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Isolation, Quality Evaluation, and Seasonal Changes of Bakkenolide B in Petasites japonicus by HPLC (머위로부터 Bakkenolide B의 순수분리, HPLC분석 방법 및 채취 시기별 함량 분석)

  • Kim, Tae Hoon;Kim, Do Youn;Jung, Won Jung;Nagaiya, Ravichandran;Son, Beung Gu;Park, Young Hoon;Kang, Jum Soon;Lee, Young Jae;Im, Dong-Soon;Lee, Young-Geun;Choi, Yung Hyun;Choi, Young-Whan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.252-259
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    • 2014
  • The leaves of Peatasites japonicus are a traditional oriental medicine with diverse biological activities. A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of bakkenolide B constituents from methanolic extract of the leaves of P. japonicus was developed. Bakkenolide B was isolated from the leaves of P. japonicus, and its structure was elucidated based on 1D, 2D NMR, and GC-MS spectral data. A liquid chromatographic method was developed to evaluate the quality of P. japonicus through determination of major active compound, bakkenolide B. The wavelengths at 254 and 215 nm were chosen to determine bakkenolide B. The recovery of the method was in the range of 98.6 to 103.1%, and bakkenolide B showed good linearity ($r^2$=0.999) within test ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of bakkenolide B in the plant part and seasonal changes. The results showed that the content of bakkenolide B in the leaf was higher than in the petiole and rhizome. In this study, a simple, rapid, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the percentage and composition of bakkenolide B in P. japonicus procured from different Petasites species plants in South Korea. The method can be employed in routine quantitative analysis and quality control of different products in the market.

Quantum Chemical Calculations of the Effect of Si-O Bond Length on X-ray Raman Scattering Features for MgSiO3 Perovskite (양자화학계산을 이용한 Si-O 결합길이가 MgSiO3 페로브스카이트의 X-선 Raman 산란 스펙트럼에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Yi, Yoo Soo;Lee, Sung Keun
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2014
  • Probing the electronic structures of crystalline Mg-silicates at high pressure is essential for understanding the various macroscopic properties of mantle materials in Earth's interior. Quantum chemical calculations based on the density functional theory are used to explore the atomic configuration and electronic structures of Earth materials at high pressure. Here, we calculate the partial density of states (PDOS) and O K-edge energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) spectra for $MgSiO_3$ perovskite at 25 GPa and 120 GPa using the WIEN2k program based on the full-potential linearized projected augmented wave (FP-LPAW) method. The calculated PDOS and O K-edge ELNES spectra for $MgSiO_3$ Pv show significant pressure-induced changes in their characteristic spectral features and relative peak intensity. These changes in spectral features of $MgSiO_3$ Pv indicate that the pressure-induced changes in local atomic configuration around O atoms such as Si-O, O-O, and Mg-O length can induce the significant changes on the local electronic structures around O atoms. The result also indicates that the significant changes in O K-edge features can results from the topological densification at constant Si coordination number. This study can provide a unique opportunity to understand the atomistic origins of pressure-induced changes in local electronic structures of crystalline and amorphous $MgSiO_3$ at high pressure more systematically.

