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Immunomodulatory Effects of Propolis and Fermented-propolis in BALB/c Mice (프로폴리스 및 발효 프로폴리스의 섭취가 BALB/c mice의 면역활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yoon-Hee;Kwon, Hyuck-Se;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Park, IL-Hwan;Park, Sang-Jae;Shin, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.574-579
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    • 2008
  • Propolis is the generic term for the resinous substance collected by honey bees from a variety of plant sources. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulatory properties of propolis (P) and fermented-propolis (FP) in BALB/c mice. Mice were subjected to gavage once a day (for 14 days) with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight P, FP, or vehicle. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the immune cell proportions, proliferative activities, and cytokine production were evaluated. The P- and FP-administration induced similar, but differential, alterations in the percentage of immune cell populations and their biological functions, including cytokine production and NK cell cytotoxicity. The proportion of$ CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ T cells in the spleen was increased slightly in the P- and FP-administered mice as compared to the vehicle-treated mice. In MLN, the percentage of $CD4^+$ T cells was increased significantly in the 200 mg/kg P-treated mice. The mice which were treated with P and FP evidenced significantly increased interferon-$\gamma$ and interleukin-4 production in concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes, whereas the production of theses cytokines was not shown to be induced by P-treatment. In addition, NK cell activity was also increased dramatically by the administration of P and FP. Collectively, these findings showed that P and FP are wide-spectrum immunomodulators, which may modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

Effects of γ-Irradiation on Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Ishige okamurai Extracts (패 추출물의 항산화능 및 이화학적 특성에 미치는 감마선 조사의 영향)

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Song, Eu-Jin;Lee, So-Young;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Kim, Seo-Jin;Lee, So-Jeong;Yoon, So-Young;Kim, Ah-Ram;Jeon, You-Jin;Park, Jin-Gyu;Choi, Jong-Il;Lee, Ju-Woon;Byun, Myung-Woo;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1485-1490
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    • 2008
  • The effects of $\gamma$-irradiation on antioxidant and physicochemical properties of powder and 70% fermented ethanol extracts of Ishige okamurai (I. okamurai) were investigated. In case of powder, although yields were increased, there were no significant changes in total phenolic compounds (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect by $\gamma$-irradiation at 3, 7, and 20 kGy. In case of 70% fermented ethanol extracts, the results of TPC and DPPH radical scavenging effects showed no significant changes. However, antioxidant index increased in the 20 kGy irradiated I. okamurai extracts and decreased in 3 kGy irradiated ones. The optical density value of UV spectrum at 427 nm significantly decreased depending on increasing irradiation dosage. In conclusion, irradiated extracts of I. okamurai can be applied to the food industry due to irradiation stability on antioxidant properties. Also, irradiated extracts can be more useful for food processing as a result of a decrease of extracts color by irradiation.

Application, Utilization and Management of Ozone Water in Food Manufacturing (식품 가공 공정에서의 오존수 관리 동향, 사용 실태 및 활용 방안)

  • Kim, Yong-Soo;Park, In-Sook;Kim, Ae-Young;Jeon, Kyoung-Min;Seo, Yu-Mi;Choi, Sung-Hee;Lee, Young-Ja;Choi, Hyoun-Chul;Jeon, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Hyoung-Il;Ha, Sang-Do
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2008
  • The ozone has the oxidizing power which is powerful the fluorine and the antimicrobial spectrum of wide scope. Researches were carried out to use the merits that ozone has in various fields including the food industry, and many studies are also conducted nowadays for more efficient use of ozone. The ozone was permitted legally as a food additive and was practically used in the United States, Australia, Japanese etc. In November 2007, ozone water was permitted as a food additive in Korea and the interest in the use of ozone water has been on the rise in the Korea's food industry. As a olisinfectant method, ozone has many advantages. The maintenance and management expenses of ozone are lower than the installation cost at early stages and no by-products are generated after use it compared to others. Recently the demand of ozone as a olisinfectant method is increasing drastically. Although ozone water is popularly used to sterilize raw foods like fruits, vegetables and meats, the cases are still limited and were verified by the survey results. However, the use of ozone water is gradually being increased and is focused on food services. Ozone water refers to a state where ozone is dissolved into water to more conveniently use ozone. Accordingly, ozone water should be managed in regards with the amount and time of water-dissolved ozone, and the control of discharged ozone concentration is required for safe use of ozone water. The items to control mentioned above are directly related to the performance of the devices, and therefore, it is required to newly establish the performance criteria of ozone water manufacturing devices.

