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Scaling up of single fracture using a spectral analysis and computation of its permeability coefficient (스펙트럼 분석을 응용한 단일 균열 규모확장과 투수계수 산정)

  • 채병곤
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.29-46
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    • 2004
  • It is important to identify geometries of fracture that act as a conduit of fluid flow for characterization of ground water flow in fractured rock. Fracture geometries control hydraulic conductivity and stream lines in a rock mass. However, we have difficulties to acquire whole geometric data of fractures in a field scale because of discontinuous distribution of outcrops and impossibility of continuous collecting of subsurface data. Therefore, it is needed to develop a method to describe whole feature of a target fracture geometry. This study suggests a new approach to develop a method to characterize on the whole feature of a target fracture geometry based on the Fourier transform. After sampling of specimens along a target fracture from borehole cores, effective frequencies among roughness components were selected by the Fourier transform on each specimen. Then, the selected effective frequencies were averaged on each frequency. Because the averaged spectrum includes all the frequency profiles of each specimen, it shows the representative components of the fracture roughness of the target fracture. The inverse Fourier transform is conducted to reconstruct an averaged whole roughness feature after low pass filtering. The reconstructed roughness feature also shows the representative roughness of the target subsurface fracture including the geometrical characteristics of each specimen. It also means that overall roughness feature by scaling up of a fracture. In order to identify the characteristics of permeability coefficients along the target fracture, fracture models were constructed based on the reconstructed roughness feature. The computation of permeability coefficient was performed by the homogenization analysis that can calculate accurate permeability coefficients with full consideration of fracture geometry. The results show a range between $10^{-4}{\;}and{\;}10^{-3}{\;}cm/sec$, indicating reasonable values of permeability coefficient along a large fracture. This approach will be effectively applied to the analysis of permeability characteristics along a large fracture as well as identification of the whole feature of a fracture in a field scale.

A Study on Hydraulic Characteristics of Rock Joints Dependant on JRC Ranges (JRC 등급에 따른 절리면 수리특성 연구)

  • Chae Byung-Gon;Seo Yong-Seok;Kim Ji-Soo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.461-468
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    • 2004
  • In order to characterize hydraulic property dependant on join roughness in rock mass, this study computed permeability coefficients on each range of joint roughness coefficient (JRC) suggested by Barton(1976). For a quantitative analysis of roughness components spectral analysis using the fast fourier transform was performed to select effective frequencies on each PC range. The results of spectral analyses show that low ranges of the JRC are mainly composed of low frequency domain, while high ranges of the JRC have dominant components at high frequency domain. The inverse Fourier transform made it possible to generate joint models of each JRC range using the effective frequencies of roughness spectrum. The homogenization analysis was applied to calculate permeability coefficient at homogeneous microscale, and then, computes a homogenized permeability coefficient (C-permeability coefficient) at macro scale. Therefore, it is possible to analyze accurate characteristics of permeability reflected with local effect of facture geometry. According to the calculation results, permeability coefficients were distributed between $10^{-3}m/sec\;and\;10^{-4}/sec$. In cases of sheared joint models permeability coefficients were plotted between $10^{-4}m/sec\;and\;10^{-5}/sec$, showing irregular distribution of permeability coefficients on each IRC range. The differences of permeability coefficients for the same aperture models or for the sheared joint models indicate that changes of roughness pattern influence on permeability coefficients. Therefore, the effect of joint roughness should be considered to characterize hydraulic properties in rock joints.

Stage Costume Design for Performance Hamlet (II) - The Study on Pattern and Manufactured Product - (햄릿 공연을 위한 무대의상 디자인 (II) - 패턴 및 실물제작 -)