A Study on the Imitation and Transformation of Gugok-Wonlim Culture through Management of the Myungam Jeong Sik's Muyi-Gugok in Sancheong (명암(明庵) 정식(鄭拭)의 산청 무이구곡(武夷九曲) 원림경영을 통해 본 구곡문화의 모방과 변용)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.84-94
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    • 2015
  • This study is to examine how the admiration for Chutzu(朱子)'s achievement while he was preaching his policies after renouncing the world in Wuyi-Gugok(武夷九曲), Mt. Wuyi and Joseon-style transformation culture were unfolded and developed through Gugok management cases such as position, name, poetic diction, Jungsa(精舍) architecture and engraving of Muyi-Gugok set in Mt. Gugok, Snacheong. The results were as follows: Myungam(明庵) Jeong Sik(鄭拭, 1683~1746)'s Muyi-Gugok, which consists of Suhongkyo(垂虹橋, gok 1) - Oknyeobong(玉女峰) - Nhongwhaldam(弄月潭) - Nacwhadam(落花潭) - Daeeunbyeong(大隱屛) - Gwangpyungryea(光風瀨) - Jaewhaldae(霽月臺) - Gorooam(鼓樓巖) - Wharyongpok(臥龍瀑, gok 9) is the representative case where Chutzu's Wuyi-Gugok was exactly copied and fulfilled to the Joseon Dynasty. In a large frame, Gugok Wonlim culture, Myungam's Muyi-Gugok management has a will of succession of Dotong(道統) through admiration for Chutzu in a rigid way. Another name of Mt. Gugok is Mt. Muyi and Gugok's name is Muyi-Gugok and the residence existed between gok 4 and gok 5. In addition, the name of Jeongsa for Gugok management is also 'Muyi Jeongsa(武夷精舍)' and Gugok name and contents of Poetry are also similar and all of these are clear evidence that Myungam tries to copy Chutzu's Wuyi-Gugok to Mt. Gugok. Also, Gugok set before Myungam were located in Mt. Gugok and among them, verified four Gugok names are corresponded to those of Chutzu's Wuyi-Gugok and it tells that conforming behavior as one of admiration ways for Chutzu already arrived at Mt. Gugok before Myungam and this was an oppotunty to widen Mt. Gugok Muyi-Gugok's tradition and horizon. Also, considering that Myungam's gok 6, Gwangpyungryea and gok 7, Jewoldae are names from 'Gwangpungjewol(光風霽月)' Based on Chutzu's poem and they are closely related to Joseon's classical scholar spirit, they are associated with Joseon-style transformation of Chutzu's Muyi-Gugok. Meanwhile, gok 5 'Daeeunbyeong' was transformed to 'Nangaam(爛柯巖)' in gok 5 - "Deoksan-Gugok(德山九曲) of Jooko(竹塢) Ha Beom-Woon(河範運, 1792~1858) and those characters's engravings are handed down. In "Pome of Deoksan Gugok" transformed from Myungam's Muyi-Gugok, respect and admiration for Chutzu is weaken while Ha Beom-Woon admires Nammyeong(南冥) Cho shik(曺植, 1501~1572), a symbolic character of himself's school and from this, a movement to promote partisan unity is identified. After Myungam died, Muyi-Gugok in Mt. Gugok was transformed from a space to succeed Chutzu's Dotonga to one to commemorate the memory of ancient sages, but, it is a typicality case that widen the spectrum of Joseon's Gugok-Wonlim culture through Muyi-Gugok's imitation and transformation.

