• Title, Summary, Keyword: specificity of expression

Search Result 278, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

A Study the Elements of Technological Specific Expression in Research Institute Architecture -Focused on the Contemporary Research Institutes- (연구소 건축 계획의 테크놀로지 특성 표현 요소에 관한 연구 - 현대 연구소 건축을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim Hwan-Sik;Lee Jeong-Soo;Song Yong-Ho
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
    • /
    • v.14 no.6
    • /
    • pp.168-176
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study is a understanding on technological specific expression to reflect of a research institute in modern architecture. For this study, it separately reduce space program, plan program, design elements of elevation, structural system, mechanical system, building material program to its expressional elements of research institute. Also, it's arranged about a specificity that is expressed for technology each plan elements of a research institute. As a result, elements what is expressive of technology on research institute are influenced an aesthetic expression, expression of an arrangement system, structural expression, expression of architectural organization, and it influences more getting feels technological specificity expressed an aesthetic, structural system, architectural composition, mechanical distribution system in order of their magnitude. This is offered suggestion what must be an achievable complex both a simply technological expression and aesthetic expression.

Role of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Reactive Oxygen Species in Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Expression (Toll-Like Receptor 2 매개 Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 발현에서 Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2와 활성산소의 역할)

  • Kim, So-Yeon;Baek, Suk-Hwan
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.10-16
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-known pattern recognition receptors. Among the 13 TLRs, TLR2 is the most known receptor for immune response. It activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are counterbalanced by MAPK phosphatases [MKPs or dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs)]. However, the regulatory mechanism of DUSPs is still unclear. In this study, the effect of a TLR2 ligand (TLR2L, Pam3CSK4) on DUSP4 expression in Raw264.7 cells was demonstrated. Methods: A Raw264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics (100 U/mL penicillin and 100 g/mL streptomycin) at $37^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$. TLR2L (Pam3CSK4)-mediated DUSP4 expressions were confirmed with RT-PCR and western blot analysis. In addition, the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with lucigenin assay. Results: Pam3CSK4 induced the expression of DUSP1, 2, 4, 5 and 16. The DUSP4 expression was also increased by TLR4 and 9 agonists (lipopolysaccharide and CpG ODN, respectively). Pam3CSK4 also induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ROS production, and the Pam3CSK4-induced DUSP4 expression was decreased by ERK1/2 (U0126) and ROS (DPI) inhibitors. U0126 suppressed the ROS production by Pam3CSK4. Conclusion: Pam3CSK4-mediated DUSP4 expression is regulated by ERK1/2 and ROS. This finding suggests the physiological importance of DUSP4 in TLR2-mediated immune response.

Bacterial Expression of the scFv Fragment of a Recombinant Antibody Specific for Burkholderia pseudomallei Exotoxin

  • Su, Yu-Ching;Lim, Kue-Peng;Nathan, Sheila
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.36 no.5
    • /
    • pp.493-498
    • /
    • 2003
  • The scFv antibody towards the Burkholderia pseudomallei exotoxin was previously constructed by phage display and exhibited good specificity towards the exotoxin. We report here the optimization of the scFv expression in an E. coli expression system. Four different E. coli strains (ER2537, TG1, HB2151, and XL1-Blue) were examined for optimal expression of the scFv protein. Two types of carbon source (i.e. 0.2% glucose and 0.2% glycerol) were also tested for their ability to induce the scFv expression. Cells that carried the scFv construct were grown at $30^{\circ}C$ and induced with 0.05 mM IPTG. The expression was then monitored by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. The Western blot profile showed different levels of the scFv expression among the host strains; XL1-Blue exhibited the highest level of the scFv protein expression. Glycerol at a concentration of 0.2% (v/v) significantly increased the scFv protein expression level when compared to 0.2% (w/v) glucose. Further optimization demonstrated that the scFv protein expression in XL1-Blue was the most optimal with a glycerol concentration as low as 0.05%. However, by indirect ELISA, only the scFv protein that was expressed in 0.2% (v/v) glycerol exhibited high specificity towards the Burkholderia pseudomallei exotoxin.

Expression of the p16 and Ki67 in Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cancer

  • Kanthiya, Kanjana;Khunnarong, Jakkapan;Tangjitgamol, Siriwan;Puripat, Napaporn;Tanvanich, Sujitra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.3201-3206
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: To evaluate the expression of p16 and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Materials and Methods: We performed a immunohistochemical study of p16 and Ki67 in 243 cervical tissues - 53 non-dysplastic lesions, 106 CIN1, 61 CIN2/3 and 23 squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of p16 and Ki67 was interpreted independently by 2 researchers and the sensitivity and specificity to detect clinically significant lesions (${\geq}CIN2$) were determined. Results: The overall agreement results of positive or negative immunostaining of intra-inter observer variability were 0.659 for p16 and 0.808 for Ki67. p16 expression was demonstrated in 91.3% of invasive carcinomas, 78.7% of CIN2/3, 10.4% of CIN1 and 9.4% of non-dysplasic lesions. The corresponding Ki67 expression was: 100% of all invasive carcinomas, 75.4% of CIN2/3, 22.6% of CIN1, and 11.3% with non-dysplasia. The expression was significantly different between CIN2/3 vs CIN1 for both p16 and Ki67 (p-values <0.001 both), and cancer vs CIN2/3 for Ki67 (p-value 0.008). The differences were not significant between CIN1 vs non-dysplasia (p-values 1.000 for p16 and 0.130 of Ki67), and cancer vs CIN2/3 for p16 (p value 0.219). The sensitivity and specificity to detect > CIN2 were 84.5% and 90.5% by p16 and 82.1% and 88.6% by Ki67. Conclusions: The rates for 16 and Ki67 expression were directly associated with the severity of cervical lesions. Significant differences in these markers expression may be useful in cases with equivocal histologic features among cervical intraepithelial lesions, but not between CIN1 and non-dysplastic lesions. The two markers had high sensitivity and specificity in determining >CIN2.

Characterization of Stress Responses of Heavy Metal and Metalloid Inducible Promoters in Synechocystis PCC6803

  • Blasi, Barbara;Peca, Loredana;Vass, Imre;Kos, Peter B.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.166-169
    • /
    • 2012
  • In several biotechnological applications of living bacterial cells with inducible gene expression systems, the extent of overexpression and the specificity to the inducer are key elements. In the present study, we established the concentration ranges of $Zn^{2+}$, $Ni^{2+}$, $Co^{2+}$, ${AsO_2}^-$, and $Cd^{2+}$ ions that caused significant activation of the respective promoters of Synechocystis sp. without concomitant unspecific stress responses. The low expression levels can be increased up to 10-100-fold upon treatments with $Cd^{2+}$, ${AsO_2}^-$, $Zn^{2+}$, and $Co^{2+}$ ions and up to 800-fold upon $Ni^{2+}$ treatment. These results facilitate the development of conditional gene expression systems in cyanobacteria.

Semantics for Specific Indefinites

  • Yeom, Jae-Il
    • Language and Information
    • /
    • v.1
    • /
    • pp.227-276
    • /
    • 1997
  • There has been no nuanimous analysis of specific indefinites. It is still disputed even whether specificity is a matter of semantics of pragmatics. In this paper, I introduce some properties of specific indefinites, and explain them based on the meaning of specificity. Specificity intuitively means that the speaker or someone else in the context has some individual in mind, which is generally accepted among liguistics. The main issue is how to represent the meaning of 'have-in-mind'. I review some philosophical discusstions of cognitive contact and show that when the use of an expression involves 'have-in-mind', the expression is rigid designator in the belief of the agent who has an individual in mind. in the use of a specific indefinite, this applies only to the information state of the agent of 'have-in-mind'. To represent this asymmetry, I propose a new theory of dynamic semantics, in which a common ground consists of multiple information states, as many as the number of the participants in a conversation. Moreover, each information state is structured as a set of epistemic alternatives, which is a set of possible information states of a participant in the context. Based on this semantics, the properties of specific indefinites are explained.

  • PDF

Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

  • Paik, Hyo-Jung;Ryu, Tae-Woo;Heo, Hyoung-Sam;Seo, Seung-Won;Lee, Do-Heon;Hur, Cheol-Goo
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.250-255
    • /
    • 2011
  • In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

Tilianin Inhibits MUC5AC Expression Mediated Via Down-Regulation of EGFR-MEK-ERK-Sp1 Signaling Pathway in NCI-H292 Human Airway Cells

  • Song, Won-Yong;Song, Yong-Seok;Ryu, Hyung Won;Oh, Sei-Ryang;Hong, JinTae;Yoon, Do-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-56
    • /
    • 2017
  • In the human airway, mucus exists to protect the respiratory system as a primary barrier of the innate immune system. However, hyperexpressed mucus limits airflow, resulting in a decrease of lung function. Among more than 20 mucin family members, MUC5AC and MUC5B are major glycoproteins in human airway mucus. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of these mucins expression and specificity protein-1 (Sp1) transcription factor is the downstream signal of this pathway, playing pivotal roles in mucin expression. Even though there are some drugs for treating mucus hypersecretion, no drug has proven effects on humans. We found that the flavonoid tilianin regulated MUC5AC expression and also inhibited Sp1 phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated how tilianin would modulate EGFR signaling and regulate mucin production. In conclusion, tilianin inhibited MUC5AC expression mediated via modulating the EGFR-MEK-ERK-Sp1 signaling pathway in NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cells. This study may provide the basis for the novel treatment of mucus hypersecretion.

TNF-${\alpha}$ Up-regulated the Expression of HuR, a Prognostic Marker for Ovarian Cancer and Hu Syndrome, in BJAB Cells

  • Lee, Kyung-Yeol
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.4 no.3
    • /
    • pp.184-189
    • /
    • 2004
  • Background: Hu syndrome, a neurological disorder, is characterized by the remote effect of small cell lung cancer on the neural degeneration. The suspicious effectors for this disease are anti-Hu autoantibodies or Hu-related CD8+ T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the same effectors have been suggested to act against tumor growth and this phenomenon may represent natural tumor immunity. For these diagnostic and therapeutic reasons, the demand for antibodies against Hu protein is rapidly growing. Methods: Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were generated using recombinant HuR protein. Western blot analyses were performed to check the specificity of generated antibodies using various recombinant proteins and cell lysates. Extracellular stimuli for HuR expression had been searched and HuR-associated proteins were isolated from polysome lysates and then separated in a 2-dimensional gel. Results: Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against HuR protein were generated and these antibodies showed HuR specificity. Antibodies were also useful to detect and immunoprecipitate endogenous HuR protein in Jurkat and BJAB. This report also revealed that TNF-${\alpha}$ treatment in BJAB up-regulated HuR expression. Lastly, protein profile in HuR-associated mRNAprotein complexes was mapped by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: This study reported that new antibodies against HuR protein were successfully generated. Currently, project to develop a diagnostic kit is in process. Also, this report showed that TNF-${\alpha}$ up-regulated HuR expression in BJAB and protein profile associated with HuR protein was mapped.

Propagation of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus in Nonpermissive Insect Cell Lines

  • Woo, Soo-Dong;Roh, Jong-Yul;Choi, Jae-Young;Jin, Byung-Rae
    • Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.45 no.2
    • /
    • pp.133-138
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study addresses the susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 and Sf21), Trichoplusia ni (Hi5), and S. exigua (Se301) cells to the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Although these cells have classically been considered nonpermissive to BmNPV, the cytopathic effect, an increase in viral yield, and viral DNA synthesis by BmNPV were observed in Sf9, Sf21, and Hi5 cells, but not in Se301 cells. Very late gene expression by BmNPV in these cell lines was also detected via ${\beta}-galactosidase$ expression under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Sf9 cells were most susceptible to BmNPV in all respects, followed by Sf21 and Hi5 cells in decreasing order, while the Se301 cells evidenced no distinct viral replication. This particular difference in viral susceptibility in each of the cell lines can be utilized for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the host specificity of NPVs.