• Title, Summary, Keyword: stage at diagnosis

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Upper Endoscopy up to 3 Years Prior to a Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer Is Associated With Lower Stage of Disease in a USA Multiethnic Urban Population, a Retrospective Study

  • Shah, Shailja C.;Nakata, Chiaki;Polydorides, Alexandros D.;Peek, Richard M. Jr;Itzkowitz, Steven H.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: In the USA, certain races and ethnicities have a disproportionately higher gastric cancer burden. Selective screening might allow for earlier detection and curative resection. Among a USA-based multiracial and ethnic cohort diagnosed with non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC), we aimed to identify factors associated with curable stage disease at diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively identified endoscopically diagnosed and histologically confirmed cases of NCGC at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histologic factors, as well as grade/stage of NCGC at diagnosis were documented. The primary outcome was the frequency of curable-stage NCGC (stage 0-1a) at diagnosis in patients with versus without an endoscopy negative for malignancy prior to their index exam diagnosing NCGC. Additional factors associated with curable-stage disease at diagnosis were determined. Results: A total of 103 racially and ethnically diverse patients were included. Nearly 38% of NCGC were stage 0-Ia, 34% stage Ib-III, and 20.3% stage IV at diagnosis. A significantly higher frequency of NCGC was diagnosed in curable stages among patients who had undergone an endoscopy that was negative for malignancy prior to their index endoscopy that diagnosed NCGC, compared to patients without a negative endoscopy prior to their index exam (69.6% vs. 28.6%, p=0.003). A prior negative endoscopy was associated with 94.0% higher likelihood of diagnosing curable-stage NCGC (p=0.003). No other factors analyzed were associated with curablestage NCGC at diagnosis. Conclusions: Endoscopic screening and surveillance in select high-risk populations might increase diagnoses of curable-stage NCGC. These findings warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies.

Development of Nursing Intervention Protocol for Childhood Cancer at Early Diagnosis Stage (소아암 환자의 초기 진단단계의 간호중재 프로토콜 개발)

  • Choi Ja-Yun;Yoo Il-Young
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2002
  • The main purpose of this methodological study was to develop an assessment tool and intervention protocol for child and family with childhood cancer at early diagnosis stage. The assessment tool and intervention protocol was developed by extensive literature review and consultation with experts. Review of nine domestic and sixty-six international journal articles were done to identify stress, interventions, coping strategies and adjustment of children with cancer and their family. Results were as follows; First, assessment at the early diagnosis stage need to include information on patient, family, and patient/family attitude toward diagnosis and treatment. Second, intervention protocol for children with cancer includes control physical symptoms, manage the side effects of chemotherapy and diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, control emotional responses, provide support and information, assist decision-making and adjust to environment. Third, intervention protocol for family includes controlling emotional responses, provision of informations, inducing family support to patient, improving family cohesion, supporting siblings and supporting spiritual growth. In conclusion, the early diagnosis stage in cancer treatment is important for child and family since this stage greatly affects the overall adjustment of child and family to live with cancer. Therefore, pediatric nurses need to be sensitive to the need of patient/family and systematically manage their needs at this stage.

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Development and Evaluation of the Computerized Nursing Diagnosis/Intervention System for Nutritional and Eliminative Problem (영양과 배설기능장애와 관련된 간호진단과 중재 전산시스템 개발 및 평가)

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.1078-1087
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate the Computerized Nursing Diagnosis/ Intervention System for Nutritional and Eliminative Problems for clinical application. Each stage was processed based on the System Development Life Cycle. At the Strategy Planning Stage, valid nursing diagnoses and interventions were chosen. At the System Analysis Stage, a nursing diagnosis and intervention flowchart was drawn up. At the System Design Stage, a system was developed based on the flowchart and named the Nursing Diagnosis/Intervention System. The Nursing Diagnosis/Intervention System consisted of the Patient's Basic Information, Patient's Nursing Process, Nursing Process, and Code Registration. Each element in flowchart was coded and made into a database. The System was used and evaluated. A total of 30 cases were collected. After the application, the nurses evaluated the System using a 5 point Likert scale. Every item was scored at three points or more and 13 out of 17 items were scored at four points or more, thus the Nursing Diagnosis/Intervention System that was developed in this study was regarded as a useful one.

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Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors with Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

  • Mohaghegh, Pegah;Yavari, Parvin;Akbari, Mohammad Esmail;Abadi, Alireza;Ahmadi, Farzane
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1627-1631
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    • 2015
  • Background: Stage at diagnosis is one of the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer survival. Because in the breast cancer case this may vary with socioeconomic characteristics, this study was performed to recognize the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors with stage at diagnosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on 526 patients suffering from breast cancer and registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from 2008 to 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status filled in by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests were executed by SPSS22. Economic status, educational attainment of patient and household head and/or a combination of these were considered as parameters for socioeconomic status. First, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and demographic and socioeconomic status was assessed in univariate analysis then these relationships assessed in two different models of multinomial logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.3 (SD=11.4). According to the results of this study, there were significant relationships between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer with patient education (p=0.011), living place (p=0.044) and combined socioeconomic status (p=0.024). These relationships persisted in multiple multinomial logistic regressions. Other variables, however, had no significant correlation. Conclusions: Patient education, combined socioeconomic status and living place are important variables in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer in Iranian women. Interventions have to be applied with the aim of raising women's accessibility to diagnostic and medical facilities and also awareness in order to reducing delay in referring. In addition, covering breast cancer screening services by insurance is recommended.

Direct Costs of Cervical Cancer Management in Morocco

  • Berraho, Mohamed;Najdi, Adil;Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone;Salamon, Roger;Nejjari, Chakib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3159-3163
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    • 2012
  • Background: For cervical cancer the epidemiological profile is poorly known in Morocco and no data is available concerning the direct medical costs. The purpose of this work is to estimate the direct cost of medical management of invasive cervical cancer during the first year after diagnosis in Morocco. Methods: The estimation of direct costs of medical management of invasive cervical cancer during the first year after diagnosis in Morocco is based on the estimation of individual cost in each stage which covers diagnosis, treatment and follow-up during first year. The cost was estimated per patient and whole cycle-set using the costs for each drug and procedure as indicated by the Moroccan National Agency for Health Insurance. Extrapolation of the results to the whole country was used to calculate the total annual cost of cervical cancer treatments in Morocco. Results: Overall approximately 1,978 new cases of cervical cancer occur each year in Morocco. The majority (82.96%) of these cases were diagnosed at a late stage (stageII or more). The cost of one case of cervical cancer depends on stage of diagnosis, the lowest cost is $382 for stageCis followed by the cost of stageIA1 for young women (< 40 years) which is $2,952. The highest cost is for stageIV, which is $7,827. The total cost of cervical cancer care for one year after diagnosis is estimated at $13,589,360. The share allocated to treatment is the most important part of the global care budget with an annual sum of $13,027,609 whereas other cost components are represented as follows: $435,694 for annual follow-up activity and $126,057 for diagnosis and preclinical staging. Conclusion: This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of health facilities in Morocco.

Determinants of Advanced Stage at Initial Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Pakistan: Adverse Tumor Biology vs Delay in Diagnosis

  • Khokher, Samina;Qureshi, Muhammad Usman;Mahmood, Saqib;Sadiq, Sadia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.759-765
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in Pakistan with the majority presenting with stage III or IV lesionsat initial diagnosis. Patient and health system related factors are well known determinants of delay in presentation and diagnosis. Additionally, breast cancer being a heterogeneous disease, the various molecular subtypes featuring different aggressiveness also need to be considered. The present study evaluated the association of stage at initial diagnosis of breast cancer with these two factors in local women at a tertiary level health care facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Patient and tumor features were recorded separately during diagnostic workup in Breast Clinics at INMOL and at Services Hospital, Lahore. Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Results: Among the 261 patients, 64% were staged as late breast cancer (LBC), the mean age was 46.8 with standard deviation of 13 years. Some 92% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 61% had luminal types (LT) of non-aggressive tumor while 39% had the non-luminal types (NLT) of of HER2-enriched or basal aggressive tumors. While 70% of patients presented within one year of symptomatic disease (early report group "ERG"), 30% reported after a mean delay of 4 years with a standard deviation of 3.75 years. The stage distribution among ERG patients was not statistically different from those reporting late (P=0.123). Statistically larger proportion of patients with NLT presented as LBC as compared to the LT (P =0.034). Among the ERG, statistically different stage distribution of disease was observed for the NLT versus LT (P=0.047). Among those presenting late, this difference was insignificant (P=0.416). Conclusions: Breast cancer is a distinct disease in Pakistan with a high frequency of aggressive molecular types affecting younger women, with the majority presenting as LBC. Association of NLT with higher stage at diagnosis is statistically significant whereas time delay in diagnosis is not. Further research is required to define the risk profile and features in local patients. The burden of LBC can be reduced by promoting breast health awareness and by establishing easily accessible dedicated breast care set ups in the hospitals.

