• Title, Summary, Keyword: solvent decomposition

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Studies on decomposition of solvent for lithium-ion battery (리튬 이온 전지의 용매 분해 반응에 대한 연구)

  • Chung Kwang-il;Choi Byeong-doo;Kim Shin-Kook;Kim Woo-Seong;Choi Yong-Kook
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 1998
  • The electrochemical behavior of film and charge-discharge capacity of Li-ion cell in 1 M $LiPF_6/EC:DME$ (1 : 1, by volume ratio) electrolyte solution was studied using chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and impedance spectroscopy. The first irreversible capacity was higher than the second irrversible capacity because of solvent decomposition. Especially, passivation film that is electron insulating and ionic conducting were formed on the MPCF by solvent decomposition during the first charge. The solvated Li is co-intercalated with solvent into MPCF electrode. Part of the MPCF is expoliated during co-intercalation of solvent-Li. The MPCF ends up nonuniformly covered by a relatively thick layer of exfoliated particles embedded in a matrix of product by solvent decomposition.

NMR Solvent Peak Suppression by Piecewise Polynomial Truncated Singular Value Decomposition Methods

  • Kim, Dae-Sung;Lee, Hye-Kyoung;Won, Young-Do;Kim, Dai-Gyoung;Lee, Young-Woo;Won, Ho-Shik
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.967-970
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    • 2003
  • A new modified singular value decomposition method, piecewise polynomial truncated SVD (PPTSVD), which was originally developed to identify discontinuity of the earth's radial density function, has been used for large solvent peak suppression and noise elimination in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal processing. PPTSVD consists of two algorithms of truncated SVD (TSVD) and L₁ problems. In TSVD, some unwanted large solvent peaks and noise are suppressed with a certain soft threshold value, whereas signal and noise in raw data are resolved and eliminated in L₁ problems. These two algorithms were systematically programmed to produce high quality of NMR spectra, including a better solvent peak suppression with good spectral line shapes and better noise suppression with a higher signal to noise ratio value up to 27% spectral enhancement, which is applicable to multidimensional NMR data processing.

A study on the SEI film formation as organic solvent decomposition of lithium ion batteries and its electrochemical behavior (리튬이온전지의 유기용매분해에 따른 SEI film 형성과 전기화학적 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Seong;Gu, Hal-Bon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 2001
  • We have produced electrolyte solution out of 1.15M $LiPF_6$ EC/EMC/DEC/PC(30/55/10/5 by vol%) as a reference, and at the same time, performed basic physical property test using a single solvent of 1.15M $LiPF_6$ DEC, DMC, EMC and a 2 component electrolyte solution of 1.15M $LiPF_6$ EC/DEC(1/2 by vol%) and PC/DEC(1/2 by vol%). Cyclic Voltammetry Analysis showed that, compared to existing carbonate organic solvent, the addition of DEC,DMC and EMC brought the de-decomposition peak of salt anion of $PF_6$ and the solvent at lower oxidization potential of 2.3V, 0.7V and 2.1V(vs. $Li/Li^+$). In addition, a kinetics current peak, in which intercalation of Lt is proceeded at 750mV, 450mV(vs. $Li/Li^+$), was confirmed. These findings suggest that the DEC solvent decomposition occurred at an electric potential lower than that of oxidization of existing carbonate organic solvent. Through the impedance analysis, we checked electric charge transfer resistance($R_{ct}$) according to the electric potential of $Li^+$ intercalation at 750mV(vs. $Li/Li^+$), which was the same as the resistance ($R_f$) and cyclic voltammetry of SEI film that was formed at Reference. By doing so, we found that the significant decrease of polarization resistance($R_p$) when Reference was played a part in the formation of compact SEI layer at the initial decomposition reaction.

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A study on the SEI film formation as organic solvent decomposition of lithium ion batteries and its electrochemical behavior (리튬이온전지의 유기용매분해에 따른 SEI film형성과 전기화학적 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 김민성;구할본
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 2001
  • We have produced electrolyte solution out of 1.15M LiPF$\sub$6/ EC/EMC/DEC/PC(30/55/10/5 by vol%) as a reference, and at the same time, performed basic physical property test using a single solvent of 1.15M LiPF$\sub$6/DEC, DMC, EMC and a 2 component electrolyte solution of 1.15M LiPF$\sub$6/ EC/DEC(1/2 by vo%%) and PC/DEC(1/2 by vol%). Cyclic Voltammetry Analysis showed that, compared to existing carbonate organic solvent, the addition of DEC, DMC and EMC brought the de-decomposition peak of salt anion of PF$\sub$6/$\^$-/ and the solvent at lower oxidization potential of 2.3V, 0.7V and 2.1V(vs. Li/Li$\^$+/\`). In addition, a kinetics current peak, in which intercalation of Li$\^$+/ is proceeded at 750mv, 450mv(vs. Li/Li$\^$+/), was confirmed. These findings suggest that the DEC solvent decomposition occurred at an electric potential lower than that of oxidization of existing carbonate organic solvent. Through the impedance analysis, we checked electric charge transfer resistance(R$\sub$ct/) according to the electric potential of Li$\^$+/ intercalation at 750mv(vs. Li/Li$\^$+/), which was the same as the resistance (R$\sub$f/) and cyclic voltammetry of SEI film that was formed at Reference. By doing so, we found that the significant decrease of polarization resistance(R$\sub$p/) when Reference was played a part in the formation of compact SEI layer at the initial decomposition reaction.

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A Study on the Stability of Carbamide Peroxide Solution (Carbamide Peroxide 용액(溶液)의 안정성(安定性))

  • Rhee, Gye-Ju;Yu, Byung-Sul
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 1984
  • In order to eluciate the effect of humidity and organic solvent on the decomposition of carbamide peroxide, the kinetic study was carried out. The carbamide peroxide was prepared from urea and 30%-hydrogen peroxide. The accelerated stability analysis for carbamide peroxide crystal in various relative humidity, and for 10%-carbamide peroxide solution of organic solvents were investigated. Both humidity and temperature were important factors influencing the decomposition rate of carbamide peroxide crystal. The higher the humidity and temperature, the greater was the reaction rate. The breakdown rate of crystal was observed as an apparent zero-order, and was faster than the rate of decomposition in dilute propylene glycol, glycerine or sorbitol solutioos which were measured as an apparent first-order reaction. The more dilute to 10% the organic solvents of 10%-carbamide peroxide, the slower was breakdown rate. It is, therefore, useful in the aspects of stability and economics to substitute solvent of carbamide peroxide topical solution (USP XXI) with 10%-propylene glycol or glycerine instead of anhydrous glycerine.

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Large Solvent and Noise Peak Suppression by Combined SVD-Harr Wavelet Transform

  • Kim, Dae-Sung;Kim, Dai-Gyoung;Lee, Yong-Woo;Won, Ho-Shik
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.971-974
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    • 2003
  • By utilizing singular value decomposition (SVD) and shift averaged Harr wavelet transform (WT) with a set of Daubechies wavelet coefficients (1/2, -1/2), a method that can simultaneously eliminate an unwanted large solvent peak and noise peaks from NMR data has been developed. Noise elimination was accomplished by shift-averaging the time domain NMR data after a large solvent peak was suppressed by SVD. The algorithms took advantage of the WT, giving excellent results for the noise elimination in the Gaussian type NMR spectral lines of NMR data pretreated with SVD, providing superb results in the adjustment of phase and magnitude of the spectrum. SVD and shift averaged Haar wavelet methods were quantitatively evaluated in terms of threshold values and signal to noise (S/N) ratio values.

Studies of the Passivation Film as a Function of the Concentration of Electrolyte in Lithium-ion Battery

  • Jeong, Gwang Il;Jeong, Myeong U;Kim, U Seong;Kim, Sin Guk;Seong, Yong Eun;Choe, Yong Guk
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2001
  • The irreversible capacities caused by the reduction of solvent on the surface of a negative electrode (KMFC:Kawasaki Mesophase Fine Carbon) were examined during the initial cycle in ethylene carbonate (EC)-diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte solut ions at various concentrations of LiPF6. Chronopotentiograms, linear sweep voltammograms, and impedance spectra clearly showed differences in irreversible capacity and that those differences are related to the concentration of electrolyte during the initial charge. These differences were caused by the amount of solvent decomposition as a function of the concentration of LiPF6 electrolytic salt. The data are discussed with reference to the concentration of electrolytic salt and the properties of passivation film formed by solvent decomposition.

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Coarsening Phenomena in Polymer-Solvent Systems-A Review (고분자 용액에서의 Coarsening 현상)

  • 송승원
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 1997
  • In order to understand the formation of polymeric membranes or microcellular foams, phase separation phenomena in polymer solutions should be understood. The present review examines the progress made in the understanding of these phenomena, with emphasis on selected polymer-solvent systems. In the case of polymer-solvent systems, coarsening is of particular importance as it may come to dominate or overshadow spinodal decomposition effects within the first minute or few minutes of phase separation. In this article, some of the most important theoretical models of late stage of phase separation are reviewed, and recent experimental studies on coarsening in polymer-solvent systems are studied.

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Preparation of Cr2O3/AP Composites and their Thermal Decomposition Characteristics (Cr2O3/AP 복합체 제조 및 그 열분해 특성)

  • Jung, Jae-Yun;Kim, Jae-Kyeong;Shim, Hong-Min;Kim, Hyoun-Soo;Koo, Kee-Kahb
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 2015
  • $Cr_2O_3/AP$ (ammonium perchlorate) energetic composites were prepared by a method of solvent/anti-solvent. XRD analysis revealed that the crystalline structure of AP in $Cr_2O_3/AP$ composites is the same as that of pure AP. SEM photomicrograph shows that an average size of cuboid $Cr_2O_3/AP$ composites is approximately $2.5{\mu}m$. TGA analysis shows that the addition of submicron $Cr_2O_3$ particles into AP lowers the HTD (high-temperature decomposition) compared to that of neat AP and the activation energy of the $Cr_2O_3/AP$ composites was calculated by the isoconversional Starlink method. Considering changes in the activation energy, the decomposition reaction mechanism of AP was suggested as follows; the decomposition with the formation of nucleation sites renders formation of porous structure in the composites up to conversion of about 0.25 and after further conversion of over 0.3, it seems that decomposition reaction vigorously takes place rather than sublimation of AP.

Effect of Template Removal on Synthesis of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous MCM-48

  • Zhao, Ya Nan;Li, San Xi;Han, Chong-Soo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.3196-3202
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    • 2012
  • Post-synthesis is used to synthesize organic hybrid inorganic mesoporous sieves. In this method, the activity and structure of the base sieve are crucial to obtain the definable hybrid materials. The chemical and physical properties of the base can be largely changed either by the final step of its synthesizing processes, by template removal which is accomplished with the oxidative thermal decomposition (burning) method or by solvent extraction method. In this paper we compared two methods for the post-synthesis of organic hybrid MCM-48. When the template was extracted with HCl/alcohol mixture, the final product showed larger pore size, larger pore volume and better crystallinity compared to the case of the thermal decomposition. The reactivity of the surface silanol group of template free MCM-48 was also checked with an alkylsilylation reagent $CH_2=CHSi(OC_2H_5)_3$. Raman and $^{29}Si$ NMR spectra of MCM-48 in the test reaction indicated that more of the organic group was grafted to the surface of the sample after the template was removed with the solvent extraction method. Direct synthesis of vinyl-MCM-48 was also investigated and its characteristics were compared with the case of post-synthesis. From the results, it was suggested that the structure and chemical reactivity can be maintained in the solvent extraction method and that organic grafting after the solvent extraction can be a good candidate to synthesize a definable hybrid porous material.