  • Kim, Soon-Ku;Hwang, Seong-Won
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.41-50
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    • 2004
  • This research proposes the on-stage costumes for the play Hamlet of Shakespeare performed by Yunheedan Guhri Pae - the Street Theater Troupe. Stage costumes have an important role in displaying the characteristics of each characters to the audience and has big visual effects. However, in order to design the costumes in the object viewpoints of the audience, the survey on the images of the characters who had actually watched the performance was taken place and proposed the costume design according to the results of the survey. Hamlet a: This result was applied to propose a sweater in black color, black leather pants and vest. Hamlet b: This result was applied to propose hooded coat in purple in middle level of brightness and color spectrum and yellow coat. For free image, loose pants in blue and vest in the same color tone were proposed. Gertrude a: This result was applied to use purple (violet) with reddish tone to propose the formation of a dress applying tailored suit. Gertrude b: This result was applied to propose purple gown and the one-piece dress with black laces. Ophelia a: This result was applied to propose feminine white dress and cape in purple color tone. Ophelia b: This result was applied to propose dyed and weaved clothes. Through the surveys as above, the images of each character was driven in adjectives, and using the results driven from the brightness, coloration, and color, color images were proposed. Only one costume cannot make up for the stage costumes and because it exists as an element of stage production, it is true that costumes are limited in some areas. However, that limit can become the motive of the costume. There is a limit, which the designer cannot produce the costumes as he or she had designed but I believe it is the center of the on-stage customers to display the characteristics of the characters according to the given concept. The limit of this research is the fact that because the costumes were designed so they fit the conditions already given, thus it was difficult to regard the process of designing and producing the costume as a project done according to the interaction. And in the future, if it is possible, I wish for the joint research with the people responsible for stage art to take place as a practical stage art. It was possible to produce practical costume since they were produced for actual performance and the production of costumes considering the dance steps, line of flow, and acting, was able to reduce the trial and error on stage. Through this research, I felt that the understanding and smooth interaction on diverse other areas not limited to the costume design should be taken place and believe that this was a research that proposes new research method since there had been only a few previous research regarding the on-stage costumes for actual performances. Therefore, this research had depended on the surveys given to the audiences to endow objectivity, however, I wish this research can contribute to defining effective process and methods for the on-stage costumes with more active researches with diverse methods and in diverse areas. I am sorry that the costume production for all the characters and all the scenes in Hamlet couldn't be done due to many limitations. As the following research assignment, I am planning on designing the costumes for all the scenes.

Comparision of Carotenoid Pigments in Catfish, Parasilurus asotus and Slender catfish, Parasilurus microdorsalis in the Family Siluridae (메기과에 속하는 메기와 미유기의 Carotenoid 색소 성분의 비교)

  • 백승한;하봉석;김수영;권문정;최옥수;배태진;강동수
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed as a part of comparative biological studies of carotenoid pigment for the unutilized biological products. The content of total carotenoid in the integument of wild catfish were 0.27(${\pm}$0.7) mg% and composed of 25.8% zeaxanthin, 9.7% diatoxanthin and 9.1 % cynthiaxanthin as major carotenoid. The content of total carotenoid in the integument of cultured catfish were 0.07(${\pm}$0.03) mg% which is relatively lower compare to wild catfish and composed of 48.5% lutein, 13.9% zeaxanthin and 13.3% isocryptoxanthin as major carotenoid. The total carotenoid contents of the slender catfish were 0.75(${\pm}$0.25) mg% which is relatively higher compare to other species of catfishes. The carotenoids were composed of 24.5% zeaxanthin, 24.1 % 7'8'-dihydro-${\beta}$-carotene-4-ol, 17.9% 7'8'-dihydro-${\beta}$-carotene and 10.8% 7'8'-dihydro-${\beta}$-carotene-3-01 as major carotenoid and 8.7% diatoxanthin, 6.7% cynthiaxanthin and 5.0% lutein as minor carotenoid. Based on these data, as a comparative studies of carotenoid in integument of siluridae, parasiloxanthin and 7',8'-dihydroparasiloxanthin which are the characteristic carotenoid of catfish from biwa lake in Japan, Slender catfish contained more based on 7',8'-dihydro-${\beta}$-carotene while that of wild and cultured catfishes were not found, indicating that carotenoid pigment of slender catfish depend on their living conditions.

User Gestures as a Voluntary Action in Products Design - Focused on a Gesture Discovered in User Positive Action to Transform Products (제품디자인에 있어서 자발적 행위로의 유저제스처 -사용자의 긍정적 제품변형행위에 관한 제스처를 중심으로-)

  • 진선태;우흥룡
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2004
  • Creativity is a important keyword for users as well as for main design organization who needs it. But little attention has been given to the aspect of user's creativity, also there has been a few attempt to apply it into design development until now. Nowadays in design areas, user's experiences and actions are changing the passive states receiving meanings into the active states creating meanings voluntarily. It is resonable to suppose that creative stage is important for users and they have the possibility of new ideas of uses and creating new productions. User's experiences of objects includes that of being formed or supported previously and that of voluntary interpretations acquired for himself, which it may be the possibilities predicted in design process or unknown user's action areas. It is likely that creative use process by themselves are the actions applied and deviated from usability and function by main design organization, also creative productions are arranged and made by users. These have a scope of examination and research in probability that is occurs frequently in user. In this research, approaching with a term, 'User gestures', User gestures are the characteristic action areas based on user's voluntary behaviors, where are revealed a unessential and non-operational function as a action itself and various transformation and creation of products as a outcome of action. This fact proves clearly that user gestures have a worth of alive spectrum to observe aspects of user culture and could be a attractive approach to seek easily new design concept for designer and developer. A further direction of this study will be following areas, Ethnography methods research of user gestures, Cultural research to phenomenon of user design and UGSBD(User gesture scenario based design) research. And it seems probable that they are applied in design development as follows, User initiative customization products, User participatory recycling products and creativity-experience design.

