• Title, Summary, Keyword: squamous intraepithelial lesion

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Follow up of Atypical Squamous Cell Pap Smears in Iraqi Women

  • Pity, Intisar S.;Shamdeen, Maida Y.;Wais, Shawnim A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3455-3460
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To report the prevalence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesions and to determine the possible association of Pap test results with high-risk human papillomavirus and high squamous intraepithelial lesions in women from Duhok, Iraq. Design: A prospective, observational study was conducted between January 2005 and December 2011. Overall, 596 women with a cervicovaginal Pap test showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 93 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion for whom pathologic follow-up was available were studied. Follow-up consisted of repeat cytology, colposcopy and histology. High risk human papillomavirus DNA testing was performed on exfoliated cervical cells from 106 women, using conventional PCR after at least 36 months from the initial Pap smear. Results: Significantly high proportions of both atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (87.9%) and atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion (62.4%) demonstrated no significant lesion on subsequent follow up. Low squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 1.7% of cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and in 5.4% of atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion. High squamous intraepithelial lesion was demonstrated in 0.8% and 16.1% respectively. In the latter there was also one case of invasive carcinoma. High-risk HPV DNA was demonstrated in 40% of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 57.1% of atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesions. Conclusions: Since both atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion identify patients who are at an increased risk for the development of high squamous intraepithelial lesions and a considerable percentage harbor high risk-HPV, both should be retained as diagnostic categories and patients warrant a diligent follow up and testing for high risk-HPV DNA. Colposcopic evaluation and biopsy, when indicated, are a must.

Comparison of Qualified Diagnosis of "Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance" with Subsequent Biopsy ("Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance"의 질적 분류와 조직 소견과의 비교)

  • Koh, Jae-Soo;Chung, Jin-Haeng;Lee, Seung-Sook;Cho, Kyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate whether different qualifications of a cytologic diagnosis of "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASCUS)" predict a greater or lesser likelihood of tissue diagnosis of uterine cervix, we compared different cytologic qualifications of ASCUS with the tissue diagnosis. One hundred twenty-two consecutive Papanicolaou smears showing ASCUS in women who had undergone cervical biopsy within nearest 30 days were collected. The 122 smears were qualified as "favor reactive"(25%), "favor low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)"(24%), "favor squamous intraepithelial lesion(SIL)"(16%), "favor high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL)"(16%), and "not otherwise specified"(19%). Squamous intraepithelial or invasive lesion was pathologically confirmed by cervical biopsy in 13%, of the "favor reactive", 27% in "favor LSIL", 70% in "favor SIL", 75%, in "favor HSIL", and 35% in "not otherwise specified" smears. There were significant associations between the favor reactive smear and the benign biopsy finding and between the favor SIL smear and the biopsy shewing a squamous intraepithelial or more severe lesion. Nevertheless, most of favor LSIL smears exhibit reactive process in tissue biopsy. Conclusively, qualified ASCUS stratifies women Into different risk groups for SIL. The cytopathologist should make the cytologic diagnosis of "ASCUS, favor LSIL" circumspectly.

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Cytologic Features of Papillary Immature Metaplasia of Uterine Cervix (유두상 미성숙 화생의 자궁경부 세포진 소견)

  • Kim, Hye-Sun;Seon, Mee-Im;Kim, Yee-Jung;Kim, Hy-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2002
  • Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) of the uterine cervix (Immature condyloma) is a subset of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) which is frequently associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) types 6 and 11. The histologic features of PIM include filiform papillae lined by evenly spaced immature metaplastic-type cells with frequent nucleoli, mild anisokaryosis, and a low mitotic index. To characterize the cytologic changes associated with PIM, we analyzed 14 cases of PIM from our file. We reviewed biopsy slides and the cervicovaginal smears taken proximate to the time of blopsy. Histologically, nine cases had either flat condyloma (7 cases) or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (2 cases). Cytologic changes included cells in various stages of maturation with karyomegaly (14 cases), cells with irregularities in the nuclear membrane (13 cases), intermediate cells with karyomegaly(13 cases), cells with binucleatlon (13 cases), and aborted koliocytes (11 cases) Cervicovaginal smears from all cases were interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), NOS or ASCUS, rule out squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or LSIL in two cases with flat condyloma or HSIL in a case with severe dysplasia. PIM is a distinct histologic entity that can present with a spectrum of cytologic findings, but cytologic findings may resemble variable reactive conditions and immature HSIL. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose PIM by cytology alone. However, the meticulous efforts for making the cytologic diagnoses which can Induce active management of patients are recommended because PIM is a variant of LSIL and frequently has a flat condyloma or HSIL.

