• Title, Summary, Keyword: solar energetic particle

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Large Solar Eruptive Events

  • Lin, R.P.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.82.2-82.2
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    • 2011
  • Major solar eruptive events, consisting of both a large flare and a near simultaneous fast coronal mass ejection (CME), are the most powerful explosions in the solar system, releasing $10^{32}-10^{33}$ ergs in ${\sim}10^{3-4}\;s$. They are also the most powerful and energetic particle accelerators, producing ions up to tens of GeV and electrons up to hundreds of MeV. For flares, the accelerated particles often contain up to ~50% of the total energy released, a remarkable efficiency that indicates the particle acceleration is intimately related to the energy release process. Similar transient energy release/particle acceleration processes appear to occur elsewhere in the universe, in stellar flares, magnetars, etc. Escaping solar energetic particles (SEPs) appear to be accelerated by the shock wave driven by the fast CME at altitudes of ~1 40 $R_s$, with an efficiency of ~10%, about what is required for supernova shock waves to produce galactic cosmic rays. Thus, large solar eruptive events are our most accessible laboratory for understanding the fundamental physics of transient energy release and particle acceleration in cosmic magnetized plasmas. They also produce the most extreme space weather - the escaping SEPs are a major radiation hazard for spacecraft and humans in space, the intense flare photon emissions disrupt GPS and communications on the Earth, while the fast CME restructures the interplanetary medium with severe effects on the magnetospheres and atmospheres of the Earth and other planets. Here I review present observations of large solar eruptive events, and future space and ground-based measurements needed to understand the fundamental processes involved.

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How the Sun generates "killer electrons" in near-Earth space

  • Lee, Dae-Young
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2014
  • A fundamental problem in space physics is to explain the origin of energetic charged particles in space close to the Earth and the significant temporal variations of their flux. The particles are primarily electrons and protons although energetic heavy ions such as O+ are sometimes non-negligible. By "energetic" we mean a rather broad energy range of particles from a few tens of keV to well above MeV. Drastic variations of the particle fluxes (by >3 orders of magnitude) occur over both a short time scale like a few minutes and a long time scale like the 11-year sunspot cycle. In this talk I will focus on relativistic energy electrons (~MeV) trapped within the Earth's magnetosphere. They are a primary element of the space weather since they can cause damage to satellites, so often called "killer electrons". Considering that the source particles in both the solar wind and the ionosphere are relatively cold (~eV), the quasi-permanent existence of these very energetic particles close to the Earth has been a surprise to space physicists for decades. Complex electromagnetic processes such as wave-particle interactions within the magnetosphere are believed to play a major role in generating these killer electrons. While detailed physics remains an active research area, for this lecture I will introduce a synthesized picture of how solar activities are related to wave-particle interaction physics inside the magnetosphere. This can be applied to other astrophysical systems.

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HIGH-ENERGY SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

  • Kocharov, Leon
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.45.1-45.1
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    • 2010
  • Using SOHO particle and EUV detection and radio spectrograms from both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, we have studied the first phase of major solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with wide and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) centered at different solar longitudes. Observations support the idea that acceleration of SEPs starts in the helium-rich plasma of the eruption's core well behind the CME leading edge, in association with coronal shocks and magnetic reconnection caused by the CME liftoff; and those "coronal" components dominate during the first ~1.5 hour of the SEP event, not yet being hidden by the CME-bow shock in solar wind. At magnetic connection to the eruption's periphery, onset of SEP emission is delayed for a time of the lateral expansion that is visualized by global coronal (EIT) wave. The first, "coronal" phase of SEP acceleration is followed by a second phase associated with CME-driven shock wave in solar wind, which accelerates high-energy ions from a helium-poor particle population until the interplanetary shock slows down to below 1000 km/s. Based on these and other SOHO observations, we discuss what findings can be expected from STEREO in the SOHO era perspective.

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Recent Progress in Understanding Solar Magnetic Reconnection

  • Lee, Jeongwoo
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2015
  • Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process occurring in a wide range of astrophysical, heliospheric and laboratory plasmas. This process alters magnetic topology and triggers rapid conversion of magnetic energy into thermal heating and nonthermal particle acceleration. Efforts to understand the physics of magnetic reconnection have been made across multiple disciplines using remote observations of solar flares and in-situ measurements of geomagnetic storms and substorms as well as laboratory and numerical experiments. This review focuses on the progress achieved with solar flare observations in which most reconnection-related signatures could be resolved in both space and time. The emphasis is on various observable emission features in the low solar atmosphere which manifest the coronal magnetic reconnection because these two regions are magnetically connected to each other. The research and application perspectives of solar magnetic reconnection are briefly discussed and compared with those in other plasma environments.

Mini Neutron Monitors at Concordia Research Station, Central Antarctica

  • Poluianov, Stepan;Usoskin, Ilya;Mishev, Alexander;Moraal, Harm;Kruger, Helena;Casasanta, Giampietro;Traversi, Rita;Udisti, Roberto
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2015
  • Two mini neutron monitors are installed at Concordia research station (Dome C, Central Antarctica, $75^{\circ}06^{\prime}S$, $123^{\circ}23^{\prime}E$, 3,233 m.a.s.l.). The site has unique properties ideal for cosmic ray measurements, especially for the detection of solar energetic particles: very low cutoff rigidity < 0.01 GV, high elevation and poleward asymptotic acceptance cones pointing to geographical latitudes > $75^{\circ}S$. The instruments consist of a standard neutron monitor and a "bare" (lead-free) neutron monitor. The instrument operation started in mid-January 2015. The barometric correction coefficients were computed for the period from 1 February to 31 July 2015. Several interesting events, including two notable Forbush decreases on 17 March 2015 and 22 June 2015, and a solar particle event of 29 October 2015 were registered. The data sets are available at cosmicrays.oulu.fi and nmdb.eu.

Statistical Study on solar energetic particle acceleration using multi-channel observations

  • Kim, Rok-Soon;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Park, Young-Deuk
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.70.1-70.1
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    • 2014
  • We study the origin and acceleration mechanism of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which are one of the major causes of hazardous impacts in the space weather. By adopting the velocity dispersion to the multi-channel energy band observations from SOHO/ERNE and Wind/3DP, we estimate the onset time for each energy band and investigate coronal structure and CME's dynamics associated with the SEPs. Through this study we will find clues to answer the questions about the origin and acceleration of SEPs as well as their associated with flare and/or CMEs. We will apply our findings to improve the forecasting system of the solar radiation storms.

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Construction of Korean Space Weather Prediction Center: Space radiation effect

  • Lee, Jae-Jin;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Hwang, Jung-A;Kwak, Young-Sil;Kim, Khan-Hyuk;Bong, Su-Chan;Kim, Yeon-Han;Park, Young-Deuk;Choi, Seong-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.33.3-34
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    • 2008
  • As an activity of building Korean Space Weather Prediction Center (KSWPC), we has studied of radiation effect on the spacecraft components. High energy charged particles trapped by geomagnetic field in the region named Van Allen Belt can move to low altitude along magnetic field and threaten even low altitude spacecraft. Space Radiation can cause equipment failures and on occasions can even destroy operations of satellites in orbit. Sun sensors aboard Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT-1) was designed to detect sun light with silicon solar cells which performance was degraded during satellite operation. In this study, we try to identify which particle contribute to the solar cell degradation with ground based radiation facilities. We measured the short circuit current after bombarding electrons and protons on the solar cells same as STSAT-1 sun sensors. Also we estimated particle flux on the STSAT-1 orbit with analyzing NOAA POES particle data. Our result clearly shows STSAT-1 solar cell degradation was caused by energetic protons which energy is about 700 keV to 1.5 MeV. Our result can be applied to estimate solar cell conditions of other satellites.

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