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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT INPATIENTS WITH SEVERE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (심각한 소아 ${\cdot}$ 청소년 강박장애로 입원한 환아들의 특징)

  • Hwang, Jun-Won;You, So-Young;Chang, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Min-Sup;Cho, Soo-Churl;Hong, Kang-E;Kim, Boong-Nyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : Child and adolescent onset obsessive compulsive disorder(C-OCD) is known to be associated with poor drug response, high comorbid rate and strong genetic tendencies. Till now studies for C-OCD have been very rare in Korea. We conducted this study to investigate the informations about clinical features, familial psychiatric loading, treatment profiles and course of server C-OCD from the retrospective analysis of inpatient data of Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Method : Retrospective chart review and data analysis was performed. Twenty(male 16 : female 4) patients with final C-OCD diagnosis by DSM-IV at discharge from 1994 to 2002 were found and their medical chart, psychological data, family interview data and nursing reports were collected and analyzed. Results : 1) The sex ratio of C-OCD was male dominant(4:1). 2) Phenomenological, most common obsession was pathologic doubt, contamination fear, followed by aggressive obsession, need for symmetry, sexual obsession, most common compulsion was checking and washing, followed by breathing, movement, symmetry, repetitive asking, hoarding, mental compulsion. 3) Most common comorbid diagnosis was depression. Other axis-I diagnosis associated OCD were anxiety disorder, tic disorder, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder and psychosis. 4) Regarding psychiatric familial loadings, 17 patients(85%) had relatives with psychiatric disorders, OC-spectrum disorders(OCD or OCPD) were found in 9 patients(45%). 5) The majority of patients(75%) have received SSRI and antipsychotics treatment. The response rate above 'moderate improved" by CGI was 75%. 6) During follow-up period in outpatient clinic, five patients(25%) showed continuous complete remission, 10 patients (50%) did residual symptoms with chronic course. Conclusion : This seems to be the first systemic investigation of severe pediatric OCD patients in Korea. The children & adolescents with severe OCD in inpatient-setting showed the high comorbid rate, familial psychiatric loading, and combined pharmacotherapy with antipsychotics, As for symptoms, high rate of aggressive-sexual obsession and atypical compulsions like breathing and moving was reported in this study. Severe pediatric OCD patients, however, responded well to the combined SSRI and antipsychotics regimen.

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Simultaneous Determination of 8 Preservatives (6 Parabens, 2-Phenoxyethanol, and Chlorphenesin) in Cosmetics by $UPLC^{TM}$ ($UPLC^{TM}$를 이용한 화장품 중 보존제 8종(파라벤 6종, 페녹시에탄올, 클로페네신)의 동시분석)

  • Park, Jeong-Eun;Lee, So-Mi;Jeong, Hye-Jin;Chang, Ih-Seop
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2007
  • Parabens are used in nearly all types of cosmetics and toiletries because they are formulated well and have broad spectrum of activity, interness, low costs and excellent chemical stability in relation to pH. 2-phenoxyethanol and chlorphenesin are common preservatives which are usually used in combination with parabens in cosmetics. Toxicity of parabens is generally low but application of parabens to damaged or broken skin has resulted in sensitization. Moreover, the possibility of their estrogenic potential, anesthetic effects and reproductive toxicity has been reported. Consequently there are some regulations in use of parabens. And the maximum permitted concentrations of chlorphenesin and 2-phenoxyethanol in cosmetic products are authorized by the same reasons. So it is important to control and estimate the amount of parabens in products. In this article, we proposed a valid method for the simultaneous determination of 8 preservatives including parabens in a short time using ultra performance liquid $chromatography^{TM}\;(UPLC^{TM})$. Separation of eight components was achieved in less than 10 min and resolutions were reasonable (USP resolution ${\geqq}\;2$). And limit of detection and quantification were evaluated. The method was suitably validated for specificity, linearity, precision (repeatability, intermediate precision) and accuracy for assay (recovery) based on International conference on harmonisation (ICH) guideline. The method was applicable to analysis of preservatives in cosmetic products.

Regulation of Gb3 Expression on Dendritic Cells (수지상세포에 있어서 베로독소 수용체의 발현조절)

  • Lim, Suk-Hwan;Kim, Gi-Young;Kim, Hyung-Chun;Kim, Young-Hee;Son, Yong-Hae;Oh, Yang-Hyo;Park, Yeong-Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.482-492
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    • 2007
  • Infection with Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli causes a spectrum of illnesses with high morbidity and mortality. Host mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLT-I toxicity. We here investigated the effect of SLT-I on tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}\;(TNF-{\alpha})$ production, effect of $TNF-{\alpha}$ on glycolipid globotriaosyleramide (Gb3) expression, and relationship between Gb3 level and differential susceptibility of cells to SLT-I. In this study, we observed that detectable levels of $TNF-{\alpha}$ are produced 6 hrs after induction and continued to increase during 48 hrs by SLT-I. It was also found that Vero cells and dendritic cells expressed high levels of Gb3, 83% and 68%, respectively, and that macrophages had a low level of Gb3 (29%) and showed refractory to cytotoxicity against SLT-I. Vero cells and dendritic cells expressing high levels of Gb3 were highly susceptible to SLT-I. furthermore, macrophages showed a resistance to SLT-I cytotoxicity, despite the fact that Gb3 expression was enhanced. These results suggest that the expression of Gb3 is necessary, but not sufficient to confer sensitivity of macrophages to SLT-I and further underpin the important role of SLT-I and its receptor, Gb3, in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157 infection.

Evaluation for the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-thrombosis Activity of Korean Traditional Liquors (시판 전통주의 항균, 항산화 및 항혈전 활성 평가)

  • Ryu, Hee-Young;Kum, Eun-Joo;Bae, Kyung-Hwa;Kim, Young-Kwan;Kwun, In-Sook;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2007
  • To identify the useful biological activities and the superiority in quality of Korean traditional liquors, we prepared the alcohol-free concentrates from different types of commercial traditional liquors, Takju ($T1{\sim}T3$), Yakju/Cheongju ($Y-1{\sim}Y-5$), Fruit wine (F-1) and Soju (S-1, S-2), respectively. We investigate their compositions as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-thrombosis activity. Among the 11 traditional liquors, Y-3, Y-4, Y-5 and F-1 showed higher total-polyphenol, total-flavonoids and reducing sugars than the others. The strong antibacterial and anti-thrombosis activities were identified in Y-3, Y-4, Y-5 and F-1, and a minor antioxidant activity was found in F-l. The antibacterial activity of the Y-3, Y-4, Y-5 and F-1 alcohol-free concentrates showed a broad-spectrum, and growth inhibition was found in gram-positive, gram-negative, and ampicillin-resistant bacteria. The sequential solvent fractionation of Y-3, Y-4, Y-5 and F-1, and following analysis showed that ethyl acetate fractions of Y-3, Y-4, Y-5 and F-1 possess strong antibacterial and anti-thrombosis activity. Especially, the ethyl acetate fractions of Y-3, Y-4 and F-1 showed superior anti-thrombosis activity compared than that of aspirin. Our results suggest that the useful substances are produced from substrates and edible plant added during the fermentation, and the Korean traditional liquors could be developed as strong antibacterial and anti-thrombosis agents.

Reliability Verification of FLUKA Transport Code for Double Layered X-ray Protective Sheet Design (이중 구조의 X선 차폐시트 설계를 위한 FLUKA 수송코드의 신뢰성 검증)

  • Kang, Sang Sik;Heo, Seung Wook;Choi, Il Hong;Jun, Jae Hoon;Yang, Sung Woo;Kim, Kyo Tae;Heo, Ye Ji;Park, Ji Koon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2017
  • In the current medical field, lead is widely used as a radiation shield. However, the lead weight is very heavy, so wearing protective clothing such as apron is difficult to wear for long periods of time and there is a problem with the danger of lethal toxicity in humans. Recently, many studies have been conducted to develop substitute materials of lead to resolve these problems. As a substitute materials for lead, barium(Ba) and iodine(I) have excellent shielding ability. But, It has characteristics emitting characteristic X-rays from the energy area near 30 keV. For patients or radiation workers, shielding materials is often made into contact with the human body. Therefore, the characteristic X-rays generated by the shielding material are directly exposured in the human body, which increases the risk of increasing radiation absorbed dose. In this study, we have developed the FLUKA transport code, one of the most suitable elements of radiation transport codes, to remove the characteristic X-rays generated by barium or iodine. We have verified the reliability of the shielding fraction of the structure of the structure shielding by comparing with the MCPDX simulations conducted as a prior study. Using the MCNPX and FLUKA, the double layer shielding structures with the various thickness combination consisting of barium sulphate ($BaSO_4$) and bismuth oxide($Bi_2O_3$) are designed. The accuracy of the type shown in IEC 61331-1 was geometrically identical to the simulation. In addition, the transmission spectrum and absorbed dose of the shielding material for the successive x-rays of 120 kVp spectra were compared with lead. In results, $0.3mm-BaSO_4/0.3mm-Bi_2O_3$ and $0.1mm-BaSO_4/0.5mm-Bi_2O_3$ structures have been absorbed in both 33 keV and 37 keV characteristic X-rays. In addition, for high-energy X-rays greater than 90 keV, the shielding efficiency was shown close to lead. Also, the transport code of the FLUKA's photon transport code was showed cut-off on low-energy X-rays(below 33keV) and is limited to computerized X-rays of the low-energy X-rays. But, In high-energy areas above 40 keV, the relative error with MCNPX was found to be highly reliable within 6 %.