Performance of Siriraj Liquid-Based Cytology: a Single Center Report Concerning over 100,000 Samples

  • Sangkarat, Suthi;Laiwejpithaya, Somsak;Rattanachaiyanont, Manee;Chaopotong, Pattama;Benjapibal, Mongkol;Wongtiraporn, Weerasak;Laiwejpithaya, Sujera
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2051-2055
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate the performance of Siriraj liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical neoplasia screening after increasing use of this technology. Materials and Methods: Cytological reports of 103,057 Siriraj-LBC specimens obtained in 2007-2009 were compared with those of 23,676 specimens obtained in 2006. Results: Comparing with the year 2006, the 2007-2009 patients were slightly older ($43.4{\pm}12.yr$ vs $42.7{\pm}12.2yr$, p <0.001), and their specimens had much lower proportion of unsatisfactory slides (OR=0.06, 95%CI 0.04-0.09) with comparable detection rates (3.96% vs 3.70%, p=0.052) but different proportions of various cytological abnormalities (p<0.001). The 2007-2009 Siriraj-LBC had a negative predictive value (NPV) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) of 97.6% and an overall positive predictive value (PPV) of 43.9%. The PPV for CIN2+ varied with types of abnormal cytology, from 13.7% to 93.8% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively. The PPVs for CIN2+ in ASCUS and LSIL were comparable, but the PPV for CIN1 was higher for LSIL than for ASCUS (41.63% vs 16.32%). Conclusions: Siriraj-LBC has demonstrated a stable detection rate and NPV for CIN2+ of >95% since the first year of use. The comparable PPVs for CIN2+ of ASCUS and LSIL suggests that these two conditions may undergo similar management; other cytological abnormalities need immediate evaluation.

Assessment of Cervical Cytological Data in Albanian Females

  • Filipi, Kozeta;Xhani, Anila
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2129-2132
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies with high mortality rates in developing countries. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities by cervical cytology (CC) and the analysis of risk factors in Albanian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,416 conventional pap smear tests collected between January 2009 and January 2012 from Tirana University Hospital Obstetrics-Gynecology "Queen Geraldine" were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 258 (4.8%) cases had epithelial abnormalities. The numbers and rates were as follows: atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS; n=150 [2.76%]); atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS; n=8 [0.14%]); low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; n=87 [1.6%]); high- grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; n=10 [0.18%]); and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n=3 [0.05%]). Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormality in our study was 4.8%. A larger community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions, so as to plan for future screening.

Post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Complications in Srinagarind Hospital

  • Maleerat, Pimjai;Chumworathayi, Bandit;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke;Temtanakitpaisan, Amornrat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2211-2215
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) complications in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Retrospective chart review was performed for 200 patients undergoing LEEP during January 2012 to February 2013. Their mean age was 45 years-old. Fifty-three (26.5%) were menopausal. The three most common preceding abnormal cervical cytology were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; 50%), atypical squamous cell cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H; 10.5%), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; 10%). The overall complications prevalence rate was 16.5% (95%CI, 11.4-21.6). Complications included bleeding (11%; 95%CI, 6.66-15.3), offensive discharge (4%; 95%CI, 1.28-6.72), and pelvic inflammatory disease (1.5%; 95%CI, 0.18-3.18). Only mode of delivery was an independent predictor of post-LEEP complications. Women with previous caesarean sections carried an increased risk of complications by 3.9 times (95%CI, 1.21-12.56) compared with vaginal delivery. In conclusion, LEEP is generally safe with an acceptable complication rate. Previous caesarean section was the only independent predictor for post-LEEP complications. However, this predictor still needs prudent evaluation as no clear cause-effect relationship was identified.

Application of Human Papillomavirus in Screening for Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

  • Wang, Jin-Liang;Yang, Yi-Zhuo;Dong, Wei-Wei;Sun, Jing;Tao, Hai-Tao;Li, Rui-Xin;Hu, Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2979-2982
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    • 2013
  • Cervical cancer is a commonly-encountered malignant tumor in women. Cervical screening is particularly important due to early symptoms being deficient in specificity. The main purpose of the study is to assess the application value of cervical thinprep cytologic test (TCT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in screening for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. In the study, cervical TCT and HPV detection were simultaneously performed on 12,500 patients selected in a gynecological clinic. Three hundred patients with positive results demonstrated by cervical TCT and/or HPV detection underwent cervical tissue biopsy under colposcopy, and pathological results were considered as the gold standard. The results revealed that 200 out of 12,500 patients were abnormal by TCT, in which 30 cases pertained to equivocal atypical squamous cells (ASCUS), 80 cases to low squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 70 cases to high squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 20 cases to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). With increasing pathological grade of cervical biopsy, however, TCT positive rates did not rise. Two hundred and eighty out of 12,500 patients were detected as positive for HPV infection, in which 50 cases were chronic cervicitis and squamous metaplasia, 70 cases cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, 60 cases CIN II, 70 cases CIN III and 30 cases invasive cervical carcinoma. Two hundred and thirty patients with high-risk HPV infection were detected. With increase in pathological grade, the positive rate of high-risk HPV also rose. The detection rates of HPV detection to CIN III and invasive cervical carcinoma as well as the total detection rate of lesions were significantly higher than that of TCT. Hence, HPV detection is a better method for screening of cervical cancer at present.

Incidences of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2-3 or Cancer Pathologic Diagnoses in Patients with a High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Pap Smear Attending a Colposcopy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital

  • Ingkapairoj, Navakorn;Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke;Chumworathayi, Bandit;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Supoken, Amornrat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6203-6206
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) smears who had undergone the "see and treat" approach compared to those who underwent a conventional approach. The records of women with HSIL smears undergoing colposcopy at Srinagarind Hospital were reviewed. In those undergoing the conventional approach, the final histological diagnosis was made on the most severe histological results obtained after initial colposcopy. In the "see and treat" group, the final histological diagnosis was made on the examination of LEEP specimens obtained after initial colposcopy. Overtreatment in the see and treat group was defined as the LEEP specimens containing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less. During the study period, 302 women with HSIL underwent colposcopy. Twenty (6.6%) were nulliparous. One hundred and ninety-four (64.2%) underwent conventional management while the remaining 108 (35.8%) received the see and treat management. The prevalence of underlying high-grade lesions in women undergoing the conventional approach was significantly higher than that observed among women undergoing the see and treat approach (89.2% and 47.2%, respectively, P<0.001). The overtreatment rate in the see and treat group was 52.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that only parity status was a statistically significant factor for predicting the overtreatment after undergoing the see and treat approach. In conclusion, the overtreatment rate among women undergoing see and treat in this study is notably high and therefore this approach should not be routinely practiced.

PAX1 Methylation Analysis by MS-HRM is Useful in Triage of High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

  • Wang, Zhen-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.891-894
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    • 2014
  • This study is aimed to investigate the role of paired boxed gene 1 (PAX1) methylation analysis by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) in the detection of high grade lesions in atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) and compared its performance with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) test. In our study, 130 cases with a diagnosis of ASC-H from the cervical cytological screening by Thinprep cytologic test (TCT) technique were selected for triage. Their cervical scrapings were collected and evaluated by using PAX1 methylation analysis (MS-HRM) and high-risk HPV DNA test (HC2), followed by colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Chi-square test were used to test the differences of PAX1 methylation or HPV infection between groups. In the detection of CIN2+, the sensitivity, specificity, the PPV, NPV and the accuracy of PAX1 MS-HRM assay and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) tests were respectively 80.6% vs 67.7%, 94.9% vs 54.5%, 83.3%, vs 31.8%, 94.0% vs 84.4%, and 91.5% vs 57.7%. The PAX1 MS-HRM assay proved superior to HR-HPV testing in the detection of high grade lesions (CIN2+) in ASC-H. This approach could screen out the majority of high grade lesion cases of ASC-H, and thus could reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.

Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Cytology in HIV-Negative Women Participating in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Calmette Hospital, Cambodia

  • Hav, Monirath;Eav, Sokha;Heang, Nicole;Pich, Pintuna;Lim, Davy;Leang, Vitou;Korn, Aun;Lay, Sanine;Pluot, Michel;Kruy, Leangsim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3101-3103
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    • 2016
  • Background: According to the most recent estimation of GLOBOCAN, Cambodia has the highest incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Southeast Asia. A screen-and-treat strategy using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA test) and cryotherapy has been implemented in Cambodia's national cervical cancer screening program since 2013. However, where resources are available, cervical cytology with or without high-risk HPV DNA testing is the preferred screening method used in this country. Aim: This study aims to calculate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and explain the possible factors contributing to a reduced quality of cervical cytology among women participating in a hospital-based cervical cancer screening program in Cambodia. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using information from the cytology and pathology database in the Department of Pathology of Calmette Hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, based on the Bethesda 2001 classification, was calculated. Data on the adequacy of cytological specimens were analyzed in order to explain the factors contributing to a reduced quality of cervical cytology interpretation. Results: Among 6,207 women who participated in the cervical cancer screening program at Calmette Hospital during 2012 and 2015, 388 (6.25%) had abnormal cytology, which could be classified into Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (92 cases; 1.48%), Atypical Squamous Cells - Cannot Exclude High-Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (13 cases; 0.21%), Atypical Glandular Cells (11 cases; 0.18%), Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (221 cases; 3.56%), High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (26 cases; 0.42%), and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (25 cases; 0.40%). Unsatisfactory smears made up 12.2% of the total cases. The most frequently identified factor leading to unsatisfactory smears was the absence of cells from the transformation zone. Conclusions: The present study showed an overall prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology of 6.25%, which is comparable to that in many large population-based studies in the Asia Pacific region. Nevertheless, the remarkably high rate of unsatisfactory smears in this study justifies further improvement in specimen sampling among Cambodian gynecologists.