data were collected from different Prosopis-infested habitats from quadrats (20 × 20 m) in Prosopis thickets, Prosopis + native species stand, non-invaded woodlands, and open grazing lands. In each Prosopis-infested habitats, soil samples were collected from the litter layer and three successive soil layer, i.e., 0-3 cm, 3-6 cm, and 6-9 cm. Seeds from soil samples and animal fecal matter were separated in the green house using the seedling emergence technique. Invasion of Prosopis had significant effects on the soil seed bank diversity. Results revealed that the mean value of the Shannon diversity of non-invaded woodlands was being higher by 19.2%, 18.5%, and 11.0% than Prosopis thickets; Prosopis + native species stand and open grazing lands, respectively. The seed diversity and richness, recovered from 6-9-cm-deep layer were the highest. On the other hand, the density of Prosopis seeds was the highest in the litter layer. About 156 of seeds/kg (92.9%) of seeds were germinated from cattle fecal matter. However, in a small proportion of seedlings, 12 of seeds/kg (7.1%) were germinated from shot fecal matter. Thus, as the seeds in the soil were low in the study areas, in situ and ex situ conservation of original plants and reseeding of persistent grass species such as Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon plumulosus, and Brachiaria ramosa are recommended.

Analyzing the Effect of Management Strategies on Gum Talha Yield from Acacia Seyal, South Kordofan, Sudan

  • Mohammed, M.H.;Roehle, H.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2011
  • The present study was carried out from September 2007 to February 2008 in Umfakarin natural forest reserve, South Kordofan, Sudan. The objective was to analyze the effect of different management strategies on yield of gum talha from Acacia seyal. A total of 493 single target trees were selected, based on their diameters, and assigned to tapping treatments in three different stand densities (making a total of nine treatments per stand density). The treatments are as follows: tapping date with three levels (first of October, 15 October and first of November) and two levels of local tapping tools (sonki, and makmak). Untapped trees were used as control. The first picking of gum was started fifteen days after tapping while the subsequent pickings were done in intervals of fifteen days. Yield per tree throughout the season was obtained by summing up the gum yield from all pickings. Yield throughout the season (from first to the last picking) were analyzed. General linear model (GLM) was used to test the effect of different tapping treatments on the yield of gum talha. Post hoc test after analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on Scheffe test was performed to examine the differences in gum yield as a result of different management strategies. The results showed that tapping has a significant influence on gum yield. Analysis of pick-to-pick yield indicated that only three treatments in dense stand density showed a decreasing pattern while the rest of treatments either have constant or unclear patterns. The results of the present study were based on a single season data and that may underscore the real effect of Acacia seyal stands' management strategies on gum talha yield. Conducting gum yield experiments in permanent trial plots are highly recommended in order to analyze gum yield of seasonal time series.