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Tidal and Sub-tidal Current Characteristics in the Central part of Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea during the Summer Season (서해 천수만 중앙부의 하계 조류/비조류 특성)

  • Jung, Kwang Young;Ro, Young Jae;Kim, Baek Jin
    • The Sea
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed the ADCP records along with wind by KMA and discharge records at Seosan A-, B-district tide embankment by KRC for 33 days obtained in the Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea spanning from July 29 to August 30, 2010. Various analyses include descriptive statistics, harmonic analysis of tidal constituents, spectra and coherence, complex correlation, progressive vector diagram and cumulative curves to understand the tidal and sub-tidal current characteristics caused by local wind and discharge effect. Observed current speed ranges from -30 to 40 (cm/sec), with standard deviation from 1.7 (cm/sec) at bottom to 18.7 (cm/sec) at surface. According to the harmonic analysis results, the tidal current direction show NNW-SSE. The magnitudes of semi-major axes range from 9.4 to 14.8 (cm/sec) for M2 harmonic constituent and from 4.4 to 7.0 (cm/sec) for S2, respectively. And the magnitudes of semi-minor axes range from 0.1 to 0.5 (cm/sec) for M2 and from 0.4 to 1.4 (cm/sec) for S2, respectively. In the spectral analysis results in the frequency domain, we found 3~6 significant spectral peaks for band-passed wind and residual current of all depth. These peak periods represent various periodicities ranging from 2 to 8 (days). In the coherency analysis results between band-passed wind and residual current of all depth, several significant coherencies could be resolved in 3~5 periodicities within 2.8 (days). Highest coherency peak occurred at 4.6 (day) with 1.2-day phase lag of discharge to band-passed residual current. The progressive vector of wind and residual current travelled to northward at all layers, and the travel distance at middle layer was greater than surface layer distance. The Northward residual current was caused by a seasonal southern wind, and the density-driven current formed by fresh water input effected southward residual current. The sub-tidal current characteristics is determined by seasonal wind force and fresh water inflow in the Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea.

The effect of Neurofeedback training on brain wave activity and cognitive performance in chronic stroke patients (뉴로피드백(Neurofeedback) 훈련이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 뇌파활성도와 인지수행력에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Young-Sin;Kim, Sang-Yeob;Kim, Chan-Kyu;Jung, Dae-In;Kim, Kyung-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2329-2337
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    • 2013
  • This study was done objected to the chronic stroke patients in order to evaluate change in brain wave activity and cognitive performance when Neurofeedback training. The subjects were over 6 months ago in chronic stroke patients screened-test through the 20 patients, 10 persons in each group were randomly placed. This was carried out in 4 weeks in total, with control group(n=10) on general physical therapy and experimental group(n=10) on general physical therapy along with Neurofeedback training. The general physical therapy was applied 5 times a week, 30 minutes at once, Neurofeedback training was applied as equally as the general physical therapy, which makes 20 times in total. To learn about the effect before the training, after training, and 2 weeks after the training in electric physiological measurement method of the brain, electroencephalogram(EEG) to examine challenges by calculating the absolute spectrum power for standard EEG change(%), followed by evaluation with clinical assessment tool MMSE-K, Stroop Test, Digit Span Test. As a result of comparing the change in brain wave through EEG, after training and 2 weeks after training showed that absolute ${\alpha}$-power and absolute ${\beta}$-SMR power of experimental group have increased and absolute ${\theta}$-power decreased significantly compared to experimental group I. Moreover, the MMSE-K score in trial appraisal has increased significantly, and the error in Stroop Test and Digit Span Test has decreased significantly. such results, with the chronic stroke patient's brain wave control, Neurofeedback training was determined to improve the cognitive performance. this study suggests a new training possibility of stroke patients by identifying the training effects of Neurofeedback training that trains the brain directly with brain wave control.

