• Title/Summary/Keyword: sorption

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Removals of 1-Naphthol in Aqueous Solution Using Alginate Gel Beads with Entrapped Birnessites (버네사이트를 고정화한 알긴산 비드(Bir-AB)를 이용한 수용액 중 1-Naphthol의 제거)

  • Eom, Won-Suk;Lee, Doo-Hee;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2013
  • In this study, alginate beads containing birnessite (Bir-AB), a highly reactive oxidative catalyst for the transformation of phenolic compounds, was prepared and its 1-naphthol (1-NP) removal efficiency was investigated in a batch test. Based on scanning electron microscopy image, it can be inferred that the alginate gel cluster acts as a bridge which bind the birnessite particles together. Kinetic experiment with Bir-AB of different mixing ratios of birnessite to alginate (Bir : AG=0.25 : 1~1 : 1 w/w) indicate that pseudo-first order kinetic constants, $k(hr^{-1})$ for the 1-NP removals increased about 1.5 times when the birnessite mixing ratio was doubled. The removals of 1-NP was found to be dependent on solution pH and the pesudo-first order rate constants were increased from 0.331 $hr^{-1}$ at pH 10 to 0.661 $hr^{-1}$ at pH 4. The analysis of total organic carbon for the reaction solutions showed that a higher removal of dissolved organic carbon was achieved with Bir-AB as compared to birnessite. HPLC chromatographic analysis of the methanol extract after reaction of 1-NP with Bir-AB suggest that the reaction products could be removed through incorporation into the aliginate beads as a bound residue. Mn ions produced from the oxidative transformation of 1-NP by birnessite were also removed by sorption to Bir-AB. The Bir-AB was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and was reused twice without significant loss of the initial reactivity.

Characterization of Arsenic Immobilization in the Myungbong Mine Tailing (명봉광산의 광미 내 비소의 고정화 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Woo-Chun;Jeong, Jong-Ok;Kim, Ju-Yong;Kim, Soon-Oh
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 2010
  • The Myoungbong mine located in Boseong-gun, Jellanamdo consists of Au-Ag bearing quartz veins which filled the fissures of Bulguksa granitic rocks of Cretaceous. The tailings obtained from the Myungbong mine were used to investigate the effects of various processes, such as oxidation of primary sulfides and formation(alteration) of secondary and/or tertiary minerals, on arsenic immobilization in tailings. This study was conducted via both mineralogical and chemical methods. Mineralogical methods used included gravity and magnetic separation, ultrasonic cleaning, and instrumental analyses(X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalyzer) and aqua regia extraction technique for soils was applied to determine the elemental concentrations in the tailings. Iron (oxy)hydroxides formed as a result of oxidation of tailings were identified as three specific forms. The first form filled in rims and fissures of primary pyrites. The second one precipitated and coated the surfaces of gangue minerals and the final form was altered into yukonites. Initially, large amounts of acid-generating minerals, such as pyrite and arsenopyrite, might make the rapid progress of oxidation reactions, and lots of secondary minerals including iron (oxy)hydroxides and scorodite were formed. The rate of pH decrease in tailings diminished, in addition, as the exposure time of tailings to oxidation environments was prolonged and the acid-generating minerals were depleted. Rather, it is speculated that the pH of tailings increased, as the contribution of pH neutralization reactions by calcite contained in surrounding parental rocks became larger. The stability of secondary minerals, such as scorodite, were deteriorated due to the increase in pH, and finally arsenic might be leached out. Subsequently, calcimn and arsenic ions dissociated from calcites and scorodites were locally concentrated, and yukonite could be grown tertiarily. It is confirmed that this tertiary yukonite which is one of arsenate minerals and contains arsenic in high level plays a crucial role in immobilizing arsenic in tailings. In addition to immobilization of arsenic in yukonites, the results indicate that a huge amount of iron (oxy)hydroxides formed by weathering of pyrite which is one of typical primary minerals in tailings can strongly control arsenic behavior as well. Consequently, this study elucidates that through a sequence of various processes, arsenic which was leached out as a result of weathering of primary minerals, such as arsenopyrite, and/or redissolved from secondary minerals, such as scorodite, might be immobilized by various sorption reactions including adsorption, coprecipiation, and absorption.

Development of Mixed-bed Ion Exchange Resin Capsule for Water Quality Monitoring (수질 중 질소와 인 모니터링을 위한 혼합이온교환수지 캡슐의 개발)

  • Park, Chang-Jin;Kim, Dong-Kuk;Ok, Yong-Sik;Ryu, Kyung-Ryul;Lee, Ju-Young;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Yang, Jae-E
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.344-350
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to develop and assess the applicability of mixed-bed ion exchange resin capsules for water quality monitoring in small agricultural watershed. Recoveries of resin capsules for inorganic N and P ranged from 96 to 102%. The net activation energies and pseudo-thermodynamic parameters, such as ${\Delta}G^{o\ddag},\;{\Delta}H^{o\ddag},\;and\;{\Delta}S^{o\ddag}$ for ion adsorption by resin capsules, exhibited relatively low values, indicating the process might be governed by chemical reactions such as diffusion. However, those values increased with temperature coinciding with the theory. The reaction reached pseudo-equilibrium within 24 hours for $NH_4-N\;and\;NO_3-N$, and only 8 hours for $PO_4-P$, respectively. The selectivity of resin capsules were in the order of $NO_3\;^-\;>\;NH_4\;^+\;>\;PO_4\;^{3-}$, coinciding with that of encapsulated Amberlite IRN-150 resin. At the initial state of equilibrium, the resin adsorption quantity was linearly proportional to the mass of ions in the streams, but the rate of movement leveled off, following Langmuir-type sorption isotherm. The overall results demonstrated that the resin capsule system was suitable for water quality monitoring in small agricultural watershed, judging from the reaction mechanism(s) of the resin capsule and the significance of model in field calibration.

Sorption Efficiency of the Bamboo Charcoal to Remove the Cesium in the Contaminated Water System (오염수계 내 세슘 제거를 위한 대나무 활성탄의 흡착효율 규명)

  • Ahn, Joungpil;Lee, Minhee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2018
  • The cesium (Cs) removal from the contaminated water system has been considered to be difficult because the cesium likes to exist as soluble phases such as ion and complexes than the solid in water system. Many researches have focused on developing the breakthrough adsorbent to increase the cesium removal efficiency in water. In this study, the laboratory scale experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of the adsorption process using the bamboo charcoal for the Cs contaminated water system. The Cs removal efficiency of the bamboo charcoal were measured and the optimal adsorption conditions were determined by the adsorption batch experiments. Total 5 types of commercialized bamboo charcoals in Korea were used to identify their surface properties from SEM-EDS and XRD analyses and 3 types of bamboo charcoals having large specific surface areas were used for the adsorption batch experiment. The batch experiments to calculate the Cs removal efficiency were performed at conditions of various Cs concentration (0.01 - 10 mg/L), pH (3 - 11), temperature ($5-30^{\circ}C$), and adsorption time (10 - 120 min.). Experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm curve and their adsorption constants were determined to understand the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal for Cs contaminated water system. From results of SEM-EDS analyses, the surfaces of bamboo charcoal particles were composed of typical fiber structures having various pores and dense lamella structures in supporting major adsorption spaces for Cs. From results of adsorption batch experiments, the Cs-133 removal efficiency of C type bamboo charcoal was the highest among those of 3 bamboo charcoal types and it was higher than 75 % (maximum of 82 %) even when the initial Cs concentration in water was lower than 1.0 mg/L, suggesting that the adsorption process using the bamboo charcoal has a great potential to remove Cs from the genuine Cs contaminated water, of which Cs concentration is low (< 1.0 mg/L) in general. The high Cs removal efficiency of bamboo charcoal was maintained in a relatively wide range of temperatures and pHs, supporting that the usage of the bamboo charcoal is feasible for various types of water. Experimental results were similar to the Langmuir adsorption model and the maximum amount of Cs adsorption (qm:mg/g) was 63.4 mg/g, which was higher than those of commercialized adsorbents used in previous studies. The surface coverage (${\theta}$) of bamboo charcoal was also maintained in low when the Cs concentration in water was < 1.0 mg/L, investigating that the Cs contaminated water can be remediated up with a small amount of bamboo charcoal.

A Comparative Study on the Removals of 1-Naphthol by Natural Manganese Oxides and Birnessite (천연망간산화물과 버네사이트에 의한 1-Naphthol의 제거 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Doo-Hee;Harn, Yoon-I;Kang, Ki-Hoon;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.278-286
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    • 2009
  • In this study, four natural Mn oxides ($NMO_1-NMO_4$) was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and their removal efficiency for 1-naphthol (1-NP) in aqueous phase, using batch reactor, was investigated. The results were compared with one another and a synthetic manganese oxide, birnessite. The NMOs have a various Mn minerals including pyrolusite (${\beta}-MnO_2$), cryptomeltane (${\alpha}-MnO_2$) as well as birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$) depending on their sources, which results in different removal efficiencies (removals, kinetics) and reaction types (sorption or oxidative-transformation). The comparative study showed that $NMO_1$ (electrolytic Mn oxide) have a higher removal efficiency for 1-NP via oxidative-transformation compared to birnessite. The 1-NP removals by NMOs were followed by pseudo-first order reaction, and the surface area-normalized specific rate constants ($K_{surf},\;L/m^2$ min) determined were in order of $NMO_1(3.31{\times}10^{-3})$>${\delta}-MnO_2(1.48{\times}10^{-3}){\fallingdotseq}NMO_3(1.46{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_2(0.83{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_4(0.67{\times}10^{-3})$. From the solvent extraction experiments with the Mn oxide precipitates after reaction, it was observed that the oxidative-transformation rates of 1-NP were in order of $NMO_1{\fallingdotseq}{\delta}-MnO_2$>$NMO_3$>$NMO_4{\gg}NMO_2$ and the analysis of HPLC chromatogram and UV-Vis. absorption ratios ($A_{2/4}$, $A_{2/6}$) on the supernatant confirmed that the reaction products were oligomers formed by oxidative-coupling reaction. Results from this study proved that natural Mn oxide (except $NMO_2$) used in this experiment can be effectively applied for the removal of naphthols in aqueous phase, and the removal efficiencies are depending on the surface characters of the Mn oxides.

Evaluation of Butyltin Compounds and its Distribution Among Seawater, Sediment and Biota from the Kwangyang Bay (광양만내 유기주석화합물의 해수, 퇴적물, 생물중 농도 및 분포 상관관계)

  • KIM Gue Yoong;PARK Mi-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2001
  • Seawater, sediment and biota in the Kwangyang Bay were analyzed by gas chromatography/quartz furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GC-QFAAS) to investigate concentrations and distribution pattern of butyltin compounds (TBT, DBT, MBT) during February, April and July, 1996, Marine biota analyzed were Tapes japcnicus and Crassostrea gigas. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in seawater were in the range of ND-15.7 ng/L for the surface and ND-68.5 ng/L for the bottom. The highest concentration of TBT in seawater was detected in April for the both, surface and bottom water. The maximum value of $TBT_{(bottom)}/TBT_{(surface)}$, 3.6 in April showed the increased input of TBT from the surface water in April compared to February (2.1) and July (0.9). The concentrations of TBT in the sediment were in the range of ND-8.5 ng/g dry wt. The highest concentration of TBT in the sediment was measured in July, This result seems to attributed to the removal of TBT from water column via sorption onto particulate matters to the relatively undisturbed underlying sediment and increased input of TBT by increased fluxes of detritus of marine plankton after spring bloom, in July. The mean values of partitioning coefficient ($K_d$) of TBT between seawater and sediment were $3.0\times10^3$(February), $7.4\times10^3$(April) and $9.4\times10^3$(July). The concentrations of TBT in biosamples were in the range of ND-93.30 ng/g dru wt. (T. japonicus) and ND-138.53 ng/g dry wt. (C. gigas). The seasonal variation of TBT contents in biota was remarkable. The $K_d$ (biological concentration factor) was $7-41\times10^3$ for T. japonicus. and $5-34\times10^3$ for C. gigas. The measured TBT concentrations in seawater in the study area was sufficient to cause the imposex of shellfish and to retard the growth of aquatic organisms including oyster upon chronic exposure.

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PROPERTIES OF LIGHT-CURED COMPOSITE RESINS CONTAINING $SrF_2$, GLASS FILLER ($SrF_2$계 충진재를 함유한 광중합형 복합레진의 특성)

  • Kim, Hee-Jung;Kim, Kyung-Nam;Choi, Byung-Jai;Lee, Jong-Gap
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.54-66
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    • 2001
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the fluoride release and some mechanical properties including 3-point bending strength, amount of abrasion, surface hardness, water sorption/solubility and cytotoxicity of the newly developed composite resins containing 8, 16, 24 wt% $SrF_2$ glass filler (VF8, VF16, VF24) and four commercially available composite resins, Heliomolar(HE), Verdonfil(VE), Z100(ZH) and Aelitefil(AE). To investigate cytotoxic effect, agar overlay assay was done. Amount of fluoride released into distilled water was measured over a 62-days period from VF8, VF16, VF24 and HE. Results were as follows: 1. Experimental composite resins showed similar mechanical properties to commercial composite resins, but 3-point bending strength and surface hardness of experimental composite resins were inferior to ZH. 2. Over a 62-day Period, the amount of fluoride released was ordered: VF24>VF16>VF8>HE. In experimental composite resins, the amount of fluoride released was 9-23 times greater than HE and seemed to be proportional to the content of $SrF_2$ glass filler. 3. Experimental composite resins and all control composite resins showed mild cytotoxicity. This study showed significantly greater fluoride release from newly developed composite resins than control(HE) and addition of $SrF_2$ glass filler did not decrease mechanical properties or increase cytotoxicity of composite resin. The results from this study imply that newly developed composite resin have adequate mechanical properites, mild cytotoxicity and some potential for secondary caries prevention.

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Changes of Microbial Community Associated with Construction Method and Maintenance Practise on Soil Profile in Golf Courses (지반 조성과 관리방법에 따른 골프장 토양내 미생물 군집의 변화)

  • Moon, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Ki-Dong;Joo, Young-Kyoo
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2009
  • The construction procedures and artificial turf maintenance program on golf course definitely influence on the distortion of its environment. Soil microbial communities in soil profile were affected directly by those practises on turf areas. In Jeju island, the environmental impact assessment has been required to apply the first quality class granular activated carbon(GAC), which has a high absorbent character to agricultural chemicals, on the soil profiles of golf green system to reduce the pesticide leaching to ground water. This research was carried out to analyze the changes of microbial communities and chemical properties on soil profiles where GAC had been applied at the construction stage at two golf courses in Jeju. The changes of soil microbial population and chemical properties associated with construction methods of soil profile and agrochemical management program were analyzed by monthly at the surface and sub-soil profiles during April through October, 2007. The total numbers of bacteria and fungi, soil moisture content, soil physio-chemical properties were measured on greens and fairways of the both golf courses with different GAC treatment on the green and fairway soil profiles. The results showed that GAC had positive effects on the water holding capacity, pH and EC, however, it did not improved the holding capacity of available nutrients ${NO_3}^-,{NH_4}^+$, and phosphorus by its sorption phenomenon. In microbial count test, the total numbers of bacteria and fungi showed a great variation during sampling dates. That may directly relate to the agrochemical application, however, the ratio of total bacterial number versus total fungus number showed a constant value on a sub-soil of 15~30cm depth. Thus, the construction method of GAC in soil profile, and application of fertilizer and pesticide, both impacted on the changes of microbial population. It's means that the construction method of soil profile and turf management using agro-materials might greatly affect on the turfgrass culture and the environment of golf course.

Crystal Structures of $Cd_6-A$ Dehydrated at $750^{\circ}C$ and Dehydrated $Cd_6-A$ Reacted with Cs Vapor ($750^{\circ}C$ 에서 탈수한 $Cd_6-A$의 결정구조와 이 결정을 세슘 증기로 반응시킨 결정구조)

  • Se Bok Jang;Yang Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 1993
  • The crystal structures of $Cd_{6-}A$ evacuated at $2{\times}10^{-6}$ torr and $750^{\circ}C$ (a = 12.204(1) $\AA$) and dehydrated $Cd_{6-}A$ reacted with 0.1 torr of Cs vapor at $250^{\circ}C$ for 12 hours (a = 12.279(1) $\AA$) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ Their structures were refined to final error indices, $R_1=$ 0.081 and $R_2=$ 0.091 with 151 reflections and $R_1=$ 0.095 and $R_2=$ 0.089 with 82 reflections, respectively, for which I > $3\sigma(I).$ In vacuum dehydrated $Cd_{6-}A$, six $Cd^{2+}$ ions occupy threefold-axis positions near 6-ring, recessed 0.460(3) $\AA$ into the sodalite cavity from the (111) plane at O(3) : Cd-O(3) = 2.18(2) $\AA$ and O(3)-Cd-O(3) = $115.7(4)^{\circ}.$ Upon treating it with 0.1 torr of Cs vapor at $250^{\circ}C$, all 6 $Cd^{2+}$ ions in dehydrated $Cd_{6-}A$ are reduced by Cs vapor and Cs species are found at 4 crystallographic sites : 3.0 $Cs^+$ ions lie at the centers of the 8-rings at sites of $D_{4h}$ symmetry; ca. 9.0 Cs+ ions lie on the threefold axes of unit cell, ca. 7 in the large cavity and ca. 2 in the sodalite cavity; ca. 0.5 $Cs^+$ ion is found near a 4-ring. In this structure, ca. 12.5 Cs species are found per unit cell, more than the twelve $Cs^+$ ions needed to balance the anionic charge of zeolite framework, indicating that sorption of Cs0 has occurred. The occupancies observed are simply explained by two unit cell arrangements, $Cs_{12}-A$ and $Cs_{13}-A$. About 50% of unit cells may have two $Cs^+$ ions in sodalite unit near opposite 6-rings, six in the large cavity near 6-ring and one in the large cavity near a 4-ring. The remaining 50% of unit cells may have two Cs species in the sodalite unit which are closely associated with two out of 8 $Cs^+$ ions in the large cavity to form linear $(Cs_4)^{3+}$ clusters. These clusters lie on threefold axes and extend through the centers of sodalite units. In all unit cells, three $Cs^+$ ions fill equipoints of symmetry $D_{4h}$ at the centers of 8-rings.

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