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Characteristics of Flora on Dry Field Margins in Korean Peninsula (밭경작지 주변부의 식물 종조성 및 특성)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Choe, Lak-Jung;Hong, Seong-Chang;Jung, Goo-Bok;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Han, Donguk;Oh, Young-Ju;Lee, Wook-Jae;Yang, Dongwoo;Park, Sangkyu;Na, Young-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.77-90
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: The field margins, which are uncultivated area of permanent vegetation located adjacent to field, play an important role in enhancing biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. This study focused on floristic characteristics on dry field margins in Korea Peninsula. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted at margins of 196 dry fields in 32 areas in 8 provinces in May and September 2013. The vascular plants of the dry field margins were listed 347 taxa which contain 73 families, 219 genera, 311 species, 1 subspecies, 30 varieties and 5 forms. Of these 347 taxa, 48 taxa were woody plants and 299 taxa were herbaceous plants. Among total 73 families, Compositae (17.6%) was the most dominant family, and followed Gramineae (15.9%), Polygonaceae (5.8%), Leguminosae (4.9%) and Cyperaceae (3.8%). Based on relative frequency values of survey fields, the appearance frequency of Digitaria ciliaris (89.8%) was the highest, and followed Acalypha australis (86.2%), Artemisia princeps (82.1%), Commelina communis (80.6%) and Portulaca oleracea (80.6%). Disturbance index of dry field margins was 55.0% at national level, and Gangwon region was the highest among the 8 regions at regional level. Life form spectrum was determined to be $Th-R_5-D_4-etype$. CONCLUSION: These results will be used fundamental data for studies to improve or even stabilize the current state of plant biodiversity in agricultural environments.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: a Retrospective Analysis at a Single Center (소아 환자에서 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia와 인공 환기요법 관련 폐렴에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Kee;Choi, Soo-Han;Kim, Soo Jin;Cho, Joong Bum;Ae, Hong;Yoo, So-young;Kim, Ji Hye;Lee, Nam Young;Kim, Yae-Jean
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious threat in critically ill pediatric patients. Data regarding Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VAP in pediatric population is limited. We evaluated the clinical data of S. maltophilia associated VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in pediatric patients 18 years old or younger who developed S. maltophilia associated VAP at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul Korea from January 2008 to December 2012. Results: A total of 31 patients were identified S. maltophilia associated VAP. Median age was 8 months (range, 0.5 month to 16.6 years) and 13 patients were male (40.6%). Underlying illnesses were cardiologic diseases (n=11, 34.4%), hematologic oncologic malignancies (n=7, 25%), neurologic diseases (n=4, 12.5%), pulmonary diseases (n=3, 9.4%), and others (n=4, 12.5%). The median duration of ventilator use before S. maltophilia VAP diagnosis was 14 days (range, 4-256 days). Overall mortality at 30 days was 12.5% (4/32). Conclusions: S. maltophilia should be also considered as a possible pathogen for VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Empiric antibiotic choice should include agents that are active against S. maltophilia in patients who are deteriorating on broad spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents.

Minimal Invasive Surgery: A National Survey of Its Members by the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (최소 침습 수술: 대한소아외과학회 회원을 대상으로 한 전국조사)

  • Kim, Dae Yeon;Kim, I.S.;Kim, H.Y.;Nam, S.H.;Park, K.W.;Park, W.H.;Park, Y.J.;Park, J.H.;Park, J.Y.;Park, J.S.;Park, J.Y.;Boo, Y.J.;Seo, J.M.;Seol, J.Y.;Oh, J.T.;Lee, N.H.;Lee, M.D.;Jang, J.H.;Jung, K.H.;Jung, S.Y.;Jung, S.E.;Jung, S.M.;Jung, E.Y.;Jung, J.H.;Cho, M.J.;Choi, K.J.;Choi, S.J.N.;Choi, S.O.;Choi, S.H.;Choi, Y.M.;Hong, J.
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Minimal invasive surgery (MIS) has rapidly gained acceptance for the management of a wide variety of pediatric diseases. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons. Thirty one members (25.4%) took part in the survey that included data for the year 2012: demographic details, opinion regarding minimal invasive surgery and robotic surgery, spectrum of minimally invasive operations, and quantity of procedures. 48.4% of the respondents had more than 10 years experience, 35.5% less than 10 years experience, and 16.1 % had no experience. The respondents of the recommend MIS and perform MIS for surgical procedures are as follow; inguinal hernia (61.3%), simple appendicitis (87.1%), complicated appendicitis (80.6%), reduction of intussusceptions (83.9%), pyloromyotomy (90.3%), fundoplication (96.8%), biopsy and corrective surgery of Hirschsprung's disease (93.5%/90.3%), imperforate anus (77.4%), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (80.6%), and esophageal atresia (74.2%). The MIS procedures with more than 70% were lung resection (100%), cholecystectomy (100%), appendectomy (96.2%), ovarian torsion (86.7%), fundoplication (86.8%), hiatal hernia repair (82.6%), and splenectomy (71.4%). The MIS procedures with less than 30% were congenial diaphragmatic hernia reapir (29.6%), esophageal atresia (26.2%), correction of malroatation (24.4%), inguinal hernia repair (11.4%), anorectal malformation (6.8%), Kasai operation (3.6%).

