• Title/Summary/Keyword: soil erosion

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Comparison of soil erosion simulation between empirical and physics-based models

  • Yeon, Min Ho;Kim, Seong Won;Jung, Sung Ho;Lee, Gi Ha
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2020.06a
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    • pp.172-172
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    • 2020
  • In recent years, soil erosion has come to be regarded as an essential environmental problem in human life. Soil erosion causes various on- and off-site problems such as ecosystem destruction, decreased agricultural productivity, increased riverbed deposition, and deterioration of water quality in streams. To solve these problems caused by soil erosion, it is necessary to quantify where, when, how much soil erosion occurs. Empirical erosion models such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) family models have been widely used to make spatially distributed soil erosion vulnerability maps. Even if the models detect vulnerable sites relatively well by utilizing big data related to climate, geography, geology, land use, etc. within study domains, they do not adequately describe the physical process of soil erosion on the ground surface caused by rainfall or overland flow. In other words, such models remain powerful tools to distinguish erosion-prone areas at the macro scale but physics-based models are necessary to better analyze soil erosion and deposition and eroded particle transport. In this study, the physics-based Surface Soil Erosion Model (SSEM) was upgraded based on field survey information to produce sediment yield at the watershed scale. The modified model (hereafter MoSE) adopted new algorithms on rainfall kinematic energy and surface flow transport capacity to simulate soil erosion more reliably. For model validation, we applied the model to the Doam dam watershed in Gangwon-do and compared the simulation results with the USLE outputs. The results showed that the revised physics-based soil erosion model provided more improved and reliable simulation results than the USLE in terms of the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition.

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Analysis of soil erosion hazard zone using GIS

  • Kim J. H.;Kim K.T.;Park J. S.;Choi Y.S.
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • 2004.10a
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    • pp.664-667
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    • 2004
  • This paper is aimed at analyzing the soil erosion hazard zone in farm land. RUSLE was used for an analysis of soil erosion amount, and for the spatial data of basin, soil erosion amount was calculated by extracting the respect topography space related factors of RUSLE using DEM, Landuse, Soil map as base map. As a result of analysis on the calculated soil erosion amount according to land use type, it was analyzed that the most soil erosion occurred in orchard area, i.e., 40.08ton/ha/yr at average. It was classified into 5 classes depending on the calculated soil erosion amount. of which Class V was decided as soil erosion hazard zone, and for this area, 72.5ha or so, $2.4\%$ of the entire farm land was assessed as erosion hazard zone.

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Study on Topsoil Erosion Indices for Efficient Topsoil Management (효율적 표토 관리를 위한 표토침식지표 연구)

  • Jung, Younghun;Kum, Donghyuk;Han, Jeongho;Jang, Chunhwa;Yang, Jay E;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Kim, Ki-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.543-555
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    • 2015
  • The existing standard for soil erosion risk assessment has limitations in sustainable topsoil management since the fixed criteria are applied to determination of soil erosion risk areas regardless of land use types. It may not be necessary to apply soil erosion best management practices to agricultural areas with high potential of soil erosion because human or economic damage derived from soil erosion might be tiny in that region. Furthermore, the fixed criterion with absolute values can select too many hot spots of soil erosion to conduct efficient soil erosion management. Thus, objective of this study was to suggest the relative criteria using statistical analysis for efficient soil erosion management. In future, the relative indices for soil erosion prevention should be improved to provide a priority of soil erosion management considering economic damage from soil erosion or functional values of soil with quantitative soil erosion. Additional researches will be needed to reflect a regional characteristics and to consider various land use types and different criteria.

Estimation of Soil Erosion using SATEEC and USPED and Determination of Soil Erosion Hot Spot Watershed (SATEEC과 USPED를 이용한 토양 유실량 산정 및 우선관리 유역 선정 평가)

  • Seo, Il Kyu;Park, Youn Sik;Kim, Nam Won;Moon, Jong Pil;Ryu, Ji Chul;Ok, Yong Sik;Kim, Ki-Sung;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2010
  • Severe muddy water problem has been the hot issue in Korea. Because of increased nonpoint source pollutions at Kangwon province, best soil erosion management system is required to reduce inflow of nonpoint source pollutions into the waterbodies. The USLE-based SATEEC system have been developed and enhanced for soil erosion and sediment yield estimation. However, the SATEEC cannot estimate soil depositions depending on topography in the watershed, while the USPED estimates soil erosion and deposition using sediment transport capacity of the surface runoff. In this study, the SATEEC and USPED were used to determine soil erosion hot spot subbasins. For this, 54 subbasins were delineated. In general, soil erosion hot spot subbasins were identified similarly with SATEEC and USPED. However, depending on erosion and deposition patterns in each subbasin. USPED estimated soil erosion hot spot subbasins didn't match those estimated with SATEEC. For some subbasins, much deposition was expected than erosion. This indicates that SATEEC estimated soil erosion values may be overestimated for these subbasins. Thus, care should be taken when understanding soil erosion status in the watershed based on USLE-based SATEEC results. In addition, the USPED results could be used to identify the site-specific soil erosion best management practices. If the USPED and USLE-based SATEEC are combined, it would help determining soil erosion hot spot subwatersheds in economic and environmental perspectives.

Effect of Transport Capacity Formula on Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion

  • Nguyen, Van Linh;Yeon, Minho;Cho, Seongkeun;Lee, Giha
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2021.06a
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    • pp.150-150
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    • 2021
  • Soil erosion due to climate change is one of the global environmental issues. Especially, Korea is vulnerable to soil erosion as the frequency of extreme rainfall events and rainfall intensity are increasing. Soil erosion causes various problems such as reduced farmlands, deterioration of water quality in rivers, etc. To these severe problems, understanding the process of soil erosion is the first process. Then, it is necessary to quantify and analyze soil ersoion using an erosion model. Soil erosion models are divided into empirical, conceptual, and physics-based models according to the structures and characteristics of models. This study used GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis), the physics-based erosion model, running on WMS (Watershed Modeling System) to analyze soil erosion vulnerability of the CheonCheon watershed. In addition, we compared the six sediment transport capacity formulas provided in the model and evaluated the equations fir on this study site. Therefore, this result can be as a primary tool for soil conservation management.

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Analysis of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yields at the Doam-dam Watershed considering Soil Properties from the Soil Reconditioned Agricultural Fields using SATEEC System (SATEEC 시스템을 이용한 객토 토양의 토성고려에 따른 도암댐 유역의 토양유실 및 유사량 분석)

  • Yoo, Dongsun;Ahn, Jaehun;Yoon, Jongsuk;Heo, Sunggu;Park, Younshik;Kim, Jonggun;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Kim, Ki-sung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.518-526
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    • 2007
  • There have been serious soil erosion and water pollution problems caused by highland agriculture practices at Doam-dam watershed. Especially agricultural activities, chemical and organic fertilizer and pesticide applications, soil reconditioning to maintain soil fertility are known as primary causes of soil erosion and water qaulity degradation in the receiving water bodies. Among these, soil reconditioning can accelerate soil erosion rates. To develop soil erosion prevention practices, it is necessary to estimate the soil erosion from the watershed. Thus, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model has been developed and utilized to assess soil erosion. However, the USLE model cannot be used at watershed scale because it does not consider sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for watershed application. For this reason, the Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SA TEEC) was developed to assess the sediment yield at any point in the watershed. The USLE-based SA TEEC system can estimate the SDR using area-based SDR and slope-based SDR module. In this study, the SATEEC system was used to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield at the Doam-dam watershed using the soil properties from reconditioned agricultural fields. Based on the soil sampling and analysis, the US LE K factor was calculated and used in the SA TEEC system to analyze the possible errors of previous USLE application studies using soil properties from the digital soil map, and compared with that using soil properties obtained in this study. The estimated soil erosion at the Doam-dam watershed without using soil properties obtained in the soil sampling and analysis is 1,791,400 ton/year (123 ton/ha/year), while the soil erosion amount is 2,429,900 ton/year (166.8 ton/ha/year) with the use of soil properties from the soil sampling and analysis. There is 35 % increase in estimated soil erosion and sediment yield with the use of soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields. Since significant amount of soil erosion are known to be occurring from the agricultural fields, the soil erosion and sediment yield from only agricultural fields was assessed. The soil erosion rate is 45.9 ton/ha/year without considering soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields, while 105.3 ton/ha/year after considering soil properties obtained in this study, increased in 129%. This study shows that it is very important to use correct soil properties to assess soil erosion and sediment yield simulation. It is recommended that further studies are needed to develop environment friendly soil reconditioning method should be developed and implemented to decrease the speed of soil erosion rates and water quality degradation.

Application of SPOT 5 Satellite Image and Landcover Map for the examination of Soil Erosion Source Area (토사유실 원인지역 검토를 위한 SPOT 5 위성영상과 토지피복도의 활용)

  • Lee, Geun-Sang;Park, Jin-Hyeog;Hwang, Eui-Ho;Koh, Deuk-Koo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.927-935
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    • 2005
  • Soil erosion by rainfall is important factor for basin management because it reduces reservoir capacity and breaks out the contamination of water caused by turbid water. Recently, soil erosion study with GIS is in progress but does not consider soil erosion source area. This study calculated soil erosion amount using GIS-based soil erosion model in Imha basin and examined soil erosion source area using SPOT 5 High-resolution satellite image and land cover map. As a result of analysis, dry field showed high-density soil erosion area and we could easily investigate source area using satellite image. Also we could examine the suitability of soil erosion area by applying field survey method in common areas such as dry field and orchard area those are difficult to confirm soil erosion source area using satellite image.

Comparison of Soil Loss Estimation using SWAT and SATEEC (SWAT과 SATEEC 모형을 이용한 토양유실량 비교)

  • Park, Youn-Shik;Kim, Jong-Gun;Heo, Sung-Gu;Kim, Nam-Won;Ahn, Jae-Hun;Park, Joon-Ho;Kim, Ki-Sung;Lim, Kyung-Jae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2008
  • Soil erosion is a natural process and has been occurring in most areas in the watershed. However, accelerated soil erosion rates have been causing numerous environmental impacts in recent years. To reduce soil erosion and sediment inflow into the water bodies, site-specific soil erosion best management practices(BMPs) need to be established and implemented. The most commonly used soil erosion model is the Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE), which have been used in many countries over 30 years. The Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control(SATEEC) ArcView GIS system has been developed and enhanced to estimate the soil erosion and sediment yield trom the watershed using the USLE input data. In the last decade, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool(SWAT) model also has been widely used to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield at a watershed scale. The SATEEC system estimates the LS factor using the equation suggested by Moore and Burch, while the SWAT model estimates the LS factor based on the relationship between sub watershed average slope and slope length. Thus the SATEEC and SWAT estimated soil erosion values were compared in this study. The differences in LS factor estimation methods in the SATEEC and SWAT caused significant difference in estimated soil erosion. In this study, the difference was -51.9%(default threshold)${\sim}-54.5%$(min. threshold) between SATEEC and non-patched SWAT, and -7.8%(default threshold)${\sim}+3.8%$(min. threshold) between SATEEC and patched SWAT estimated soil erosion.

Comparison of Soil Loss Estimation using SWAT and SATEEC (SWAT과 SATEEC 모형을 이용한 토양유실량 비교)

  • Park, Youn-Shik;Kim, Jong-Gun;Heo, Sung-Gu;Kim, Nam-Won;Lim, Kyung-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2008.05a
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    • pp.1295-1299
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    • 2008
  • Soil erosion is a natural process and has been occurring in most areas in the watershed. However, accelerated soil erosion rates have been causing numerous environmental impacts in recent years. To reduce soil erosion and sediment inflow into the water bodies, site-specific soil erosion best management practices (BMPs) need to be established and implemented. The most commonly used soil erosion model is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), which have been used in many countries over 30 years. The Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC) ArcView GIS system has been developed and enhanced to estimate the soil erosion and sediment yield from the watershed using the USLE input data. In the last decade, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model also has been widely used to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield at a watershed scale. The SATEEC system estimates the LS factor using the equation suggested by Moore and Burch, while the SWAT model estimates the LS factor based on the relationship between sub watershed average slope and slope length. Thus the SATEEC and SWAT estimated soil erosion values were compared in this study. The differences in LS factor estimation methods in the SATEEC and SWAT caused significant difference in estimated soil erosion. In this study, the difference was -51.9%(default threshold)$\sim$-54.5%(min. threshold) between SATEEC and non-patched SWAT, and -7.8%(default threshold)$\sim$+3.8%(min. threshold) between SATEEC and patched SWAT estimated soil erosion.

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Comparison of Annual Soil Loss using USLE and Hourly Soil Erosion Evaluation System (USLE모형과 시강우를 고려한 토양유실 평가 시스템을 이용한 연간 토양유실량 비교 분석)

  • Kum, Dong-Hyuk;Ryu, Ji-Chul;Kang, Hyun-Woo;Jang, Chun-Hwa;Shin, Min-Hwan;Shin, Dong-Shuk;Choi, Joong-Dae;Lim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.991-997
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    • 2011
  • Soil erosion and sediment has been known as one of pollutants causing water quality degradation in water bodies. With global warming issues worldwide, various soil erosion studies have been performed. Although on-site monitoring of sediment loss would be an ideal method to evaluate soil erosion condition, modeling approaches have been utilized to estimate soil erosion and to evaluate various best management practices on soil erosion reduction. Although the USLE has been used in soil erosion estimation for the last 40 years, the USLE model has limitations in estimating event-based soil erosion reflecting rainfall intensity and rainfall duration for long-term period. Thus, the calibrated model, capable of simulating soil erosion using hourly rainfall data, was utilized in this study to evaluate the effects of rainfall amount and rainfall intensity on soil erosion. It was found that USLE soil erosion value is $3.06ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, while soil erosion values from 2006~2010 were $2.469ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $0.882ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $1.489ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $2.158ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $1.602ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, respectively. Especially, soil erosion from single storm event for 2008-2010 would be responsible for 30% or more of annual soil loss. As shown in this study, hourly soil erosion estimation system would provide more detailed output from the study area. In addition, the effects of rainfall intensity on soil erosion could be evaluated with this system.