• Title, Summary, Keyword: spring ephemeral

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Responses of an herbaceous community to wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus Heude) disturbance in a Quercus mongolica forest at Mt. Jeombong, Korea

  • Lyang, Doo-Yong;Lee, Kyu-Song
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.205-216
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    • 2010
  • This research identified a disturbance regime caused by wild boar in a mature Quercus mongolica forest and analyzed the impact of this disturbance on the structure and distribution of herbaceous plants in Mt. Jeombong, Korea. We demonstrate that disturbance by wild boar was most frequent from winter to early spring, but also occurred year round. Areas which were frequently disturbed by wild boar included the mountain ridge, the mild slope on the north face, and sites with high concentration of Erythronium japonicum. The disturbance cycle by the wild boar in this region was estimated at approximately 2.8 years. The wild boar's reduced the community's species diversity and herbaceous coverage, and increased its evenness. This disturbance reduced the coverage of spring ephemeral; Veratrum nigrum var. ussuriense, Symplocarpus niponnicus, Anemone koraiensis and Corydalis turtschaninovii were particularly sensitive. In addition, summer green herbaceous plants such as Astilbe chinensis, Ainsliaea acerifolia, Meehania urticifolia, and Pimpinella brachycarpa were sensitive to the wild boar's. It was found that wild boar ate E. japonicum most selectively of all plants in this investigation area. In conclusion, together with micro-topography, wind, formation of gaps of a forest and rearrangement of litter layer, wild boar's disturbance is an important factor influencing the dynamic changes of an herbaceous community in a mature temperate hardwood forest.

Genetic Diversity and Structure of a Rare and Endemic, Spring Ephemeral Plant Corydalis filistipes Nakai of Ullung Island in Korea (울릉도 희귀.특산 식물 섬현호색의 유전적 다양성과 구조)

  • Kim, Jin-Seok;Yang, Byeong-Hoon;Chung, Jae-Min;Lee, Byeong-Cheon;Lee, Jae-Cheon
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2006
  • For the spring ephemeral and myrmecochorous perennia, Corydalis filistipes Nakai (Fumariaceae), rare and narrow endemic to Ullung Island in Korea, genetic diversity and structure of 4 subpopulations of the species were investigated with allozyme markers. Levels of genetic diversity (A=1.73, $P_{95%}$=61..2%, Ho=0.201, He=0.167) were relatively lower than those of other endemic species with widespread distribution range, but considerably higher than other endemic species with similar life history traits isolated in island. The moderate level of genetic diversity within subpopulations in C. filistipes is characteristic of the species with predominantly outcrossing, myrmecochorous seed dispersal by dual function of the elaisome and mode of sexual and asexual reproduction by the cleistogamy. The analysis of fixation indices showed an overall excess of heterozygotes (mean $F_{IS}=-0.1889,\;F_{IT}=-0.1226$) relative to H-W expectations. About 5.6% of the total genetic variation was found among subpopulations ($F_{ST}$=0.0557). The strategies of reasonable conservation and management, and the maintenance mechanism of genetic diversity of Corydalis filistipes Nakai, endemic plant species in Korea were discussed.

The characteristics of seed production in an Adonis multiflora (Ranunculaceae) population

  • Min, Byeong-Mee
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2014
  • A natural population of Adonis multiflora, a spring ephemeral herb growing in temperate deciduous forests, was studied to determine the seed production characteristics. Plant size, flowering time, and seed number were monitored from February 2009 to May 2011 in main growing season (i.e., from March through May). The biomass rates of the shoot and the root in the A. multiflora population were 22-24% and 76-78%, respectively, and the biomass of the root was proportional to that of the shoot. The flowering rate was 60% in the plants with 1 to 2 g of shoot biomass, and 100% in the plants with >2 g of shoot biomass. In the plants with root biomass between 4 and 6 g, the flowering rate was 43% and, in the plants with the root biomass over 8 g, it was 100%. The shoot biomass was a better predictor of the flower production probability than the root biomass. The number of flowers and seeds was closely correlated to shoot biomass at 1% significance level. The size of the plant that produced seed excessively instead of the shoot biomass in one year typically decreased in the next year and vice versa. The flowering time and its duration were closely related to the number of faithful seeds but not to that of total seeds. The number of faithful seeds was proportionate to flowering duration and inversely proportionate to flowering time (year day, YD). In a plant, the number of faithful seeds noticeably decreased with the inflorescence (i.e., order of flower in a plant), and this difference between the two successive flowers was significant at the 1% level between the first and the third flower in 2009 and 2011 but not between the third and the fourth. However, the number of total seeds was mostly similar in the first through the fourth flower for all three years.