A Case of Citrullinemia Type 1 in ASS 1 Mutation (ASS 1 유전자 돌연변이로 확진된 시트룰린혈증 1형 1례)

  • Yim, Dae kyoon;Huh, Rimm;Kwun, Younghee;Lee, Jieun;Cho, Sung Yoon;Park, Hyung Doo;Jin, Dong-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • Citrullinemia type1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle characterized by neonatal or late onset of hyperammonemia caused by a deficiency of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). An ASS1 deficiency demonstrates fatal clinical manifestations that are characterized by the neonatal metabolic coma and early death when untreated. It causes a broad spectrum of effects, ranging from a mild disorder to a severe mental retardation, epilepsy, neurologic deficits. An acute neonatal form is the most common. Infants are normal at birth followed by an acute illness characterized by vomiting, lethargy, seizures and coma. These medical problems are life-threatening in many cases. A later onset form is less frequent and may be milder than the neonatal form. This later-onset form is associated with severe headaches, visual dysfunction, motor dysfunction, and lack of energy. Citrullinemia type1 is caused by mutations in the ASS1 gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes argininosuccinate synthetase, the third enzyme of the urea cycle catalyzing the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid. The enzyme is distributed in tissues including liver and fibroblasts. This mutation leads to hyperammonemia, arginine deficiency and elevated citrulline level. In the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase catalyses the conversion of citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate.. Here, we describe a female newborn patient with lethargy, rigidity and hyperammonemia who was diagnosed as citrullinemia type1 with a c.[421-2A>G], c.[1128-6_1188dup] mutation.

Measurement of Environmental Radiation Using Medical Scintillation Detector in Well Counter System (의료용 우물형 섬광계수기를 이용한 환경 방사선 측정)

  • Lyu, Kwang Yeul;Park, Yeon-joon;Kim, Min-jeong;Ham, Eun-hye;Yoon, Ji-yeol;Kim, Hyun-jin;Min, Jung Hwan;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 2015
  • After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, concerns about radiation by people are increasing rapidly. If people could know how much they will be exposed by radiation, it may help them avoiding it and understand what exactly radiation is. By doing this, we were helping to reduce the anxiety of radiation contamination. In this study, we have researched figures of radioactivity with 'Captus-3000 thyroid uptake measurement systems' in well counter detector system. The materials were measured with Briquette, Shiitake, Pollock, Button type battery, Alkaline battery, Topsoil, Asphalt, Gasoline, Milk powder, Pine, Basalt stone, Pencil lead, Wasabi, Coarse salt, Tuna(can) Cigar, Beer, and then we categorized those samples into Land resources, Water resources, Foodstuff and Etc (Beer classified as a water resources has been categorized into Foodstuff). Also, we selected the standard radiation source linear 137Cs to measure the sensitivity of well counter detector. After that, we took cpm(counter per minute) for the well counter detector of thyroid uptake system's sensitivity. Then we compared the results of each material's cpm and converted those results to Bq/kg unit. There were a little limitation with the measurement equipment because it has less sensitivity than other professional equipment like 'High purity germanium radiation detector'. Moreover, We didn't have many choices to decide the materials. As a result, there are macroscopic differences among the rates of material's spectrum. Therefore, it had meaningful results that showed how much each material had emitted radiation. To compare the material's cpm with BKG, we've compounded their spectrums. By doing that, we were able to detect some differences among the spectrums at specific peak section. Lastly, Button type battery, Alkaline Battery, Briquette, Asphalt and Topsoil showed high value. There were classified emitting high radiation Group A and emitted lower radiation Group B. The Group A, alkaline battery showed higher rate of radiation by 7.67 %, and Button type battery was yield 4.65 % higher rate than BKG. Additionally, Asphalt (8.03 %), Topsoil (3.76 %), Briquette (7.46 %) were yield for higher values. Several samples of the daily supplies were yield little higher, but it seems safe to use in daily lives. In the case of the 'Foodstuff', all of the samples were safe and they were under the radiation limits of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for Food; thus, we highly recommend this study to you as a reference of common daily routine.

