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The Effects of Depression on the Survival of Terminal Cancer Patients in a Palliative Care Unit (완화병동에 입원한 말기 암 환자에서 우울증이 생존기간에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Ji-Sung;Kim, Won-Hyoung;Lee, Jeong-Seop;Kim, Hye-Young;Kang, Sang-Gu;Choi, Seo-Hyeon;Bae, Jae-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.138-146
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : This study examined the association between depression and survival time in terminal cancer patients admitted to the palliative care unit. Emotional problems are important for terminal cancer patients in the palliative care unit, and evaluation of patients' depression plays an important role in treatment planning. Methods : From October 2015 to August 2018, we conducted a retrospective study of 291 terminal cancer patients admitted to a palliative care unit at a university hospital and evaluated depression with PHQ-9 at admission. Of the 291 patients, 146 (50.2%) completed PHQ-9 but 145 (49.8%) were not evaluated due to loss of consciousness or rejection. Results : 4-week survival rate in the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were 45.4% in the non-depressed group (PHQ-9<10) and 18.7% in the depressed group (PHQ-9≥10). According to the severity of depression, in the Cox proportional hazard model, the risk of mortality in moderate, moderately sever and severe group was 2.778, 1.882 and 3.423 times higher than minimal group, respectively. Conclusions : Of the patients with terminal cancer who were admitted to the palliative care unit, the survival time was shorter in the depressed group than in the non-depressed group. Further research is needed to determine if treatment of depression increase the survival in terminal cancer patients.

Effect of Mulching with Easily-Decomposable Organic Materials on the Rice Growth and Earthworm Ecology Characteristics in Paddy Fields (분해성 피복자재의 멀칭처리가 벼 생육 및 지렁이 생태에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Hong-Shik;Lee, Sang-Beom;Park, Kwang-Lai;Hong, Seung-Gil;Kang, Chung-Kil;Son, Jin-Kwan;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.72-86
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mulching of easily-decomposable organic materials including rice powder and corn starch on rice paddy fields. The treatments were including seven mulching materials each consisted of rice powder [Rice], starch with black color [Starch-B] and transparent [Starch-T] and stone powder [Stone], and conventional vinyl [Conventional], no-mulching without herbicide [Control-O] and no-mulching with herbicide [Control-C]. Rice growth and yield were different among the treatments; the highest yields were observed for [Rice] ($6.51ton\;ha^{-1}$) and [Conventional] ($6.47ton\;ha^{-1}$) followed by [Starch-T] ($6.25ton\;ha^{-1}$) and [Stone] ($6.20ton\;ha^{-1}$) which is comparable to the [Control-C] ($6.15ton\;ha^{-1}$). However, [Starch-B] showed lower rice yield ($4.93ton\;ha^{-1}$) than the [Conventional] or [Control-C]. Mean soil temperature ranged form 23.6 to $24.1^{\circ}C$ with the highest temperature for [Rice] treatment, and cumulative soil temperature was also significantly higher in the [Rice] treatment. Among the soil parameters, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, and phosphorus concentration were also different among the treatments. The amount of earthworm casting was higher for [Rice] treatment ($17.7kg\;m^{-2}$) compared to the others ($5.5{\sim}9.8kg\;m^{-2}$). It was suggested that mulching of rice fields with organic materials containing rice powder is better than others in respected to rice yield and earthworm activity.

Study on Discharge Characteristics of Water Pollutants among Industrial Wastewater per Industrial Classification and the Probability Evaluation (업종별 산업폐수중 수질오염물질 배출 특성 및 개연성 평가 연구)

  • Ahn, Tae-ung;Kim, Won-ky;Son, Dae-hee;Yeom, Ick-tae;Kim, Jae-hoon;Yu, Soon-ju
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 2016
  • Information on the lists of pollutants from industrial wastewater discharge are essential not only to specify the key pollutants to be managed in permission process but to design the treatment facilities by the dischargers. In this study, wastewater quality analysis was conducted for three industrial categories including the specified hazardous water pollutants. The general description of the wastewater occurrence, major sources, treatment facilities are also investigated to obtain integrated database on the pollutant inventories for the industrial categories. In addition Based on the analysis of raw wastewater and final effluent, the detected pollutant items are confirmed by analyzing their presence in the raw or supplement materials, the potential of formation as byproducts, and the possibility of inclusion as impurities. The three industrial categories include petrochemical basic compounds, basic organic compounds, and thermal power generation. The water pollutants emitted from petrochemical basic compound manufacturing facilities are 31 items including 16 specified hazardous water pollutants. Basic organic compound manufacturing facilities discharge 30 kinds of pollutants including 14 specified hazardous water pollutants. Thermal power generation facilities emit 20 pollutants, 8 specified hazardous water pollutants among them. These substances were decided as emission inventories of water pollutants finally through the probability evaluation. The compounds detected for each categories are screened through investigation on the possible causes of their occurrence and confirmed as the final water pollutant inventories.

Physicochemical components and antioxidant activity of Sparassis crispa mixture fermented by lactic acid bacteria (유산균 발효 꽃송이버섯 혼합물의 이화학적 성분과 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Son, Hye-Young;Choi, Young-Min;Cho, Jae-Han;Min, Jung-Kee;Oh, Hee-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of a mixture of rice bran and bodies of Sparassis crispa fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture had higher water, crude lipid and crude ash content than that of S. crispa. Insoluble dietary fiber contents of the dried powder of S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture were 46.13% and 33.46%, respectively. ${\beta}$-glucan was higher in dried S. crispa (38.03%) than in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture (5.44%). Dried S. crispa contained mainly fructose and glucose instead of containing sucrose in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. No significant differences in the total polyphenol contents were found in between dried S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. Total flavonoid content was significantly higher in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture than in dried S. crispa. No significant differences were found in the DPPH radical scavenging activity and in the antioxidant index between dried S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. Finally, ABTS radical scavenging activity of LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture was significantly higher than that of dried S. crispa. These results may provide the basic data for future studies for a better understanding of the biological activities of LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture.

Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis on the Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor in Neuronal Cells (신경세포에서 신경성장인자(nerve growth factor)의 조절에 미치는 천문동(Asparagus cochinchinensis) 열수추출물의 영향)

  • Lee, Hyun Ah;Kim, Ji Eun;Song, Sung Hwa;Sung, Ji Eun;Jung, Min Gi;Kim, Dong Seob;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Chung Yeoul;Lee, Hee Seob;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.509-518
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    • 2016
  • Asparagus cochinchinensis is a medical plant that has long been used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although several studies have been conducted on the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of A. cochinchinensis, the correlation between these effects and nerve growth factor (NGF) has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of A. cochinchinensis (AEAC) on the secretion and action mechanism of NGF in neuronal cells. The concentration of the NGF protein in the supernatant collected from cultured cells increased significantly in B35 cells treated with AEAC in comparison with the vehicle-treated group without any specific cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of NGF showed a very similar pattern to its protein concentration. To examine the bioactivity of NGF secreted from B35 cells, undifferentiated PC12 cells were cultured in an AEAC-conditioned medium and neuritic outgrowth was observed. The dendrite length of PC12 cells in the AEAC-treated group was significantly higher than that in the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, the level of the downstream effectors p-TrkA and p-ERK of the high-affinity NGF receptor was significantly higher in the AEAC-treated group, while the expression of the downstream effectors of the low-affinity NGF receptor was significantly lower in the same group. These results suggest that AEAC may contribute to the regulation of NGF expression and secretion in neuronal cells; it is therefore an excellent candidate for further investigation as a therapeutic drug for neurodegenerative diseases.

Investigation of False Positive Rates Newborn Screening using Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) Technology in Single Center (단일기관에서 이중 질량 분석법(tandem mass spectrometry technology)을 이용한 선천성 대사이상 검사의 위양성율에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyunsoo;Shin, Son Moon;Ko, Sun Young;Lee, Yeon Kyung;Park, Sung Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2016
  • Objective: Newborn screening leads to improved treatment and disease outcomes, but false-positive newborn screening results may impact include parental stress and anxiety, perception of child as unhealthy, parent-child relationship dysfunction, and increased infant hospitalizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate of the false positive rates and the causative factors of false positive results in Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) in single center. Methods: Records were reviewed for all 18,872 subjects who were born in Cheill General Hospital, during January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2014. 17,292 neonates (91.62%) were tested for tandem mass screening almost in 2-5th day of life. Newborn babies whose first results were abnormal had been tested repeatedly by same methods in 7-14 day. If the results were abnormal again, further evaluation was performed. TMS analysis included data for the 43 disorders screened for using TMS broken down into three categories: fatty acid oxidation disorders, organic acidurias, and aminoacidopathies. The impact of several factors on increased false positive rates was analyzed using a multivariate analysis: time from birth to sample collection, birth weight, birth height, BMI, gender, gestational age, delivery type. Results: Males of the subjects were 8942 (51.7%), female 8350 (48.3%), the mean gestational age was $38.6{\pm}1.7$ weeks, the average birth weight $3,155.6{\pm}502.4g$, the average birth height $49.1{\pm}2.9cm$, and the average BMI $13.0{\pm}3.8(kg/m^2)$. Vaginal delivery cases were 9713 (56.2%), caesarean section 7,579 (43.8%). The average date of the inspection was $2.8{\pm}1.1$ days. 224 cases were identified as TMS positive. All the subjects were false positive (222/17,292, 1.30%) except 2 cases (1 male; benign phenylketonuria and 1 female; Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency). The false positive rates were 0.61% in fatty acid oxidation disorders, 0.25% in organic acidurias, and 0.45% in aminoacidopathies. In our study, the date of inspection got late, the false positive rates got higher. Because almost the cases of late test date were in treatment in neonatal intensive care unit so their test date was affected by their medical conditions. False positive rate was higher in extreme immaturity${\leq}27$ weeks than newborns of gestational age >27 weeks [OR=6.957 (CI=1.273-38.008), p<0.025] and extremely low birth weight<1,000 g than newborns of birthweight ${\geq}1,000g$ [OR=5.616 (CI=1.134-27.820), p<0.035]. Conclusion: False positive rate of TMS was 1.30% in Cheil General Hospital. Lower gestational age and birth weight impacted on increased false positive rates. Better understanding of factors that influence the reporting of screening tests, and the ability to modify these important factors, may improve the screening process and reduce the need for retesting. of screening tests, and the ability to modify these important factors, may improve the screening process and reduce the need for retesting.

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Inhibitory Effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglial Cells through Regulation of Neuroinflammatory Mediators, the MAP Kinase Pathway, and the Cell Cycle (Lipopolysaccharide로 자극된 BV-2 미세교세포에서 신경염증 매개체, MAP kinase경로, 세포주기의 조절에 의한 천문동(Asparagus cochinchinensis)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Hyun Ah;Kim, Ji Eun;Choi, Jun Young;Sung, Ji Eun;Youn, Woo Bin;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Hee Seob;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.331-342
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    • 2020
  • The suppression of neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells can be considered a key target for improving the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Asparagus cochinchinensis has traditionally been used as a medicine to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory diseases, and brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of an aqueous extract from A. cochinchinensis root (AEAC), particularly its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with four different concentrations of AEAC. No significant toxicity was detected in BV-2 cells treated with AEAC. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels were 21% lower in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. Lower proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) levels were also detected in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group, albeit at varying rates. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group compared to the Vehicle+LPS group, enhancement of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group, while cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase caused by LPS treatment was less severe in the AEAC+LPS group. The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by LPS treatment was also lower in the AEAC-pretreated group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. This is the first study to show that AEAC exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity against LPS stimulation by regulating the MAPK signaling pathway, the cell cycle, and ROS production.

Investigation of Measurement Feasibility of Particulate Matter Concentration by Different Land-Use Types Using Drone (드론을 이용한 토지이용별 미세먼지 농도 측정 가능성 모색 연구)

  • Son, Seung-Woo;Yu, Jae-Jin;Kim, Dong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Sung, Woong-Gi;Yoon, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2020
  • This study measured the Particulate Matter (PM) concentration according to altitude (30 m, 60 m, 90 m, 120 m, and 150 m) in three different environments: a construction site, natural environment (arboretum), and residential area. PM2.5 and PM10 values at 30 m above the construction site were 18.63 ㎍/㎥ and 24.23 ㎍/㎥ while values at 150 m were 10.89 ㎍/㎥ and 10.61 ㎍/㎥, respectively, indicating the average concentration decreased as altitude increased. PM2.5 and PM10 values at 30 m above the natural environment were 9.03 ㎍/㎥ and 11.21 ㎍/㎥ while those at 150 m were 3.42 ㎍/㎥ and 3.57 ㎍/㎥, respectively, showing lower average concentrations as altitude increased. PM2.5 and PM10 values at 30 m above the residential area were 10.65 ㎍/㎥ and 12.06 ㎍/㎥ while those at 150 m were 4.24 ㎍/㎥ and 5.17 ㎍/㎥, also demonstrating lower PM concentrations as altitude increased. The PM concentrations decreased as altitude increased at all tested sites and also decreased between environments in the following order: construction site, residential area, and natural environment. The results of this study are significant because PM concentrations were measured at various altitudes at different land-use sites. The results are expected to serve as basic data for decision-making in both regional and urban planning.

Oral health care status and educational needs of care workers (요양보호사의 구강건강관리실태 및 구강건강관리교육 요구도 조사)

  • Kim, Hee-Kyoung;Kim, Kyung-Mi;Kim, Sun-Il;Kim, Eun-Ju;Namkoong, Eun-Jung;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Son, Jung-Hui;Shin, Bo-Mi;Shin, Sun-Jung;Eom, Mi-Ran;Lee, Min-Sun;Lee, Hye-Rin;Choi, Yong-Keum;Choi, Jin-Sun;Ryu, Da-Young
    • Journal of Korean Dental Hygiene Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2019
  • Introduction: This study intended to identify the current oral health care status and demand of care workers for oral health education. Methods: A survey was distributed to care workers working in 11 nursing homes for older people located in the Chungcheongdo Province. Of those distributed, 217 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. To analyze the collected data, a frequency analysis, t-test, and one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: The demand for an educational course on the 'Management of Oral Health Care for the Aged People' had a score of 4.22 points(full marks were 5.0 points), whereas the score for the necessity for control of oral health was 4.29 points. The control of oral health for the aged people suffering dysphagia scored 4.27 points, whereas the control of oral health for older people who have dementia was 4.27 points. The score for a course on the nutritional control for aged people having difficulties in masticating foods was 4.27. Conclusion: It is clear that the development of educational courses and standardized manuals for care workers on aspects of oral health care is necessary. Therefore, it would be desirable to develop institutional infrastructure for dental hygienists to educate care workers on oral health.

Inhibitory Effect of Purple Corn 'Seakso 1' Husk and Cob Extracts on Lipid Accumulation in Oleic Acid- Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease HepG2 Model (올레산 유도 비알코올성 지방간세포에서 자색옥수수 색소 1호 포엽과 속대 추출물의 지질 축적 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Ki Yeon;Kim, Tae hee;Kim, Jai Eun;Bae, Son wha;Park, A-Reum;Lee, Hyo Young;Choi, Sun jin;Park, Jong yeol;Kwon, Soon bae;Kim, Hee Yeon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2020
  • Seakso 1, a maize hybrid, was developed in 2008 by Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Korea and registered in 2011. It is single-cross hybrid, semi-flint, deep-purple variety of corn, variety of are yellow, while the husks and cobs are purple. Due to the sensitivity of Seakso 1 to excess moisture after seeding, water supply should be carefully managed, and it should be harvested at a suitable time to obtain the highest anthocyanin content. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Saekso 1 corn husk and cob extracts (EHCS) in oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in HepG2 cells. EHCS showed a high level of lipid accumulation inhibiting effect. EHCS also suppressed triglyceride accumulation and inhibited expression of lipid marker genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Analysis by western blot of the expression of p-AMPK, p-SREBP1, PPARα, and FAS proteins showed that the incidence of SREBP1 protein, a major factor involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, has decreased significantly after treatment with the extracts. Moreover, the protein-induced expression of FAS, a major enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathways of fatty acids, was decreased significantly in all concentrations. These results suggest that EHCS is a potent agent for the treatment of NAFLD.