Effect of Enzyme Replacement Therapy on Growth in Korean Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (I형 뮤코다당증 환자들에서 효소 보충 요법이 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Huh, Rimm;Cho, Sung Yoon;Chang, Mi Sun;Lee, Jieun;Kwun, Younghee;Kim, Su Jin;Sohn, Young Bae;Park, Sung Won;Maeng, Se Hyun;Kwon, Eun-Kyung;Han, Sun Ju;Jung, Jooyoun;Jin, Dong-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme ${\alpha}$-L-iduronidase, which leads to a broad spectrum of multisystemic manifestations. Short stature and decreased growth velocity are prominent features of MPS I. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on growth of Korean MPS I patients from a single center. Methods: Height data were obtained by retrospective chart review of 10 Korean patients with MPS I who had received ERT for a minimum of 3 years. Height was expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS) based on normative data. Annual growth rates were calculated before and during ERT. A piecewise regression model was used to analyze height z-scores before and after treatment. Individual analysis was performed for impact of phenotype [(severe (Hurler) versus attenuated (Hurler-Scheie, Scheie)] on growth. Results: Annual growth was 3.3 cm (z-score= -0.21) in the year before ERT and 6.2 cm (z-score= 0.17), 5.8 cm (z-score= 0.07), and 3.8 cm (z-score= -0.4) in the first, second, and third years of ERT, respectively. Regression analysis showed improvement in the slope after ERT (difference= 0.04; P=0.022). Estimated slope differences between severe and attenuated phenotypes were statistically significant before (P=0.001) and after treatment (P<0.0001), although no significant difference was noted when stratified by phenotype. Conclusion: ERT with aldurazyme appears to have a positive impact on linear growth in patients with MPS I.

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A Study on Cold Water Damage to Marine Culturing Farms at Guryongpo in the Southwestern Part of the East Sea (경북 구룡포 해역에서의 냉수 발생과 어장 피해)

  • Lee, Yong-Hwa;Shim, JeongHee;Choi, Yang-ho;Kim, Sang-Woo;Shim, Jeong-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.731-737
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    • 2016
  • To understand the characteristics and strength of the cold water that has caused damage to marine-culturing farms around Guryongpo, in the southwestern part of Korea, surface and water column temperatures were collected from temperature loggers deployed at a sea squirt farm during August-November 2007 and from a Real-time Information System for Aquaculture environment operated by NIFS (National Institute of Fisheries Science) during July-August 2015 and 2016. During the study period, surface temperature at Guryongpo decreased sharply when south/southwestern winds prevailed (the 18-26th of August and 20-22nd of September 2007 and the 13-15th of July 2015) as a result of upwelling. However, the deep-water (20-30m) temperature increased during periods of strong north/northeasterly winds (the 5-7th and 16-18th of September 2007) as a result of downwelling. Among the cold water events that occurred at Guryongpo, the mass death of cultured fish followed strong cold water events (surface temperatures below $10^{\circ}C$) that were caused by more than two days of successive south/southeastern winds with maximum speeds higher than 5 m/s. A Cold Water Index (CWI) was defined and calculated using maximum wind speed and direction as measured daily at Pohang Meteorological Observatory. When the average CWI over two days ($CWI_{2d}$) was higher than 100, mass fish mortality occurred. The four-day average CWI ($CWI_{4d}$) showed a high negative correlation with surface temperature from July-August in the Guryongpo area ($R^2=0.5$), suggesting that CWI is a good index for predicting strong cold water events and massive mortality. In October 2007, the sea temperature at a depth of 30 m showed a high fluctuation that ranged from $7-23^{\circ}C$, with frequency and spectrum coinciding with tidal levels at Ulsan, affected by the North Korean Cold Current. If temperature variations at the depth of fish cages also regularly fluctuate within this range, damage may be caused to the Guryongpo fish industry. More studies are needed to focus on this phenomenon.

Evaluation of Image Quality & Absorbed Dose using MCNPX Simulation in the Digital Radiography System (디지털방사선영상시스템에서 MCNPX 시뮬레이션을 이용한 영상 품질 및 선량평가)

  • An, Hyeon;Lee, Dongyeon;Ko, Sungjin;Kim, Changsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.327-335
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    • 2016
  • The study is enforce to study image quality evaluation of condition provide the IEC and combination of clinical conditions each quality of radiation that image quality to assess the conditions provided to IEC in the clinical environment to conduct image quality assessment of the digital radiography system in the detector have environmental limits. First, image quality evaluation was evaluated by measuring the MTF, NPS using four quality of radiation and Using MCNPX simulation lastly DQE make a image quality evaluation after calculating the particle fluence to analyze spectrum quality of radiation. Second, Using MCNPX simulation of four quality of radiation was evaluated absorbed dose rate about electronic 1 per unit air, water, muscle, bone by using Radiation flux density and energy, mass-energy absorption coefficient of matter. Results of evaluation of image quality, MTF of four quality of radiation was satisfied diagnosis frequency domain 1.0 ~ 3.0 lp/mm of general X-ray that indicated 1.13 ~ 2.91 lp/mm spatial frequency. The NPS has added filter, spatial frequency 0.5 lp/mm at standard NPS showed a tendency to decrease after increase. Unused added filter, spatial frequency 0.5 lp/mm at standard NPS showed a certain NPS result value after decrease. DQE in 70 kVp / unuesd added filter(21 mm Al) / SID 150 cm that patial frequency 1.5 lp/mm at standard showed a tendency to decrease after certain value showed. Patial frequency in the rest quality of radiation was showed a tendency to decrease after increase. Results of evaluation of absorbed dose, air < water < muscle < bone in the order showed a tendency to increase. Based on the results of this study provide to basic data that present for the image quality evaluation method of a digital radiation imaging system in various the clinical condition.

Single Dose Oral Toxicity Test of Ethanol Extracts of Schisandrae fructus and Mori folium, and their Mixture in ICR Mice (ICR 마우스를 이용한 오미자, 상엽 에탄올 단독추출물 및 복합추출물의 단회경구투여 독성시험)

  • Choi, Eun Ok;Kwon, Da Hye;Kim, Min Young;Hwang-Bo, Hyun;Kim, Hong Jae;Ahn, Kyu Im;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Lee, Ki Won;Kim, Ki Young;Kim, Sung Goo;Choi, Young Whan;Hong, Su Hyun;Park, Cheol;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1207-1213
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    • 2016
  • Schisandrae fructus (SF) and Mori folium (MF) have been used as traditional medicines for thousands of years in parts of Asia, including Korea, China, and Japan. Recent researches on SF and MF have documented a wide spectrum of therapeutic properties, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenesis effects. However, the toxicity and safety of SF and MF, and their mixture (medicinal herber mixture, MHMIX) were not confirmed. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the acute toxicity and safety of SF, MF and MHMIX. SF, MF and MHMIX were orally administered at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg in ICR mice. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in the body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during the 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy. We also measured parameters of organ weight, clinical chemistry, and hematology. No dead and no clinical signs were found during the experiment period after administration of a single oral dose of SF, MF and MHMIX. There were no adverse effects on clinical signs, body weight, or organ weight and no gross pathological findings in any treatment group. Therefore, LD50 value of SF, MF and MHMIX may be over 5,000 mg/kg and it may have no side toxic effect to ICR mice. The results on the single-dose toxicity of SF, MF and MHMIX indicate that it is not possible to reach oral dose levels related to death or dose levels with any harmful side effects.

Life Form and Naturalization Characteristics of Naturalized Plants in Upland Fields of South Korea (우리나라 밭경작지 귀화식물의 생활형과 정착 특성)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Oh, Young-Ju;Yang, Dongwoo;Lee, Wook-Jae;Park, Sangkyu;Choi, Soon-Kun;Eo, Jinu;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Na, Young-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to identify the life form characteristics, naturalized degree and introduction period of naturalized plants on upland fields in South Korea. The survey sites were selected in 222 upland fields over 9 provinces where are relatively dry soil conditions and are disturbed continuously by farming practices. It seemed that these uplands maintain good condition for the invasion and settlement of alien plants. Field surveys were carried out twice from May to June and from August to September in 2013. The vascular plants of the upland fields were listed into 539 taxa which contain 103 families, 320 genera, 448 species, 2 subspecies, 74 varieties and 15 forms. Ninety nine taxa were naturalized plants composed of 23 families, 64 genera, 91 species and 8 varieties. The urbanization index and naturalized index is 30.65% and 18.37%, respectively. Among total 99 naturalized plants, Compositae (30 taxa) was the most dominant family, and followed by Gramineae (14 taxa). On the basis of dormancy form, 78 taxa were belong to Th (Therophyte). In radicoid form, $R_5$ plants (86 taxa) and $R_3$ plants (14 taxa) were dominantly distributed. In disseminule form, $D_4$ including 63 taxa and $D_2$ containing 26 taxa were dominant. On the basis of growth form, erect form (e) containing 26 taxa was dominant. In conclusion, life form spectrum was $Th-R_5-D_4-e$ type. According to life form analysis, naturalized degree and introduction period, alien plants with unique characteristics may have high ability to settle and spread nationwide after inflow into South Korea. It needs further to observe some plant species with or without ecological features such as widely disseminated seeds by wind or water, high seed productivity, long life-span seeds, high germination rate of seeds, or non-dormant germinable seed.