Characteristics of Flora on Dry Field Margins in Korean Peninsula (밭경작지 주변부의 식물 종조성 및 특성)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Choe, Lak-Jung;Hong, Seong-Chang;Jung, Goo-Bok;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Han, Donguk;Oh, Young-Ju;Lee, Wook-Jae;Yang, Dongwoo;Park, Sangkyu;Na, Young-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.77-90
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: The field margins, which are uncultivated area of permanent vegetation located adjacent to field, play an important role in enhancing biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. This study focused on floristic characteristics on dry field margins in Korea Peninsula. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted at margins of 196 dry fields in 32 areas in 8 provinces in May and September 2013. The vascular plants of the dry field margins were listed 347 taxa which contain 73 families, 219 genera, 311 species, 1 subspecies, 30 varieties and 5 forms. Of these 347 taxa, 48 taxa were woody plants and 299 taxa were herbaceous plants. Among total 73 families, Compositae (17.6%) was the most dominant family, and followed Gramineae (15.9%), Polygonaceae (5.8%), Leguminosae (4.9%) and Cyperaceae (3.8%). Based on relative frequency values of survey fields, the appearance frequency of Digitaria ciliaris (89.8%) was the highest, and followed Acalypha australis (86.2%), Artemisia princeps (82.1%), Commelina communis (80.6%) and Portulaca oleracea (80.6%). Disturbance index of dry field margins was 55.0% at national level, and Gangwon region was the highest among the 8 regions at regional level. Life form spectrum was determined to be $Th-R_5-D_4-etype$. CONCLUSION: These results will be used fundamental data for studies to improve or even stabilize the current state of plant biodiversity in agricultural environments.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: a Retrospective Analysis at a Single Center (소아 환자에서 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia와 인공 환기요법 관련 폐렴에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Kee;Choi, Soo-Han;Kim, Soo Jin;Cho, Joong Bum;Ae, Hong;Yoo, So-young;Kim, Ji Hye;Lee, Nam Young;Kim, Yae-Jean
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious threat in critically ill pediatric patients. Data regarding Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VAP in pediatric population is limited. We evaluated the clinical data of S. maltophilia associated VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in pediatric patients 18 years old or younger who developed S. maltophilia associated VAP at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul Korea from January 2008 to December 2012. Results: A total of 31 patients were identified S. maltophilia associated VAP. Median age was 8 months (range, 0.5 month to 16.6 years) and 13 patients were male (40.6%). Underlying illnesses were cardiologic diseases (n=11, 34.4%), hematologic oncologic malignancies (n=7, 25%), neurologic diseases (n=4, 12.5%), pulmonary diseases (n=3, 9.4%), and others (n=4, 12.5%). The median duration of ventilator use before S. maltophilia VAP diagnosis was 14 days (range, 4-256 days). Overall mortality at 30 days was 12.5% (4/32). Conclusions: S. maltophilia should be also considered as a possible pathogen for VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Empiric antibiotic choice should include agents that are active against S. maltophilia in patients who are deteriorating on broad spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents.

Minimal Invasive Surgery: A National Survey of Its Members by the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (최소 침습 수술: 대한소아외과학회 회원을 대상으로 한 전국조사)

  • Kim, Dae Yeon;Kim, I.S.;Kim, H.Y.;Nam, S.H.;Park, K.W.;Park, W.H.;Park, Y.J.;Park, J.H.;Park, J.Y.;Park, J.S.;Park, J.Y.;Boo, Y.J.;Seo, J.M.;Seol, J.Y.;Oh, J.T.;Lee, N.H.;Lee, M.D.;Jang, J.H.;Jung, K.H.;Jung, S.Y.;Jung, S.E.;Jung, S.M.;Jung, E.Y.;Jung, J.H.;Cho, M.J.;Choi, K.J.;Choi, S.J.N.;Choi, S.O.;Choi, S.H.;Choi, Y.M.;Hong, J.
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Minimal invasive surgery (MIS) has rapidly gained acceptance for the management of a wide variety of pediatric diseases. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons. Thirty one members (25.4%) took part in the survey that included data for the year 2012: demographic details, opinion regarding minimal invasive surgery and robotic surgery, spectrum of minimally invasive operations, and quantity of procedures. 48.4% of the respondents had more than 10 years experience, 35.5% less than 10 years experience, and 16.1 % had no experience. The respondents of the recommend MIS and perform MIS for surgical procedures are as follow; inguinal hernia (61.3%), simple appendicitis (87.1%), complicated appendicitis (80.6%), reduction of intussusceptions (83.9%), pyloromyotomy (90.3%), fundoplication (96.8%), biopsy and corrective surgery of Hirschsprung's disease (93.5%/90.3%), imperforate anus (77.4%), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (80.6%), and esophageal atresia (74.2%). The MIS procedures with more than 70% were lung resection (100%), cholecystectomy (100%), appendectomy (96.2%), ovarian torsion (86.7%), fundoplication (86.8%), hiatal hernia repair (82.6%), and splenectomy (71.4%). The MIS procedures with less than 30% were congenial diaphragmatic hernia reapir (29.6%), esophageal atresia (26.2%), correction of malroatation (24.4%), inguinal hernia repair (11.4%), anorectal malformation (6.8%), Kasai operation (3.6%).

A Case of Citrullinemia Type 1 in ASS 1 Mutation (ASS 1 유전자 돌연변이로 확진된 시트룰린혈증 1형 1례)

  • Yim, Dae kyoon;Huh, Rimm;Kwun, Younghee;Lee, Jieun;Cho, Sung Yoon;Park, Hyung Doo;Jin, Dong-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • Citrullinemia type1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle characterized by neonatal or late onset of hyperammonemia caused by a deficiency of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). An ASS1 deficiency demonstrates fatal clinical manifestations that are characterized by the neonatal metabolic coma and early death when untreated. It causes a broad spectrum of effects, ranging from a mild disorder to a severe mental retardation, epilepsy, neurologic deficits. An acute neonatal form is the most common. Infants are normal at birth followed by an acute illness characterized by vomiting, lethargy, seizures and coma. These medical problems are life-threatening in many cases. A later onset form is less frequent and may be milder than the neonatal form. This later-onset form is associated with severe headaches, visual dysfunction, motor dysfunction, and lack of energy. Citrullinemia type1 is caused by mutations in the ASS1 gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes argininosuccinate synthetase, the third enzyme of the urea cycle catalyzing the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid. The enzyme is distributed in tissues including liver and fibroblasts. This mutation leads to hyperammonemia, arginine deficiency and elevated citrulline level. In the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase catalyses the conversion of citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate.. Here, we describe a female newborn patient with lethargy, rigidity and hyperammonemia who was diagnosed as citrullinemia type1 with a c.[421-2A>G], c.[1128-6_1188dup] mutation.

Measurement of Environmental Radiation Using Medical Scintillation Detector in Well Counter System (의료용 우물형 섬광계수기를 이용한 환경 방사선 측정)

  • Lyu, Kwang Yeul;Park, Yeon-joon;Kim, Min-jeong;Ham, Eun-hye;Yoon, Ji-yeol;Kim, Hyun-jin;Min, Jung Hwan;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 2015
  • After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, concerns about radiation by people are increasing rapidly. If people could know how much they will be exposed by radiation, it may help them avoiding it and understand what exactly radiation is. By doing this, we were helping to reduce the anxiety of radiation contamination. In this study, we have researched figures of radioactivity with 'Captus-3000 thyroid uptake measurement systems' in well counter detector system. The materials were measured with Briquette, Shiitake, Pollock, Button type battery, Alkaline battery, Topsoil, Asphalt, Gasoline, Milk powder, Pine, Basalt stone, Pencil lead, Wasabi, Coarse salt, Tuna(can) Cigar, Beer, and then we categorized those samples into Land resources, Water resources, Foodstuff and Etc (Beer classified as a water resources has been categorized into Foodstuff). Also, we selected the standard radiation source linear 137Cs to measure the sensitivity of well counter detector. After that, we took cpm(counter per minute) for the well counter detector of thyroid uptake system's sensitivity. Then we compared the results of each material's cpm and converted those results to Bq/kg unit. There were a little limitation with the measurement equipment because it has less sensitivity than other professional equipment like 'High purity germanium radiation detector'. Moreover, We didn't have many choices to decide the materials. As a result, there are macroscopic differences among the rates of material's spectrum. Therefore, it had meaningful results that showed how much each material had emitted radiation. To compare the material's cpm with BKG, we've compounded their spectrums. By doing that, we were able to detect some differences among the spectrums at specific peak section. Lastly, Button type battery, Alkaline Battery, Briquette, Asphalt and Topsoil showed high value. There were classified emitting high radiation Group A and emitted lower radiation Group B. The Group A, alkaline battery showed higher rate of radiation by 7.67 %, and Button type battery was yield 4.65 % higher rate than BKG. Additionally, Asphalt (8.03 %), Topsoil (3.76 %), Briquette (7.46 %) were yield for higher values. Several samples of the daily supplies were yield little higher, but it seems safe to use in daily lives. In the case of the 'Foodstuff', all of the samples were safe and they were under the radiation limits of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for Food; thus, we highly recommend this study to you as a reference of common daily routine.

The treatment of an edentulous patient with DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM Denture (CAD/CAM Denture를 이용한 완전 무치악 환자 수복 증례)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Cho, In-Ho;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Nowadays, CAD/CAM is broadly used in dentistry for inlays, crowns, implant abutments and its spectrum is expanding to complete dentures. Utilizing CAD/CAM to fabricate complete dentures is expected to decrease chair time and the number of visits, thus decreasing total fabrication time, expenses and errors caused during fabrication processes. One of the systems using CAD/CAM, DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM denture (DENTCA Inc. Los Angeles, USA) scans edentulous impressions, designs dentures digitally, fabricates try-in dentures by 3D printing and converts them into final dentures. Patients can wear final dentures after only 2 - 3 visits with satisfying adaptation. This case report introduces a 71-year-old male patient who visited to consult remaking of existing old dentures. Residual teeth with bad prognosis and root remnants were extracted and the patient used reformed existing mandibular denture for 2 months. And then DENTCA system started. One-step border molding was done using conventional tray of adequate size provided by DENTCA system and wash impression was taken. Gothic arch tracing was completed based on the vertical dimension of existing dentures. Both maxillary and mandibular trays were placed to the resultant centric relation and bite registration was taken. Then DENTCA scanned the bite registration, arranged the teeth, completed the festooning and fabricated the try-in dentures by 3D printing. The try-in dentures were positioned, occlusal plane and occlusal relations were evaluated. The try-in dentures were converted to final dentures. To create bilateral balanced occlusion, occlusal adjustment was done after clinical remounting using facebow transfer. The result was satisfactory and it was confirmed by patient and operator.

Isolation and Structure Identification of Photosensitizer from Perilla frutescens Leaves Which Induces Apoptosis in U937 (들깻잎(Perilla frutescens)으로부터 U937 세포에 apoptosis를 유도하는 광과민성 물질의 분리 및 구조동정)

  • Ha, Jun Young;Kim, Mi Kyeong;Lee, Jun Young;Choi, Eun Bi;Hong, Chang Oh;Lee, Byong Won;Bae, Chang Hwan;Kim, Keun Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we tried to separate the photosensitizer that induces apoptosis of leukemia cells (U937) from perilla leaves. Perilla leaves (Perilla frutescens Britt var. japonica Hara) are a popular vegetable in Korea, being rich in vitamins (A and E), GABA, and minerals. Dried perilla leaves were extracted with methanol to separate the photosensitizer by various chromatographic techniques. The structure of the isolated compound (PL9443) was identified by 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and FAB-mass spectroscopy. Absorbance of the UV-Vis spectrum was highest at 410 nm and was confirmed by the 330, 410, and 668 nm. PL9443 compound was determined to be pheophorbide, an ethyl ester having a molecular weight of 620. It was identified as a derivative compound of pheophorbide structure when magnesium comes away from a porphyrin ring. Observation of morphological changes in U937 cells following cell death induced by treated PL9443 compound revealed representative phenomena of apoptosis only in light irradiation conditions (apoptotic body, vesicle formation). Results from examining the cytotoxicity of PL9443 substance against U937 cells showed that inhibition rates of the cell growth were 99.9% with the concentration of 0.32 nM PL9443. Also, the caspase-3/7 activity was 99% against U937 cells with the concentration of 0.08 nM of PL9443 substance. The result of the electrophoresis was that a DNA ladder was formed by the PL9443. The PL9443 compound is a promising lead compound as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer.