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Paradigm Shift in Policy of Soil Environment Conservation in Korea (우리나라 토양환경보전 정책의 패러다임 전환)

  • Park, Yong-Ha;Yang, JaeE
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.10-26
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    • 2018
  • This paper reviews the soil conservation policies (SCP) in the global community and suggests the improved options in SCP in Korea. Soil Environment Conservation Act in Korea states soil is a valuable natural resource and it's value should be enhanced to provide the benefits that soil ecosystem can offer to people. However, SCP in Korea limits its application to not only the scope of soil environment but also the issues on soil pollution. The SCPs in the advanced countries have shifted their scopes from soil environment to soil ecosystem, put emphasis on the conservation of soil health rather than soil quality, and set the goals to optimize the soil ecosystem services to people while minimizing the soil threats. In this context, the soil security initiative was recently proposed to accomplish this goal while employing the nexus concept to bridge the soil ecosystem services with water, atmosphere, climate and biodiversity. Therefore, the key policies in soil conservation in Korea should expand the scope from soil environment to soil ecosystem, focus on soil health management, and develop the holistic governance among diverse stakeholder to maximize the soil ecosystem services. Soil ecosystem should be secured by national soil policies for human health.

Adsorption and Leaching of EPN in the Soil

  • Kim, Jung-Ho;Kam, Sang-Kyu;Park, Moon-Ki;Moon, Yung-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.221-223
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    • 1999
  • The adsorption and leaching of organophosphorus pesticide, EPN are investigated in Namwon soil(black volcanic soil), Aewol soil(very dark brown volcanic soil) and Mureung soil(dark brown nonvolcanic soil) sampled in Cheju Island. The organic matter of Namwon soil, Aewol soil and Mureung soil is 19.8%, 6.2%, 2.4%, respectively. The cation exchange capacity of Namwon soil, Aewol soil and Mureung soil is 24.8 meq/100g, 13.0 meq/100g, 9.5 meq/100g, respectively. The Freundlich constant, K value, is 89.4, 26.9 and 9.25 for Namwon soil, Aewol soil and Mureung soil, respectively. The K value of Namwon soil with very high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity was the highest for Aewol soil and Mureung soil. The Freundlich constant, 1/n, show a high correlation with organic matter content, i.e., it is less than unity for organic matter rich soil of Namwon soil and greater than unity for organic matter poor soil of Mureung soil. The leaching of EPN is slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and faster for Mureung soil with low K values. The results of the study is demonstrated the potential of pollution for EPN have little leached into soil environment.

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Spectral Reflectance of Soils Related to the Interaction of Soil Moisture and Soil Color Using Remote Sensing Technology (RS 기법을 이용한 토양수분과 토양 색에 관련된 토양의 분광반사)

  • 박종화
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2003
  • Recent advances in remote sensing techniques provide the potential for monitoring soil color as well as soil moisture conditions at the spatial and temporal scales required for detailed local modeling efforts. Soil moisture as well as soil color is a key feature used in the identification and classification of soils. Soil spectral reflectance has a direct relationship with soil color, as well as to other parameters such as soil moisture, soil texture. and organic matter. We evaluate the influence of seven soil properties, soil color and soil moisture, on soil spectral reflectance. This paper presents the results obtained from the ground-truth spectral reflectance measurements in the 300-1100 nm wavelength range for various land surfaces. The results suggest that the reflectance properties of soils are related to soil color, soil texture, and soil moisture. Increasing soil moisture content generally decreases soil reflectance which leads to parallel curves of soil reflectance spectra across the entire shortwave spectrum. We discuss the relationships between the soil reflectance and the Munsell Soil Color Charts which contain standard color chips with colors specified by designations for hue, value, and chroma.

A Study on the Acidification of Soils (토양의 산성화에 관한 연구)

  • Park,Byeong-Yun;Eo,Yun-U;Yang,So-Yeong;Jang,Sang-Mun;Kim,Jeong-Ho;Lee,Dong-Hun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2001
  • pH($H_2O$), pH(KCI), CEC(cation exchange capacity), O.M.(organic matter) and exchangeable cations(K, Na, Ca, Mg) of paddy soil, upland soil and forest soil in Kumi city were investigated for the purpose of knowing soil acidification and the correlation between soil acidification and leaching of inorganic salts. The mean pH($H_2O$) values of paddy soil were 5.23(surface soil) and 5.69(subsoil) and 4.74(subsoil). The were 6.37(surface soil) and 6.11(subsoil), and those of forest soil were 4.67(surface soil) and 4.74(subsoil). The mean pH(KCl) values of paddy soil were 4.59(surface soil) and 4.98(subsoil) were 5.48(surface soil) and 5.04(subsoil), and those of forest soil were 3.82(surface soil) and 3.89(subsoil). The acidification of forest soil was more rapid than that of paddy soil and upland soil/ The total mean amounts of exchangeable cations(K, Na, Ca, Mg) in paddy soils were 6.14me/100g(surface soil) and 5.64me/100g(subsoil), and those in upland soils were 6.86me/100g(surface soil) and 6.65me/100g(subsoil), and those in forest soils were 4.06me/100g(surface soil) and 3.34me/100g(subsoil). The contents of inorganic salts in forest soil were much less than those of paddy soil and upland soil. The correlation coefficients(r) between pH($H_2O$) values and the total amounts of exchangeable cations in soils were $0.6635^{**}$(surface soil) and $0.6946^{**}$(subsoil), and those between pH(KCl) values and exchangeable cations in soils were 0.6629(surface soil) and $0.5675^{**}$(subsoil). The correlation between soil acidification and leaching of inorganic salts in soil was positively significant at 1% level.

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Characteristics of Anthropogenic Soil Formed from Paddy near the River

  • Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Kim, Keun-Tae;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.434-439
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    • 2016
  • Anthropogenic soil in cropland is formed in the process of subsoil reversal and the refill of soil into cropland. However, there was little information on the chemical properties within soil profiles in anthropogenic soil under rice paddy near the river. In this study, we investigated the chemical properties within soil profiles in the anthropogenic soil located at 4 sites in Gumi, Kimhae, Chungju, and Euiseong to compare with the natural paddy soil near the river. Among particle sizes, the sand content decreased under soil profiles but the silt and clay contents increased compared to the natural paddy soil in soil profiles. Organic matter content in topsoil of anthropogenic soil was lower than in that of natural soil, which was shown the contrary tendency within soil profiles. Also, the soil pH, available $P_2O_5$, and exchangeable cations were higher in anthropogenic soil compared to natural paddy soil at topsoil, which was maintained these tendency into soil depth. Nutrients may be equally distributed in anthropogenic soil during the process of refill in paddy soil near the river. This results indicated that anthropogenic soil would contribute to carbon sequestration, the mitigation of compaction, and reduction of fertilizer application in paddy soil. Therefore, characteristics of anthropogenic soil can be used for the soil management in cropland.

Effects of forest fire on physical and chemical properties of soil (산불이 토양의 물리ㆍ화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 박관수
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to estimate the effect of forest fire on physical and chemical properties of soil The forest fire was in April 1995 at Kongju of Chungnam. Soil samples were collected at 0~5cm, 5~10cm, and 10~20cm soil depths in September 1998 from the burned and unburned sites. Soil organic matter concentrations at 0~5cm and 5~10cm soil depths were significantly greater in unburned site than in burned site. Soil concentrations were greater in unburned site than in burned site at all soil depths. Cation exchange capacity was significantly higher in unburned site than in burned site at 0~5cm soil depth. There were no differences in available soil P, exchangeable soil K, Ca, and Mg, and pH of soil between burned and unburned sites. Soil water content at 0~5cm soil depth was significantly greater in unburned site than in burned site. Bulk density at 0~5cm soil depth was significantly higher in burned site than in unburned site. Forest fire had an adverse effect on physical and chemical properties of soil in this study, Burning of vegetation and forest 리oor organic matter in burned site may reduce organic matter supply to soil and increase soil erosion. Consequently, forest fire may have adverse influence on long-term site productivity.

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A Brief Review of Soil Systematics in Germany (독일 토양분류체계 소개)

  • Kim, Rog-Young;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Jang, Byoung-Choon;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2010
  • Due to diverse soil-forming environments and different purposes of the soil classification, numerous soil classification systems have been developed worldwide. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) and the Soil Taxonomy of the United States are well-known in Korea. However, the German Soil Systematics based on somewhat different principles from the two former systems is little-known. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short overview of the principles of the German Soil Systematics. The German Soil Systematics consists of a six-level hierarchical structure which comprises soil divisions, soil classes, soil types, soil subtypes, soil varieties, and soil subvarieties. Soils in Germany are firstly classified into one of four soil divisions according to the soil moist regime: terrestrial soils, semi-terrestrial soils, semi-subhydric/subhydric soils, and peats. Terrestrial soils are subdivided into 13 soil classes based on the stage of soil formation and the horizon differentiation. Semi-terrestrial soils are differentiated into four classes regarding the source of soil moist: groundwater, freshwater, saltwater, and seaside. Semi-subhydric/subhydric soils are subdivided into two classes: semi-subhydric and subhydric soils. Peats are classified into two classes of natural and anthropogenic origins. Classes can be compared to orders of the U.S. Taxonomy. Classes are subdivided into 29 soil types with regard to soil forming-processes for terrestrial soils, into 17 types with regard to the soil formation for semi-terrestrial soils, into five types with regard to the content of organic matter for semi-subhydric/subhydric soils, and also into five types with regard to peat-forming processes for peats. The soil mapping units in Germany are types, which can be additionally subdivided into ca. 220 subtypes, several thousands of varieties and subvarieties using detailed nuances of morphologic features of soil profile. Soil types can be compared to great groups of the U.S. Taxonomy.

Review of the Extraction Methods of Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, and Soil Suspensions for Ecotoxicity Assessments (생태독성평가를 위한 Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, Soil Suspensions 추출기법)

  • Nam, Sun-Hwa;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2014
  • Soil pollution has been recognized as a serious problem because it causes groundwater pollution through medium contacts. Although concentration of individual chemical could be more easily measured by physico-chemical analysis, it is not easy to consider the bioavailability of edaphic receptors living in soil or groundwater. To measure the toxicity of soil, the soil extracts (soil elutriates or soil suspensions in the other words) are often used due to the difficulties of extracting soil pore water. In this study, we reviewed 15 toxicity test methods found in literature to analyze the detail of each extraction method and to recommend the most frequently used extraction methods. The identified most commonly used extraction methods are as following: The 1 : 4 soil:water ratio, 24 hours shaking time, room temperature, dark, and separation of supernatant using a $0.45{\mu}m$ pore size filter.

Analysis of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yields at the Doam-dam Watershed considering Soil Properties from the Soil Reconditioned Agricultural Fields using SATEEC System (SATEEC 시스템을 이용한 객토 토양의 토성고려에 따른 도암댐 유역의 토양유실 및 유사량 분석)

  • Yoo, Dongsun;Ahn, Jaehun;Yoon, Jongsuk;Heo, Sunggu;Park, Younshik;Kim, Jonggun;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Kim, Ki-sung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.518-526
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    • 2007
  • There have been serious soil erosion and water pollution problems caused by highland agriculture practices at Doam-dam watershed. Especially agricultural activities, chemical and organic fertilizer and pesticide applications, soil reconditioning to maintain soil fertility are known as primary causes of soil erosion and water qaulity degradation in the receiving water bodies. Among these, soil reconditioning can accelerate soil erosion rates. To develop soil erosion prevention practices, it is necessary to estimate the soil erosion from the watershed. Thus, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model has been developed and utilized to assess soil erosion. However, the USLE model cannot be used at watershed scale because it does not consider sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for watershed application. For this reason, the Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SA TEEC) was developed to assess the sediment yield at any point in the watershed. The USLE-based SA TEEC system can estimate the SDR using area-based SDR and slope-based SDR module. In this study, the SATEEC system was used to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield at the Doam-dam watershed using the soil properties from reconditioned agricultural fields. Based on the soil sampling and analysis, the US LE K factor was calculated and used in the SA TEEC system to analyze the possible errors of previous USLE application studies using soil properties from the digital soil map, and compared with that using soil properties obtained in this study. The estimated soil erosion at the Doam-dam watershed without using soil properties obtained in the soil sampling and analysis is 1,791,400 ton/year (123 ton/ha/year), while the soil erosion amount is 2,429,900 ton/year (166.8 ton/ha/year) with the use of soil properties from the soil sampling and analysis. There is 35 % increase in estimated soil erosion and sediment yield with the use of soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields. Since significant amount of soil erosion are known to be occurring from the agricultural fields, the soil erosion and sediment yield from only agricultural fields was assessed. The soil erosion rate is 45.9 ton/ha/year without considering soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields, while 105.3 ton/ha/year after considering soil properties obtained in this study, increased in 129%. This study shows that it is very important to use correct soil properties to assess soil erosion and sediment yield simulation. It is recommended that further studies are needed to develop environment friendly soil reconditioning method should be developed and implemented to decrease the speed of soil erosion rates and water quality degradation.

A Comparative Study on the Costs of Structural Materials Based on Different Types of Soil Load on Artificial Ground (인공지반에서 토양하중에 따른 건축구조물 골조원가의 비교연구)

  • 김도경;황지환
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the soil load for artificial ground on a building's structural expenses. Three types of soil - 100% soil, soil mixed with 50% perlite, and 100% artificial soil - were used for this study. A one story concrete steel building specific to each soil load was designed, and then, the cost of steel and concrete used for the design was estimated. As the result of this study, the structural expenses in the case of 5:5 mixed soil can be reduced about 17% compare with 100% soil. Using artificial soil, the structural expenses can be cut about 32% compare to 100% soil and about 12% less when 5:5 mixed soil is used. However, considering total expense which includes the structural expense and soil expense, the expense of 5:5 mixed soil have an increase 25% compared with 100% soil. In the artificial soil, the total expense is 45% more expensive than 100% soil and 17% higher when 5:5 mixed soil is used because of the high unit price of artificial soil. This study expected substantial savings in structural cost as the soil-load was lightened. But, savings were significantly reduced because the unit price of the artificial soil is much more expensive than the price of the natural one. Therefore, further research on methods of reducing the unit price of the artificial soil should be conducted in order to extend green space on to artificial ground.