Understanding the Legal Structure of German Human Gene Testing Act (GenDG) (독일 유전자검사법의 규율 구조 이해 - 의료 목적 유전자검사의 문제를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Na-Kyoung
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.85-124
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    • 2016
  • The Human gene testing act (GenDG) in Germany starts from the characteristic features of gene testing, i.e. dualisting structure consisted of anlaysis on the one side and the interpretation on the other side. The linguistic distincion of 'testing', 'anlaysis' and 'judgment' in the act is a fine example. Another important basis of the regulation is the ideological purpose of the law, that is information autonomy. The normative texts as such and the founding principle are the basis of the classification of testing types. Especially in the case of gene testing for medical purpose is classified into testing for diagnostic purpose and predictive purpose. However, those two types are not always clearly differentiated because the predictive value of testing is common in both types. In the legal regulation of gene testing it is therefore important to manage the uncertainty and subjectivity which are inherent in the gene-analysis and the judgment. In GenDG the system ensuring the quality of analysis is set up and GEKO(Commity for gene tisting) based on the section 23 of GenDG concretes the criterium of validity through guidelines. It is also very important in the case of gene testing for medical purpose to set up the system for ensurement of procedural rationality of the interpretation. The interpretation of the results of analysis has a wide spectrum because of the consistent development of technology on the one side and different understandings of different subjects who performs gene testings. Therefore the process should include the communication process for patients in oder that he or she could understand the meaning of gene testing and make plans of life. In GenDG the process of genetic counselling and GEKO concretes the regulation very precisely. The regulation as such in GenDG seems to be very suggestive to Korean legal polic concerning the gene testing.

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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flowers in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 Raw264.7 cell에서 Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flower으로부터 분리한 myricetin에 의한 염증 억제효과)

  • Choi, Moo-Young;Hong, Shin-Hyup;Cho, Jun-Hyo;Park, Hye-Jin;Jo, Jae-Bum;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Dong-Hee;Kim, Byung-Oh;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1245-1252
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    • 2016
  • As a research of inflammation inhibitory activity using natural resource, the inflammation inhibitory activity by purified active compound from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower was experimented. Rhododendron mucronulatum flower components were purified and separated with Sephadex LH-20 and MCI gel CHP-20 column chromatography, Purified compound was confirmed as myricetin by $^1H-NMR$, $^{13}C-NMR$ and Fast atom bombardment (FAB)-Mass spectrum to have inhibition activity on inflammatory factors secreted by Raw 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Myricetin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) expression in a concentration dependent manner, approximately 40% inhibition was observed at a concentration of $50{\mu}M$. The inhibition effect of myricetin on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression was 20% and 80%, respectively, at a concentration of $25{\mu}M$. Myricetin also inhibited expression of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ in a concentration dependent manner; a concentration of $50{\mu}M$, 70%, 80%, 80% and 95% inhibition was observed, respectively. Therefore myricetin isolated from Rhododendron mucronulatum flowers is expected to have an anti-inflammatory effect in Raw 264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharides. The results can be expected myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower to use as functional resource for anti-inflammatory activity.

Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Pectolinarin and Pectolinarigenin in Fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai by Bioconversion (생물전환에 의한 발효 고려엉겅퀴 Pectolinarin 및 Pectolinarigenin의 분석법 개발 및 검증)

  • Oh, Ji-Won;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Choi, Sun-Il;Jung, Tae-Dong;Kim, Young-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Jong;Lee, Bong Jin;Park, Seon Ju;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1504-1509
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate a validation method for determination of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin in fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai. For validation, the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, detection limits, and quantification limits of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were measured by HPLC. The results show that the detection limits of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were $4.25{\mu}g/mL$ and $2.46{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The recovery rates of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin were high in the ranges of 99.7~104.0% and 99.7~102.4%, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin in fermented Cirsium setidens Nakai were 0.9%, 0.5% and 0.5%, 0.2%, respectively. Therefore, application of pectolinarin and pectolinarigenin was validated by an analytical method as a marker compound in Cirsium setidens Nakai.