The time and duration of flowering in an Adonis multiflora (Ranunculaceae) population

  • Min, Byeong-Mee
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2014
  • Adonis multiflora is a spring ephemeral herb growing in temperate deciduous forests. To determine the flowering properties of a natural population of A. multiflora, air temperature, flowering time, and flower-falling were monitored from February 2009 to May 2011. The A. multiflora population in this study started flowering in early March and ended it in mid-April. The average flowering duration of a flower was 14.4 days in 2009 and 19.6 days in 2011. The average duration of flower-falling was between 3.4 days and 4.2 days for three years. Cumulative flowering rate (CFR) was correlated with year day (YD), year day index (YDI), and Nuttonson's index (Tn), with correlation coefficients (CC) of over 0.9 at the 1% significance level; CC value between CFR and YD was the largest and that between CFR and YDI was the smallest. However, at the 5% significance level, CFR was closely related with Tn more than any other factors. The CCs between flowering times of two years in each plant were high and significant at 1% level. The YD value of flowering time of a flower was inversely related to its flowering duration significantly for three years. In a given plant, when more flowering started early, the flowering duration was longer. The first flower blossomed on 73.4 YD in 2010 and 78.9 YD in 2011, and remained for 16.7 days in 2009 and 27.4 days in 2011, respectively; the fifth flower developed on 92.5 YD in 2010 and 96.6 YD in 2011, and remained for 8.0 days in 2009 and 14.6 days in 2011. The YD differences between the flowering times of two flowers decreased in the order of inflorescence.

Several Growth Properties of Pes-gallinaceua (Corydalis, Fumariaceae) Group (현호색속 Pes-gallinaceua절 집단의 생장특성)

  • 민병미
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2003
  • Frequencies of each size class, annual change of tuber state and above ground/belowground rate in sect. Pes-gallinaceua group of Corydalis (Fumariaceae) were studied to clarify spring ephemeral´s growth characteristics from 1999 to 2000 in Namhansansung area. Shoot grew from the tuber corresponding with soil thawing in the early growth season, and the deeper tuber was located in soil, the later shoot germinated. Shoot appeared in middle March and died early in May, and the period of total growth season was 45 days. Frequencies were 40% (in total dry weight) or 53% (in tuber´ dry weight) in the smallest size class, and 93% (in total dry weight) or 96% (in tuber´ dry weight) below medium size, therefore, almost all of plants were small. Specific gravity of tuber (SGT) gradually decreased from late growth season to the time that leaf unfolded in next year. At this time, the value of SGT was 0.14. Thereafter, SGT increased to 0.42 at withering time of aboveground part. During growth season, the SGT of flowering plants was lower than that of non-flowering plants. And SGT difference between flowering plants and non-flowering plants was significant at 1% level. In the late growth season, SGT decreased along the increase of tuber volume. The tuber volume roughly increased along the leaf area but there was no a conspicuous trend. Shoot/tuber rate had nothing to do with tuber volume. SGT decreased and leaf area increased along the tuber dry weight, and tendencies of increase or decrease were conspicuous. Therefore, the smaller the plants were, the larger organic matter accumulated in tuber during a growth season. Shoot/tuber rates were various along each plant.

Seasonal Community Structure and Vertical Distribution of Medicinal Seaweeds at Kkotji in Taean Peninsula, Korea (태안반도 꽃지 약용해조의 계절적 군집구조 및 수직분포)

  • Lee, Ki-Hun;Yoo, Hyun-Il;Choi, Han-Gil
    • ALGAE
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.209-219
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    • 2007
  • Marine algal flora and community structure of medicinal seaweeds were examined at Kkotji of Taean Peninsula, Korea from May 2005 to January 2006. Seventy-nine seaweeds including 42 medicinal algae and one marine plant were identified. Sargassum thunbergii was the representative alga occurred at all seasons and shore levels. The dominant medicinal seaweeds were perennial S. thunbergii, Neorhodomela aculeata, and Corallina pilulifera, and ephemeral Monostroma grevillei, Porphyra yezoensis, and Ulva pertusa. Their vertical distribution were N. aculeata – P. yezoensis, M. grevillei, and U. pertusa – C. pilulifera from high to low intertidal zone. The average biomass of medicinal seaweeds varied from 34.17 g m–2 in spring to 56.41 g m–2 in summer. At Kkotji shore, the opportunistic species (Enteromorpha, Ulva, and Cladophora) and turf-forming algae (Caulacanthus okamurae and Gelidium divaricatum) were easily observed. Such fast growing ESG II (ecological state group) was 87.50% and slow growing perennial algae, ESG I was only 12.15%. Also, diversity index (H’) and dominance index (DI) indicate that the seaweed community of Kkotji is unstable. Therefore, Kkotji rocky shore should be more protected from human activities such as turbulence and eutrophication in order to maintain species diversity and abundance of medicinal seaweeds.