Costs During the First Five Years Following Cancer Diagnosis in Korea

  • Shin, Ji-Yeon;Kim, So Young;Lee, Kun-Sei;Lee, Sang-Il;Ko, Young;Choi, Young-Soon;Seo, Hong Gwan;Lee, Joo-Hyuk;Park, Jong-Hyock
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3767-3772
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    • 2012
  • Objective: We estimated the total medical costs incurred during the 5 years following a cancer diagnosis and annual medical use status for the six most prevalent cancers in Korea. Methods: From January 1 to December 31, 2006, new patients registered with the six most prevalent cancers (stomach, liver, lung, breast, colon, and thyroid) were randomly selected from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, with 30% of patients being drawn from each cancer group. For the selected patients, cost data were generated using National Health Insurance claims data from the time of cancer diagnosis in 2006 to December 31, 2010. The total number of patients selected was 28,509. Five-year total medical costs by tumor site and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) stage at the time of diagnosis, and annual total medical costs from diagnosis, were estimated. All costs were calculated as per-patient net costs. Results: Mean 5-year net costs per patient varied widely, from $5,647 for thyroid cancer to $20,217 for lung cancer. Advanced stage at diagnosis was associated with a 1.8-2.5-fold higher total cost, and the total medical cost was highest during the first year following diagnosis and decreased by the third or fourth year. Conclusions: The costs of cancer care were substantial and varied by tumor site, annual phase, and stage at diagnosis. This indicates the need for increased prevention, earlier diagnosis, and new therapies that may assist in reducing medical costs.

Malignant Melanoma of the Foot (족부의 악성 흑색종)

  • Moon, Sung-Hoon;Park, Hong-Gi
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: We reviewed the clinical finding of malignant melanoma of the foot in korean because it's advanced stage and extended lesion at diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was enforced about the 11 cases who has diagnosed to malignant melanoma of the foot from February 1995 to March 2004. The mean follow up period was 61 months. In this study we used age, sex, site, depth, histology, clinical stage, precursor lesion, misdiagnosis, interval to diagnosis, survival time, survival. Results: Average age was 58 years and number of female was six. Common site of involvement were heel of plantar surface (6 cases) and subungual area (2 cases). Depths of involvement were 0.3 to 10 mm, most common histological type was acral lentiginous melanoma (7 cases), stage 5 according to classification of Clark were 5 cases and stage 2 or more according to clinical staging were 8 cases. precursor lesion were benign melanocytic nevi (2 cases) and ill defined (9 cases). Chief complaint were increasing of size, color change, pain and ulceration. Conclusion: Malignant melanoma of the foot usually arise at nonvisible area and is easy to be misdiagnosed or delayed treatment. So it is hard to early diagnosis and have poor prognosis. So we need education and effort to early detection and diagnosis.

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Development of the Nursing Database for Gastric Cancer Patients (위암환자를 위한 간호 데이터베이스 개발)

  • Jung, Kwuy-Im;Lee, Byung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.571-588
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : This study was to develop the nursing database for gastric cancer patients for clinical application. Method : Nursing data that development of this data base is comprehensive connected with gastric cancer patient nursing process frame to foundation as classification. Result : Each stage was processed based on the System Development Life Cycle. At the Strategy Planning stage, gastric cancer patient nursing process were analyzed. At the system Analysis Stage, database flowchart was drawn up based on frame of nursing process was drawn up. At the system Design Stage, a system was developed based on the flowchart and named the Nursing Database. The Nursing Database consisted of the patient's Basic Information, Patient's Nursing History, Discharge summary, Nursing Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, Nursing Intervention/activity, Nursing Evaluation, Statics, Code Registration. Each element in flowchart was coded and made into a database. Nursing Assessment classified according to Gorden's Health Pattern Typology, and nursing diagnosis draws the standard 27 name of Hanguls and connected with nursing assessment. Nursing intervention and nursing activity draw 192 of thing that present in NIC, connected this with nursing assessment. Nursing evaluation is linked with nursing assessment, diagnosis and intervention by achievement availability of nursing goals. Conclusion : The biggest advantage of this database nursing process that can manage nursing information exactly and rapidly to foundation be.

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Survival of Patients with Stomach Cancer and its Determinants in Kurdistan

  • Moradi, Ghobad;Karimi, Kohsar;Esmailnasab, Nader;Roshani, Daem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3243-3248
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    • 2016
  • Background: Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the world. In Iran, this type of cancer has high rates of incidence and mortality. This study aimed to assess the survival rate of patients with stomach cancer and its determinants in Kurdistan, a province with one of the highest incidence rates of stomach cancer in the country. Materials and Methods: We studied a total of 202 patients with stomach cancer who were admitted to Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj from 2009 to 2013. Using Kaplan-Meier nonparametric methods the survival rate of patients was calculated in terms of different levels of age at diagnosis, gender, education, residential area, occupation, underweight, and clinical variables including tumor histology, site of tumor, disease stage, and type of treatment. In addition, we compared the survival rates using the log-rank test. Finally, Cox proportional hazards regression was applied using Stata 12 and R 3.1.0 software. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was $64.7{\pm}12.0$ years. The survival rate of patients with stomach cancer was 43.9% and 7% at the first and the fifth year after diagnosis, respectively. The results of log-rank test showed significant relationships between survival and age at diagnosis, education, disease stage, type of treatment, and degree of being underweight (P<0.05). Moreover, according to the results of Cox proportional hazards regression model, the variables of education, disease stage, and type of treatment were associated with patient survival (P<0.05). Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with stomach cancer is low and the prognosis is very poor. Given the poor prognosis of the patients, it is critical to find ways for early diagnosis and facilitating timely access to effective treatment methods.