The treatment of an edentulous patient with DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM Denture (CAD/CAM Denture를 이용한 완전 무치악 환자 수복 증례)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Cho, In-Ho;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Nowadays, CAD/CAM is broadly used in dentistry for inlays, crowns, implant abutments and its spectrum is expanding to complete dentures. Utilizing CAD/CAM to fabricate complete dentures is expected to decrease chair time and the number of visits, thus decreasing total fabrication time, expenses and errors caused during fabrication processes. One of the systems using CAD/CAM, DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM denture (DENTCA Inc. Los Angeles, USA) scans edentulous impressions, designs dentures digitally, fabricates try-in dentures by 3D printing and converts them into final dentures. Patients can wear final dentures after only 2 - 3 visits with satisfying adaptation. This case report introduces a 71-year-old male patient who visited to consult remaking of existing old dentures. Residual teeth with bad prognosis and root remnants were extracted and the patient used reformed existing mandibular denture for 2 months. And then DENTCA system started. One-step border molding was done using conventional tray of adequate size provided by DENTCA system and wash impression was taken. Gothic arch tracing was completed based on the vertical dimension of existing dentures. Both maxillary and mandibular trays were placed to the resultant centric relation and bite registration was taken. Then DENTCA scanned the bite registration, arranged the teeth, completed the festooning and fabricated the try-in dentures by 3D printing. The try-in dentures were positioned, occlusal plane and occlusal relations were evaluated. The try-in dentures were converted to final dentures. To create bilateral balanced occlusion, occlusal adjustment was done after clinical remounting using facebow transfer. The result was satisfactory and it was confirmed by patient and operator.

Isolation and Structure Identification of Photosensitizer from Perilla frutescens Leaves Which Induces Apoptosis in U937 (들깻잎(Perilla frutescens)으로부터 U937 세포에 apoptosis를 유도하는 광과민성 물질의 분리 및 구조동정)

  • Ha, Jun Young;Kim, Mi Kyeong;Lee, Jun Young;Choi, Eun Bi;Hong, Chang Oh;Lee, Byong Won;Bae, Chang Hwan;Kim, Keun Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we tried to separate the photosensitizer that induces apoptosis of leukemia cells (U937) from perilla leaves. Perilla leaves (Perilla frutescens Britt var. japonica Hara) are a popular vegetable in Korea, being rich in vitamins (A and E), GABA, and minerals. Dried perilla leaves were extracted with methanol to separate the photosensitizer by various chromatographic techniques. The structure of the isolated compound (PL9443) was identified by 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and FAB-mass spectroscopy. Absorbance of the UV-Vis spectrum was highest at 410 nm and was confirmed by the 330, 410, and 668 nm. PL9443 compound was determined to be pheophorbide, an ethyl ester having a molecular weight of 620. It was identified as a derivative compound of pheophorbide structure when magnesium comes away from a porphyrin ring. Observation of morphological changes in U937 cells following cell death induced by treated PL9443 compound revealed representative phenomena of apoptosis only in light irradiation conditions (apoptotic body, vesicle formation). Results from examining the cytotoxicity of PL9443 substance against U937 cells showed that inhibition rates of the cell growth were 99.9% with the concentration of 0.32 nM PL9443. Also, the caspase-3/7 activity was 99% against U937 cells with the concentration of 0.08 nM of PL9443 substance. The result of the electrophoresis was that a DNA ladder was formed by the PL9443. The PL9443 compound is a promising lead compound as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

The Implications and Characteristics of the Policies for Park and Green Spaces in England (영국 공원녹지 정책의 최근 경향과 특성)