Evaluation of SharpIR Reconstruction Method in PET/CT (PET/CT 검사에서 SharpIR 재구성 방법의 평가)

  • Kim, Jung-Yul;Kang, Chun-Koo;Park, Hoon-Hee;Lim, Han-Sang;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : In conventional PET image reconstruction, iterative reconstruction methods such as OSEM (Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization) have now generally replaced traditional analytic methods such as filtered back-projection. This includes improvements in components of the system model geometry, fully 3D scatter and low noise randoms estimates. SharpIR algorithm is to improve PET image contrast to noise by incorporating information about the PET detector response into the 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm. The aim of this study is evaluation of SharpIR reconstruction method in PET/CT. Materials and Methods: For the measurement of detector response for the spatial resolution, a capillary tube was filled with FDG and scanned at varying distances from the iso-center (5, 10, 15, 20 cm). To measure image quality for contrast recovery, the NEMA IEC body phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC) with diameters of 1, 13, 17 and 22 for simulating hot and 28 and 37 mm for simulating cold lesions. A solution of 5.4 kBq/mL of $^{18}F$-FDG in water was used as a radioactive background obtaining a lesion of background ratio of 4.0. Images were reconstructed with VUE point HD and VUE point HD using SharpIR reconstruction algorithm. For the clinical evaluation, a whole body FDG scan acquired and to demonstrate contrast recovery, ROIs were drawn on a metabolic hot spot and also on a uniform region of the liver. Images were reconstructed with function of varying iteration number (1~10). Results: The result of increases axial distance from iso-center, full width at half maximum (FWHM) is also increasing in VUE point HD reconstruction image. Even showed an increasing distances constant FWHM. VUE point HD with SharpIR than VUE point HD showed improves contrast recovery in phantom and clinical study. Conclusion: By incorporating more information about the detector system response, the SharpIR algorithm improves the accuracy of underlying model used in VUE point HD. SharpIR algorithm improve spatial resolution for a line source in air, and improves contrast recovery at equivalent noise levels in phantoms and clinical studies. Therefore, SharpIR algorithm can be applied as through a longitudinal study will be useful in clinical.

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Method Validation for the Determination of Eleutherosides and β-Glucan in Acanthopanax koreanum (탐라오가피의 Eleutheroside B, E 및 β-Glucan 함량 분석 및 분석법 검증)

  • Kim, Young-Hyun;Bae, Da-Bin;Park, Sun-Ok;Lee, Sang-Jong;Cho, Ok-Hyun;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.1419-1425
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the method validation for the determination of eleutherosides (B and E) and ${\beta}$-glucan in Acanthopanax (A.) koreanum. This medicinal plant reportedly mainly included eleutherosides which exhibit the pharmacological effects, and ${\beta}$-glucan substantially enhances the function of the immune system by activating macrophages. The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3), and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were measured by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Our results showed that the coefficient of calibration correlation ($R^2$) for eleutheroside B and E were 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for eleutheroside B and E were $0.050{\mu}g/mL$ and $0.025{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The recovery rate of eleutheroside B and E were revealed in the high range of 100.66~110.04% and 94.26~111.62%, respectively. The inter-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 1.4~5.0% and 1.1~2.5%, respectively. The intra-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 2.8~2.9% and 0.4~1.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day and intra-day precision of ${\beta}$-glucan in the stem, leaf, and fruit of A. koreanum were 1.32~5.67% and 8.01~11.76%, respectively. In conclusion, the methods were validated for the detection of eleutherosides and ${\beta}$-glucan in A. koreanum.

Study on Temporal Decay Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Groudwater in Two Mica Granite Area (복운모화강암지역 지하수 중 자연방사성 물질의 경시적 붕괴특성 연구)

  • Kim, Moon Su;Kim, Tae Seung;Kim, Hyun Koo;Kim, Dong Su;Jeong, Do Hwan;Ju, Byoung Kyu;Hong, Jung Ki;Kim, Hye Jin;Park, Sun Hwa;Jeong, Chan Ho;Cho, Byong Wook;Han, Jin Seok
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2013
  • To figure out the decay characteristics of naturally occurring radionuclides, eight sampled groundwaters from a monitoring borehole having high levels of uranium and radon concentrations in a two mica granitic area have analyzed by liquid scintillation counters (LSC) for over 1 year. In December 2011, three groundwater samples (DJ1, DJ2, DJ3) were obtained from each aquifer system located at -20 m, -40 m, -60 m of the monitoring borehole below the ground surface, respectively. Five samples (DJ4, DJ5, DJ6, DJ7, DJ8) were additionally gained from each aquifer positioned -20 m, -40 m, -60 m, -100 m, -105 m of the borehole in February 2012, respectively. Temporal variation characteristics of uranium and radon concentrations have showed over maximum 2.1 times and 1.4 times fluctuations of the values in the same sampling intervals over time, respectively. The intervals of -40 m and -105 m in the borehole have the highest values of uranium and radon concentrations, respectively. This may imply that the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium and radon in groundwater have been changed over time and indicate that the qualities of groundwaters from the aquifers developed at each interval in the borehole are different each other. This discrepancy, moreover, could be caused by behaviour differences between uranium which is in ionic status having a half life of 4.6 billion years and is transported along with the flowing groundwater, and radon which is in gaseous status having a 3.82 day's half life in the aquifer systems. Physicochemical characteristics of groundwaters from the aquifer systems could be identified by the results of the on-situ measuring items such as pH and Eh, and the major ionic contents. The CPM values of eight groundwater samples analysed by LSC over one year have shown not to follow the theoretical decay curve of the radon. The CPM values of the samples have ranged from 2 to 7.5 after it had passed two months when the theoretical CPM values of the radon started zero since the initial analysis. Alpha and beta particle spectrums have shown the peaks of radium-226, however they have not revealed any peaks of radon and it's daughter products such as polonium-218 and 214, bismuth-214 for the late stage of the analysis. This implies that the groundwater from the borehole may contain radium-226 having a half life of 1,600 years which decays continuously.

Production of Violacein by a Novel Bacterium, Massilia sp. EP15224 Strain (Violacein을 생산하는 Massilia sp. EP15224 균주)

  • Yoon, Sang-Hong;Baek, Hee-Jin;Kwon, Soon-Wu;Lee, Chang-Muk;Sim, Joon-Soo;Hahn, Bum-Soo;Koo, Bon-Sung
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 2014
  • Violacein has received much attention due to its various important biological activities, including broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity, anti-malarial, anti-tumoral, anti-oxidant, and anti-diarrheal activities. EP15224 strain isolated from forest soils in Korea was found to be a new species belonged to the genus Massilia based on its 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. The 16S ribosomal DNA of strain EP15224 displayed 97% homology with Massilia sp. BS-1, the nearest violacein-producing bacterium. Strain EP15224 produced bluish-purple pigment well in a synthetic MM2 medium containing glucose, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, $Na_2HPO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, and 1 mM $\small{L}$-tryptophan. The chemical analysis of the pigment by LC/MS/MS showed that it is violacein with molecular weight of 343.34. This is the second report on the production of violacein by a Massilia species. In this study, the optimal culture conditions for violacein production were established under which 280 mg/l crude violacein was produced : glucose 2 g/l, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ 1 g/l, $Na_2HPO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 2 g/l, $KH_2PO_4$ 1 g/l, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 0.1 g/l, L-tryptophan 0.24 g/l, 25 ml medium in a 250 ml flask, with an inoculumn size of 10% (v/v), 72 h of cultivation with 250 rpm at $25^{\circ}C$.

The development of conductive 10B thin film for neutron monitoring (중성자 모니터링을 위한 전도성 10B 박막 개발)

  • Lim, Chang Hwy;Kim, Jongyul;Lee, Suhyun;Jung, Yongju;Choi, Young-Hyun;Baek, Cheol-Ha;Moon, Myung-Kook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2014
  • In the field of neutron detections, $^3He$ gas, the so-called "the gold standard," is the most widely used material for neutron detections because of its high efficiency in neutron capturing. However, from variable causes since early 2009, $^3He$ is being depleted, which has maintained an upward pressure on its cost. For this reason, the demands for $^3He$ replacements are rising sharply. Research into neutron converting materials, which has not been used well due to a neutron detection efficiency lower than the efficiency of $^3He$, although it can be chosen for use in a neutron detector, has been highlighted again. $^{10}B$, which is one of the $^3He$ replacements, such as $BF_3$, $^6Li$, $^{10}B$, $Gd_2O_2S$, is being researched by various detector development groups owing to a number of advantages such as easy gamma-ray discrimination, non-toxicity, low cost, etc. One of the possible techniques for the detection is an indirect neutron detection method measuring secondary radiation generated by interactions between neutrons and $^{10}B$. Because of the mean free path of alpha particle from interactions that are very short in a solid material, the thickness of $^{10}B$ should be thin. Therefore, to increase the neutron detection efficiency, it is important to make a $^{10}B$ thin film. In this study, we fabricated a $^{10}B$ thin film that is about 60 um in thickness for neutron detection using well-known technology for the manufacturing of a thin electrode for use in lithium ion batteries. In addition, by performing simple physical tests on the conductivity, dispersion, adhesion, and flexibility, we confirmed that the physical characteristics of the fabricated $^{10}B$ thin film are good. Using the fabricated $^{10}B$ thin film, we made a proportional counter for neutron monitoring and measured the neutron pulse height spectrum at a neutron facility at KAERI. Furthermore, we calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation the change of neutron detection efficiency according to the number of thin film layers. In conclusion, we suggest a fabrication method of a $^{10}B$ thin film using the technology used in making a thin electrode of lithium ion batteries and made the $^{10}B$ thin film for neutron detection using suggested method.

Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (옥수수수염에 함유된 Flavonoids의 분리 및 동정)

  • Kim, Sun-Lim;Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Yu-Young;Jung, Gun-Ho;Son, Beom-Young;Lee, Jin-Seok;Kwon, Young-Up;Park, Yong-Il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the flavonoids present in corn silks. Maysin content in the unpollinated corn silks (Kwangpyeongok) showed its highest level at 3 days after silking, and decreased thereafter, while the content of open pollinated silks were consistently decreased after silking. This result indicates that the maysin content is considerably affected by the pollination of corn silk. Unpollinated corn silks were collected with excising, and ethanol employed to extract flavonoids at common temperature for 9 days. After extraction, chlorophyll, lipids etc. were removed with methylene chloride, then submitted to flash column cartridge ($150{\times}40mm$ i.d.) packed with a preparative $RP-C_{18}$ bulk packing material ($125{\AA}$, $55-105{\mu}m$), and monitored at 352 nm. Four fractions, fraction-I, -II, -III, and -IV, were isolated from ethanolic extract of corn silks. Absorption spectrum of fraction I showed its maximum intensity (${\lambda}_{max}$) at 327 nm and 239 nm, fraction-II showed its maximum intensity at 339 nm and 274 nm, fraction-III showed its maximum intensity at 345 nm and 277 nm, and fraction-IV showed its maximum intensity at 352 nm, 270 nm, 257 nm, respectively. On the baisis of ESI micro-TOF analysis, fraction-I was identified as chlorogenic acid (m/z 355, 3-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl) quinic acid, $C_{16}H_{18}O_9$), fraction-II identified as a mixture of chlorogenic acid and luteolin 3'-methyl ether 7-glucuronosyl-($1{\rightarrow}2$)-glucuronide (m/z 653, $C_{28}H_{28}O_{18}$), fraction-III identified as a mixture of chlorogenic acid luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside (m/z 595, $C_{27}H_{30}O_{15}$), and luteolin 3'-methyl ether 7-glucuronosyl-($1{\rightarrow}2$)-glucuronide, and fraction-IV identified as maysin (m/z 577, 2"-O-${\alpha}$-L-rhamnosyl-6-C-(6-deoxy-xylohexose-4-ulosyl)luteolin, $C_{27}H_{28}O_{14}$), respectively. From the ethanolic extract of corn silks, fraction-I was obtained about 35 mg/100 g F.W., fraction-II was about 48 mg/100 g F.W., fraction-III was about 46 mg/100 g F.W., and fraction-IV was about 138 mg/100 g F.W., respectively.

Development of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Aclonifen in Agricultural Products Using GC-ECD (GC-ECD를 이용한 농산물 중 제초제 aclonifen의 공정분석법 확립)

  • Ko, Ah-Young;Kim, Hee-Jung;Jang, Jin;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Joo, Yoon-Ji;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Son, Young-Wook;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Aclonifen is used as a systemic and selective herbicide to control a wide spectrum broad-leaf weeds by inhibition carotenoid biosynthesis, and then its MRLs(Maximum Residue Limits) will be determined in onion and garlic. In this study, a new official method was developed for aclonifen determination in agricultural products to routinely inspect the violation of MRL as well as to evaluate the terminal residue level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aclonifen was extracted from crop samples with acetone and the extract was partitioned with dichloromethane and then purified by silica solid phase extraction(SPE) cartridge. The purified samples were detected GC using an ECD detector. Limits of detection(LOD) was 0.001 mg/kg and quantification(LOQ) was 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at three different concentration levels (LOQ, $10{\times}LOQ$, $50{\times}LOQ$, n=5). The recoveries were ranged from 74.3 to 95.0% with relative standard deviations(RSDs) of less than 8%. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines(CAC/GL 40). CONCLUSION: The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for aclonifen determination and it will be used to as an official method in Korea.