The Effects of Mircroenvironmental Heterogeneity on the Spatial Distribution of Herbaceous Species in a Temperate Hardwood Forest (온대낙엽수림에서 미소환경요인의 공간 이질성이 임상초본식물의 공간분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyu-Song;Cho, Do-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.255-266
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    • 2000
  • 생물권보전지역으로 지정된 점봉산의 온대낙엽수림(참나무 성숙림)에서 임상초본식물의 공간분포를 정량화하고, 이들의 공간분포에 미치는 미소환경요인의 영향을 파악하였다. 대부분의 임상초본식물들은 영구 방형구내 미소지소간에 큰 변이를 나타내었다. 초봄에 출현하는 임상초본식물중 공간의존도가 높은 식물은 현호색, 애기나리 및 노랑제비꽃이었고, 가을에 출현하는 임상초본식물중 공간의존도가 높은 식물은 벌깨덩굴, 쌀새 및 도라지모시대이었다. 초봄에 출현하는 홀아비바람꽃과 얼레지 그리고 가을에 출현하는 도라지모시대와 쌀새의 공간의존거리가 상대적으로 짧은 편이었다. 초봄에 출현하는 노랑제비꽃, 애기나리 및 얼레지는 관목이 적고, 낙엽층이 얇으며,토심이 깊고, 토양수분함량, 유기물함량 및 염기성양이온함량이 상대적으로 적은 생육지를 선호하였고, 애기앉은부채 와 현호색은 관목이 밀집하고, 낙엽층이 두꺼우며, 토심이 얇고, 유기물함량, 토양수분함량 및 영양염류함량이 높은 생육지를 선호하였다. 오리방풀은 빛조건이 좋고, 낙엽층이 두꺼우며, 토양수분함량과 영양염류가 풍부한 생육지를 선호하였고, 단풍취, 대사초, 개별꽃, 참취, 쌀새 및 도라지모시대는 토심이 깊고, 낙엽층이 얇으며, 토양수분함량과 영양염류함량이 상대적으로 적은 생육지를 선호하였다. 본 참나무 성숙림에서 토양수분함량, 유기물함량 및 영양염류함량은 바람, 미소지형 및 관목의 밀집정도에 의해 공간적으로 재배치되는 낙엽층 두께에 의해 영향을 받고 있기 때문에 초봄과 가을에 관찰되는 임상초본식물의 공간분포는 낙엽층의 불균등한 분포에 의해 가장 큰 영향을 받고 있는 것으로 추정되었다.

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Growth Environment and Vegetation Structure of Native Habitat of Corydalis cornupetala (쇠뿔현호색 (Corydalis cornupetala Y.H.Kim et J.H.Jeong) 자생지의 생육환경과 식생구조)

  • Sung, Jung-Won;Yi, Myung-Hoon;Yoon, Jung-Won;Kim, Gi-Song;Shin, Hyun-Tak;Kim, Yong-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2013
  • The species of Corydalis cornupetala Y.H.Kim et J.H.Jeong Which is belong to the Corydaliaceae is only distributed at the Gyaejeong Forest in Gyeongsan. As one of the spring ephemeral plants, this species has limited growing period. The present study is on site characteristics and vegetation structure in the wild habitats of Corydalis cornupetala Y.H.Kim et J.H.Jeong and offers basic information on habitat conservation including recovery plan. The soil texture is silty loam and soil acidity is ranged as pH 5.4~5.9. The electric conductivity was 0.22-0.50 ds/m and soil organic content is ranged as 7.61~15.78 %. Fifty nine vascular plants were identified from 5 quadrats. According to the two way cluster analysis applied by the PC-ORD, the community was classified as Acer ginnala, Vicia amoena and Stellaria aquatica. The habitat of Corydalis cornupetala Y.H.Kim et J.H.Jeong was determined by the dissimilarity indices rather than the species number of appearance. Species diversity was 1.26, and dominance and evenness were found to be 0.08 and 0.92, respectively.

Seed Production of Pes-gallinaceua(Corydalis, Fumariaceae) Group (현호색속 Pes-gallinaceua절 집단의 종자생산)

  • 민병미
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2003
  • Properties of seed production in Corydalis, spring ephemeral, group were studied during two years at Namhansansung area. Corydalis´ flower was out in the early April and its seed dispersed in the early May. The period of total seed production was 30 days. The decrease rate of sex organs was the highest between deflowering time and early fruiting time. The numbers of flower and seed per plant were in the range of 1∼13 and 0∼76, respectively. And the number of seed per fruit was from zero to twenty. In a plant, seed production was the most (11.8 seeds) in the lowest fruit and conspicuously decreased along the upward fruit. In the same plant, seed production was various by each year. The plants of small tuber size produced more seeds and those of large tuber size produced fewer seeds in the next year than this year. In the early growth season, the flowering plants/total plants rate increased in proportion to plant size (tuber volume), the rate of the smallest size class (<100 ㎣) was in the range of 5.0%(1999)∼5.4%(2000), those over the 600 ㎣ size classes were 100%. The number of flower per plant at the same size class were higher in 2000 than in 1999. Especially, at the size class of 900 ㎣≤, the numbers of flower per plant were 13.2 in 2000 and 6.5 in 1999. In the late growth season, the flowering plants/total plants rates were 13.3%in the smallest size class (<100 ㎣)and 100% over the 500 ㎣ size classes. Therefore, the flowering plants/total plants rates along the size classes were higher in the late growth season than in the early one. The bumer of fruit or seed per plant increased in proportion to the volume and dry weight of tuber, there was not significant and varied along each plant in the same size class. The number of fruit or seed per plant conspicuously increased in proportion to the leaf area. Therefore, it was thought that seed production was related to photosynthetic ability during growth season.

Survey on Korean-native Calves Diseases and Mortality (한우 송아지의 질병발생과 폐사율 조사)

  • 강문일;한동운;정용운;정도영;이채용;이정길;위성환;조재진
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.223-241
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    • 2001
  • From September 1996 to September 1999, 419 Korean-native calves with diseases under 6-month old collected from Kyonggi, Chungcheong, Chonlla and Kyongsang were examined by clinical, microbiological, parasitic, hematologic and histopathological mean. Among them, 124 cases were tested about the neutralization antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus(IBRV), Parainfluenza-3 virus(PI-3V), bovine uiral diarrhea virus(BVDV), bovine ephemeral fever virus(BEFV). In calf diseases in the survey, enteric diseases(72.8%) were most frequently involved and the following orders were taken by respiratory(17.4%) and reproductive (5.0%) disorders. In the causative pathogens associated with calf diseases and motality, 48.4% was induced by bacteria origin and also 35.6% by viral agents. Calf mortality was up to 76.3% in the cae of bacterial diseases and 55.7% in viral diseases. In bacterial diseases, frequent disorders were composed of colibacillosis(52.7%), salmonellosis(13.8%), pasteurellosis(12.8%) and campylobacteriosis(3.9%) and their mortalities showed 73.8% in colibacillosis, 73.0% in pasteurellosis, 67.9% in salmonellosis and 50.0% in campylobacteriosis (50.0%). Among the outbreaks of viral diseases, there were BVD(22.8%), bovine rotavirus infection(20.8%), bovine coronavirus infection(16.8%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection(15.4%), IBR(15.4%). Akabane disease(4.7%) and Chuzan diseases(3.4%). Interesting results through this studies were obtained the first isolate to Chuzan virus and Ainovirus in Korea which could be promised the development for diagnostic method and vaccines soon. Calf mortality to Akabane and Chuzan diseases was 100%. Main parasitic diseases were occupied by coccidiosis and babesiosis and their mortality of babesiosis was 20.0%. Other diseases were abomasal impaction(6.7%) and toxicosis(4.5%). The mortality of abomasal impaction was 89.3%. In some causes with malformations(1.9%) were confirmed as anasarca, derodidymus, polymelia, humerus hypoplasia, and tracheal collapse. Calf diseases had mostly been occurred in one month old grout (52.5%) and its prevalence was 25.1% in two to three month old group and 22.4% in four to six month old group. In calf mortality by age, there were 37.9% in one month old group, 18.1% in two and three month old group, and 13.8% in four to six month old group, respectively. The older the age of calf, the less the prevalence of calf enteric diseases. Respiratory diseases in calves to be tested frequently occurred in one to two month old group (41.4%). In one month old calves, the prevalence of enteric disease was 80.0%(p<0.05) and that of reproductive and respiratory disease was 9.5% and 8.2%, respectively. In two month old and four to six month old, enteric disease was 65.7% and 63.8% and respiratory disease was 28.6% and 26.6%. Seasonal prevalence and mortality of Korean-native calf diseases were not a significant difference. Prevalence of calf diseases in summer(31.5%) frequently occurred to compare that in winter(20.3%). Abortion and malformation in calves frequently occurred in spring. Hematological values in 84 calves with clinical signs showed mild to marked leukocytosis. Also, there was slight increase in hematocrit, platelet, mean corpuscular volume and mean plasma volume, but all of those were included the higher level to normal ranges. Calves with respiratory signs showed slightly erythrocytosis. One hundred seventy three calves without clinical signs were not significant different to ill cases in hematological values, but number of platelets was in higher normal range. In 125 calves, 84.8% was taken the antibody to IBRV, but 72% with the antibody had recorded the titer level lower than log$_2$5. The neutralizing antibody levels of higher than $log_{2}5$ to PI-3V and BVD virus were 60.8% and 67.2% cases, respectively. There were the cases of 57.6% had the neutralizing antibody level lower than log$_2$5 to BEFV.

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