  • Kim, Yun-Geum;Choi, Jung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.86-96
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    • 2012
  • Recently parks and green spaces contribute not only as a place of leisure but also for environmental welfare, social education, new jobs and $CO_2$ Emissions Reduction. Parks and green spaces are understood as urban infrastructures like roads and rivers. They are also included in social infrastructures like education, culture, and welfare facilities. These changes are applied to policies for parks and green spaces, many governments and local authorities make investments on them. The modification of policies for parks and green spaces in England is a good example about this trend From this view point, this study now deals with the changing process of policies, results, and evaluation. Some implications have been deducted. The first is the inducement in participation in policies and implementation of practices through policy papers. They are more practical than written laws which are composed of abstract sentences and generalizations. Secondly, the status of parks and green spaces is highly raised with the establishment of CABE Space and so on. This organization controls many different policies and programs related to parks and green spaces. Third is the funding for the improvement of parks and green spaces. Fourth, are the short-term measures, such as funding and management, and the long-term measures such as pursuing building of partnership and training. Fifth, the government strives to establish its partnership with the local authorities and communities through a spectrum of support in terms of information, monitoring, and developing good practices among networks. Finally, parks and green spaces are being addressed from multiple directions through the participation of numerous agents like voluntary groups, development companies, communities and so on. Recently, in Korea, the influences of the Sunset Law for Park Site, Landscape Architecture Law, Urban Forest Law, and other related ordinances have encouraged the review on the policies on parks and green spaces needed. However, there are not many studies about them. Owing to these reasons, the cases of England will he helpful.

Barium Compounds through Monte Carlo Simulations Compare the Performance of Medical Radiation Shielding Analysis (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 통한 바륨화합물의 의료방사선 차폐능 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Seonchil;Kim, Kyotae;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.403-408
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    • 2013
  • This study made a tentative estimation of the shielding rate of barium compound by thickness through monte carlo simulation to apply medical radiation shielding products that can replace existing lead. Barium sulfate($BaSO_4$) was used for the shielding material, and thickness of the shielding material specimen was simulated from 0.1 mm to 5 mm by applying $15{\times}15cm^2$ of specimen area, $4.5g/cm^3$ of density of barium sulfate, and $11.34g/cm^3$ density of lead. Entered source was simulated with 10kVp Step in consecutive X-ray energy spectrum(40 kVp ~ 120 kVp). Absorption probability in 40 kVp ~ 60 kVp showed same shielding rate with lead in 3 mm ~ 5 mm of thickness, but it was identified that under 2 mm, the shielding rate was a bit lower than the existing lead shielding material. Also, the shielding rate in 70 kVp ~ 120 kVp energy band showed similar performance as the existing lead shielding material, but it was tentatively estimated as fairly low shielding rate below 0.5 mm. This study estimated the shielding rate of barium compound as the thickness function of x-ray energy band for medical radiation through monte carlo simulation, and made comparative analysis with existing lead. Also, this study intended to verify application validity of the x-ray shielding material for medical radiation of pure barium sulfate. As a result, it was estimated that the shielding effect was 95% higher than the existing lead 1.5 mm in at least 2 mm thickness of barium compound in medical radiation energy band 70 kVp ~ 120 kVp, and this result is considered valid to be provided as a base data in weight lightening production of radiation shielding product for medical radiation.

Tidal and Sub-tidal Current Characteristics in the Central part of Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea during the Summer Season (서해 천수만 중앙부의 하계 조류/비조류 특성)

  • Jung, Kwang Young;Ro, Young Jae;Kim, Baek Jin
    • The Sea
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed the ADCP records along with wind by KMA and discharge records at Seosan A-, B-district tide embankment by KRC for 33 days obtained in the Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea spanning from July 29 to August 30, 2010. Various analyses include descriptive statistics, harmonic analysis of tidal constituents, spectra and coherence, complex correlation, progressive vector diagram and cumulative curves to understand the tidal and sub-tidal current characteristics caused by local wind and discharge effect. Observed current speed ranges from -30 to 40 (cm/sec), with standard deviation from 1.7 (cm/sec) at bottom to 18.7 (cm/sec) at surface. According to the harmonic analysis results, the tidal current direction show NNW-SSE. The magnitudes of semi-major axes range from 9.4 to 14.8 (cm/sec) for M2 harmonic constituent and from 4.4 to 7.0 (cm/sec) for S2, respectively. And the magnitudes of semi-minor axes range from 0.1 to 0.5 (cm/sec) for M2 and from 0.4 to 1.4 (cm/sec) for S2, respectively. In the spectral analysis results in the frequency domain, we found 3~6 significant spectral peaks for band-passed wind and residual current of all depth. These peak periods represent various periodicities ranging from 2 to 8 (days). In the coherency analysis results between band-passed wind and residual current of all depth, several significant coherencies could be resolved in 3~5 periodicities within 2.8 (days). Highest coherency peak occurred at 4.6 (day) with 1.2-day phase lag of discharge to band-passed residual current. The progressive vector of wind and residual current travelled to northward at all layers, and the travel distance at middle layer was greater than surface layer distance. The Northward residual current was caused by a seasonal southern wind, and the density-driven current formed by fresh water input effected southward residual current. The sub-tidal current characteristics is determined by seasonal wind force and fresh water inflow in the Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea.