• Title, Summary, Keyword: solid tumors

Search Result 318, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

How to Explain the Contradiction of microRNA 200c Expression and Survival in Solid Tumors?: a Meta-analysis

  • Wang, Hui-Yu;Shen, Jie;Jiang, Chun-Ping;Liu, Bao-Rui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.8
    • /
    • pp.3687-3690
    • /
    • 2014
  • MicroRNA 200c is a microRNA 200 family member that plays an important role in regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The prognostic value of microRNA 200c in solid tumors remains controversial because of inconsistent data. Here, we report a meta-analysis of the association of microRNA 200c expression and survival in patients with solid tumors. Pubmed was searched up to November 2013 for studies investigating microRNA 200c expression and overall survival (OS) in solid tumors. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for OS were extracted from each study. Pooled HR and CIs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects models. A total of five studies evaluating colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and endometrial cancer were included in the analysis. Data were divided into tissue microRNA 200c expression group and serum microRNA 200c expression group. The combined HRs [95%CIs] estimated for OS were 0.62 [0.42-0.91] and 2.16 [1.32-3.52] respectively. Low expression of microRNA 200c in tumor tissue and high expression of microRNA 200c in serum are associated with worse survival in solid tumors. Further study is needed to elucidate this contradiction.

Usefulness of Chimeric Transcript in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Solid Tumors (소아악성고형종의 진단에 있어서 chimeric transcript의 유용성)

  • Choi, Seung-Hoon
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-52
    • /
    • 1999
  • Pediatric solid tumors have many histologic similarity. These tumors contained small round cell types, and cause frequent diagnostic problems in pediatric pathology. An important advance in the differentiation of these small round cell tumors has been the identification of consistent chromosomal translocations associated with several types of tumors. Eighteen patients with soft tissue sarcoma were available for review. Seventeen cell lines were also included in this study. The RNA from the specimens were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PAX3-FKHR fusion was present in four of five alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and PAX7-FKHR fusion was detected in one of five alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. None of the specimens expressed more than one chimeric transcript. EWS-FLI1 or EWS-ERG fusions were detected in all seven Ewings' sarcoma. No specimens showed EWS-WT1 fusion. These results corresponded well to the histopathologic diagnosis. There were no differences in the histologic appearances of tumors with the more frequent PAX3-FKHR or EWS-FLI1 fusions compared with those containing the variant PAX7-FKHR or EWS-ERG fusions. RT-PCR assay for chimeric transcript is a useful tool for rapid and objective diagnosis of pediatric solid tumors. Through these tools, we can approach genetically to the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated small round tumors.

  • PDF

Treatment Outcomes in Children and Adolescents with Relapsed or Progressed Solid Tumors: a 20-year, Single-Center Study

  • Cho, Hee Won;Lee, Ji Won;Ma, Youngeun;Yoo, Keon Hee;Sung, Ki Woong;Koo, Hong Hoe
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
    • /
    • v.33 no.41
    • /
    • pp.260.1-260.15
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background: By estimating the survival rates and exploring prognostic factors in pediatric patients with relapsed or progressed solid tumors, our purpose was to generate background data for future studies. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 258 patients with solid tumors who experienced relapse/progression and received subsequent salvage treatment between 1996 and 2016. Results: A total of 60 patients remained progression-free during first-line salvage treatment, while the remaining 198 patients experienced relapse/progression again; 149 underwent second-line salvage treatment. A total of 76 patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT), and 44 patients received allogeneic SCT. The 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from relapse/progression were $18.4%{\pm}2.7%$ and $24.5%{\pm}3.0%$, respectively. Survival rates were relatively higher in patients with anaplastic ependymoma, initially non-high-risk neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, Wilms tumor and retinoblastoma. A multivariate analysis showed that relapse/progression during initial treatment, metastatic relapse/progression, and impossible debulking surgery were independent poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Patients who exhibited a complete response or partial response during conventional salvage treatment showed significantly higher survival after SCT than those with stable disease or progressive disease (10-year OS: $54.8%{\pm}7.0%$ vs. $7.0%{\pm}3.5%$, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The prognosis of relapsed/progressed pediatric solid tumors still remains unsatisfactory. New, effective treatment strategies are needed to overcome limitations of current approaches. Hopefully, the background data generated herein will be used in future clinical trials involving patients with relapsed/progressed solid tumors.

Establishment of in vitro 3-Dimensional Tumor Model for Evaluation of Anticancer Activity Against Human Solid Tumors (항고형암제의 활성평가를 위한 in vitro 삼차원 암세포 배양계의 확립)

  • Lee, Sang-Hak;Lee, Joo-Ho;Kuh, Hyo-Jeong
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.393-399
    • /
    • 2004
  • For the efficient determination of activity against solid tumors, an in vitro tumor model that resembles the condition of in vivo solid tumors, is required. The purpose of this study was to establish a rapid culture method and viability assay for an in vitro 3-dimensional tumor model, multicellular spheroid (MCS). Among 12 human cancer cell lines, a few cell lines including DLD-1 (human colorectal carcinoma cells) formed fully compact MCS which was adequate for in vitro viability assay. DLD-1 MCS showed steady growth reaching $700\;{\mu}m$ diameter after 11 day culture. DLD-1 cells grown as MCS showed significant increase in $G_0/G_1$ phase compared to the monolayer cells (73.9% vs 45.7%), but necrotic regions or apoptotic cells were not observed. The cells cultured as MCS showed resistance to 5-FU (10.3 fold higher $IC_{50}$) compared to monolayers, however, tirapazamine (a hypotoxin) showed similar activity in both culture systems. In summary, MCS may be a valid in vitro model for activity screening of anticancer agents against human solid tumors and also exploitable for studying molecular markers of drug resistance in human solid tumors.

Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Brain Tumors: The Clinical Usefulness (두개강내 종양의 확산강조자기공명영상: 임상적 유용성)

  • 이영철;서정진;정광우;강형근;김윤현
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.34-41
    • /
    • 2000
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of diffusion weighted MR imaging(DWI) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Materials and methods: DWI and conventional MR images of nineteen patients with brain tumors(10 metastatic tumors, 4 high grade gliomas, 4 low grade astrocytomas, one oligodendroglioma)were obtained on 1.5T unit. DWI was obtained using single shot spin echo planar imaging with b-value near 1000. We analyzed the signal intensities of lesions including solid portion, necrotic or cystic portion and peritumoral edema of brain tumors (classified five grades comparison with the signal intensities of brain parenchyma and CSF)and calculate the SIR(signal intensity ratio)of lesions to the contralateral normal brain parenchyma. We analyzed statistically the signal intensities and SIR of tumors using independence T test. Results: In solid portions of tumors, all the metastatic tumors and high grade gliomas showed high signal intensities, but low grade astrocytomas and oligodendroglioma showed iso or slight high signal intensities to the normal brain parenchyma. The SIR of solid portion has positive correlation with malignant pot ential(metastatic tumors 1.52, high grade gliomas 1.38, low grade astrocytomas 1.16, oligodendroglioma 1.31)(p < 0.05). In peritumoral edema where seen in 14 tumors, seven of 10 metastatic tumors and two of 4 high grade gliomas showed iso signal intensities, whereas edemas in other 5 brain tumors showed hyperintense to the normal brain parenchyma. The SIRs of peritumoral edemas in metastatic tumors (1.14) was lower than high grade gliomas(1.31),but statistically insignificant. The SIR of cystic or necrotic portion of brain tumors was 0.63. In non enhancing solid portions, three of six cases showed hyperintense to the adjacent peritumoral edema. Conclusion: On DWI, the signal intensities of solid portion has positive correlation with malignant potential, and perilesional edema of brain tumors appear various signal intensities owing to "T2 shine through effect" and the extensiveness of vasogenic edema. Another merit using DWI on the evaluation of brain tumors is to improved better delineation of tumor margins from the adjacent edemas, especially at the non enhancing solid portion of the tumors.

  • PDF

Importance of Volumetric Measurement Processes in Oncology Imaging Trials for Screening and Evaluation of Tumors as Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors

  • Vemuri, Ravi Chandra;Jarecha, Rudresh;Hwi, Kim Kah;Gundamaraju, Rohit;MaruthiKanth, Aripaka;Kulkarni, AravindRao;Reddy, Sundeep
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2375-2378
    • /
    • 2014
  • Cancer, like any disease, is a pathologic biological process. Drugs are designed to interfere with the pathologic process and should therefore also be validated using a functional screening method directed at these processes. Screening for cancers at an appropriate time and also evaluating results is also very important. Volumetric measurement helps in better screening and evaluation of tumors. Volumetry is a process of quantification of the tumors by identification (pre-cancerous or target lesion) and measurement. Volumetric image analysis allows an accurate, precise, sensitive, and medically valuable assessment of tumor response. It also helps in identifying possible outcomes such disease progression (PD) or complete response as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).

A Test for Psychobiologic Entropy Model on Cancer Related Fatigue among Patients with Solid Tumors (고형암 환자의 암성피로에 대한 정신생리학적 엔트로피 모델 검증)

  • Oh, Chang Hee;Park, Hyunyoung;Lee, Ji Suk;Choi, Ja Yun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a Winningham's psychobiologic entropy model (PEM) on cancer related fatigue (CRF) among patients with solid tumors. Methods: Participants consisted of 213 patients with solid tumors recruited from December, 2012 through June, 2013, in a university hospital, in Hwasun, South Korea. Primary symptoms, adjustment, physical activity, status of nutrition and fatigue were measured using structured questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 programs. Results: The modified model tested provided a reasonable fit to the data ($x^2=65.80$ [df=30, p<.001], TLI=.92, CFI=.95, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.07). Primary symptoms (dyspnea, anxiety, depression and insomnia) had direct positive effects on CRF. Adjustment and status of nutrition showed indirect negative effects on CRF. However, the impact of physical activity was not significant. These variables explained 49.2% of the variance of CRF among solid tumor patients. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the tested model explain some CRF among solid tumor patients and warrant future research considering the cancer-related clinical factors of the given population.

Metabolism-based Anticancer Drug Design

  • Kwon, Chul-Hoon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.533-541
    • /
    • 1999
  • Many conventional anticancer drugs display relatively poor selectivity for neoplastic cells, in particular for solid tumors. Furthermore, expression or development of drug resistance, increased glutathione transferases as well as enhanced DNA repair decrease the efficacy of these drugs. Research efforts continue to overcome these problems by understanding these mechanisms and by developing more effective anticancer drugs. Cyclophosphamide is one of the most widely used alkylating anticancer agents. Because of its unique activation mechanism, numerous bioreversible prodrugs of phosphramide mustard, the active species of cyclophosphamide, have been investigated in an attempt to improve the therapeutic index. Solid tumors are particularly resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. There has been considerable interest in designing drugs selective for hypoxic environments prevalent in solid tumors. Much of the work had been centered on nitroheterocyclics that utilize nitroreductase enzyme systems for their activation. In this article, recent developments of anticancer prodrug design are described with a particular emphasis on exploitation of selective metabolic processes for their activation.

  • PDF

1-Benzyl indazole derivative-based 18F-labeled PET radiotracer: Radiosynthesis and cell uptake study in cancer cells

  • More, Kunal N.;Lee, Jun Young;Park, Jeong-Hoon;Chang, Dong-Jo
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-47
    • /
    • 2019
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ($HIF-1{\alpha}$) is a transcription factor activated in response to low oxygen level, and is highly expressed in many solid tumors. Moreover, $HIF-1{\alpha}$ is a representative biomarker of hypoxia and also helps to maintain cell homeostasis under hypoxic condition. Most solid tumors show hypoxia, which induces poor prognosis and resistance to conventional cancer therapies. Thus, early diagnosis of hypoxia with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer would be highly beneficial for management of malignant solid tumors with effective cancer therapy. YC-1 is a most promising candidate among several $HIF-1{\alpha}$ inhibitors. As an effort to develop a hypoxia imaging tool as a PET radiotracer, we designed and synthesized [$^{18}F$]DFYC based on potent derivative of YC-1 and performed preliminary in vitro cell uptake study. [$^{18}F$]DFYC showed a significant accumulation in SKBR-3 cells among other cancer cells, proving as a good lead to develop a hypoxic solid tumor such as breast cancer.

Advanced MRI for Pediatric Brain Tumors with Emphasis on Clinical Benefits

  • Goo, Hyun Woo;Ra, Young-Shin
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.194-207
    • /
    • 2017
  • Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors.