• Title, Summary, Keyword: sonoporation

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Enhanced Delivery of siRNA Complexes by Sonoporation in Transgenic Rice Cell Suspension Cultures

  • Cheon, Su-Hwan;Lee, Kyoung-Hoon;Kwon, Jun-Young;Choi, Sung-Hun;Song, Mi-Na;Kim, Dong-II
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.781-786
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    • 2009
  • Small interfering synthetic double-stranded RNA (siRNA) was applied to suppress the expression of the human cytotoxic-T-Iymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) gene transformed in transgenic rice cell cultures. The sequence of the 21-nucleotide siRNA was deliberately designed and synthesized with overhangs to inactivate the expression of hCTLA4Ig. The chemically synthesized siRNA duplex was combined with polyethyleneimine (PEl) at a mass ratio of 1:10 (0.33 ${\mu}g$ siRNA:3.3 ${\mu}g$ PEl) to produce complexes. The siRNA complexes (siRNA+PEI) were labeled with Cy3 in order to subsequently confirm the delivery by fluorescent microscopy. In addition, the cells were treated with sonoporation at 40 kHz and 419W for 90 s to improve the delivery. The siRNA complexes alone inhibited the expression of hCTLA4Ig to 45% compared with control. The siRNA complexes delivered with sonoporation downregulated the production of hCTLA4Ig to 73%. Therefore, we concluded that the delivery of siRNA complexes into plant cells could be enhanced successfully by sonoporation.

Cellular-level Biomechanics of Ultrasound (초음파의 세포 단위 생체역학)

  • Ohm, Won-Suk
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.29 no.1E
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2010
  • This article reviews recent developments in the emerging field of cellular-level biomedical ultrasonics with the specific focus on the mechanics of ultrasound-cell interaction. Due to the nature of the field at its relative infancy, the review poses more questions than it provides answers. Discussed are topics such as the basic structure of a biological cell, the origin of cell's elasticity, a theoretical framework for ultrasound-cell interaction, and shape deformation of cells and its measurement, Some interesting problems for future study are proposed.

Microbubbles used for contrast enhanced ultrasound and theragnosis: a review of principles to applications

  • Lee, Hohyeon;Kim, Haemin;Han, Hyounkoo;Lee, Minji;Lee, Sunho;Yoo, Hongkeun;Chang, Jin Ho;Kim, Hyuncheol
    • Biomedical Engineering Letters
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2017
  • Ultrasound was developed several decades ago as a useful imaging modality, and it became the second most popular diagnostic tool due to its non-invasiveness, real-time capabilities, and safety. Additionally, ultrasound has been used as a therapeutic tool with several therapeutic agents and in nanomedicine. Ultrasound imaging is often used to diagnose many types of cancers, including breast, stomach, and thyroid cancers. In addition, ultrasound-mediated therapy is used in cases of joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Microbubbles, when used as ultrasound contrast agents, can act as echo-enhancers and therapeutic agents, and they can play an essential role in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated therapy. Recently, various types of ultrasound contrast agents made of lipid, polymer, and protein shells have been used. Air, nitrogen, and perfluorocarbon are usually included in the core of the microbubbles to enhance ultrasound imaging, and therapeutic drugs are conjugated and loaded onto the surface or into the core of the microbubbles, depending on the purpose and properties of the substance. Many research groups have utilized ultrasound contrast agents to enhance the imaging signal in blood vessels or tissues and to overcome the blood-brain barrier or blood-retina barrier. These agents are also used to help treat diseases in various regions or systems of the body, such as the cardiovascular system, or as a cancer treatment. In addition, with the introduction of targeted moiety and multiple functional groups, ultrasound contrast agents are expected to have a potential future in ultrasound imaging and therapy. In this paper, we briefly review the principles of ultrasound and introduce the underlying theory, applications, limitations, and future perspectives of ultrasound contrast agents.