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The Short-Term Effects of Soft Pellets on Lipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

  • Bae, Cho-Rong;Hasegawa, Kazuya;Akieda-Asai, Sayaka;Kawasaki, Yurie;Cha, Youn-Soo;Date, Yukari
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-day, soft pellet (SP) diet with a 3-h restricted feeding schedule on caloric intake, body weight, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Glucose and insulin levels were measured pre-, mid-, and post-feeding. The SP rats exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia compared to rats fed control pellets (CP). The insulin response of SP rats during a meal was significantly higher than that of CP rats. There were no significant differences in the hepatic triacylglycerol contents and lipogenesis gene mRNA levels of SP and CP rats. However, the hepatocytes of SP rats were slightly hypertrophic. In addition, histological analysis revealed that the pancreases of SP rats had more islet areas than those of CP rats. This study demonstrated that feeding an SP-only diet for 12 days induces glucose intolerance, suggesting that the consumption of absorbable food, like a soft diet, may trigger glucose metabolism insufficiency and lead to life-threatening diseases.

Evaluation of Commercial Extruded Pellets and Raw Fish-Based Moist Pellets for the Growth and Quality of Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Cultured in Net-Cages (해상가두리 양식장에서 배합사료 및 생사료 공급에 따른 조피볼락(Sebastes schlegeli)의 성장 및 육질 비교)

  • Son, Maeng Hyun;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Kim, Kang-Woong;Kim, Shin-Kwon;Lee, Bong-Joo;Han, Hyon-Sob
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.282-286
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to compare extruded pellets (EP) and soft extruded pellets (SEP) with a raw fish-based moist pellet (MP) diet on the growth and flesh quality of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Three groups of 20,000 fish (initial mean weight 133 g) per net-cage ($6{\times}12{\times}7m$) were fed commercial EP, SEP or MP for 16 months. The survival of fish fed SEP was higher than those of fish fed EP or MP. The highest growth performances were observed in the mean weight gain, total weight gain, and feed efficiency of fish fed MP, followed by those fed EP and SEP. Among the fish fed on extruded pellets, the total weight gain of fish fed SEP was higher than that of those fed EP, while fish fed EP grew faster than those fed SEP. No notable differences in body composition, sensory scores or textural properties of the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed on EP, SEP or MP. Thus, it is suggested that extruded pellets, rather than raw fish-based moist pellets, could be fed to Korean rockfish without compromising flesh quality.

Effects of Extrusion Process Parameters on Puffing of Extruded Pellets (압출성형 공정변수가 압출성형 펠릿의 팽화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2001
  • Pressure-puffing system or extruder has been used to puff rice kernel or rice flour. Most of the study on rice puffing were the effect of process conditions such as moisture content and heating temperature on physical and chemical characteristics of popped rice. The study on mechanism and development of instant puffed rice like popcorn has been limited. Extruded waxy rice pellets were puffed in a microwave oven after drying and conditioning. Extruded pellets were formed with extrusion conditions of $20{\sim}27%$ moisture content, 2.76 MPa $CO_2$ gas injection pressure and 200 rpm screw speed. Under these conditions, puffed waxy rice pellets in microwave oven had low density and soft texture. Density and texture of puffed waxy rice pellet could be optimized by control of moisture content, $CO_2$ gas injection pressure and screw speed that affect significantly when puffing extruded waxy rice pellet.

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Effects of Different Pellets on the Growth, Flesh Quality and Histopathological Changes of growing Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli (실험 배합사료, 상품사료 및 생사료 공급이 육성기 조피볼락(Sebastes schlegeli)의 성장, 육질 및 조직 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Kim, Kang-Woong;Lee, Bong-Joo;Bae, Ki-Min;Seo, Jung Soo;An, Cheul Min;Han, Hyun-Sob
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.777-784
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the effects of diets consisting of experimental extruded pellets (EP), commercial soft extruded pellets (SEP), and raw-fish-based moist pellets (MP) on the growth, flesh quality, and histology of the Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Three replicated groups of 60 fish each (initial mean weight 152 g) were fed one of two experimental EPs (EP1 and EP2), two commercial SEPs (SEP1 and SEP2), or MP for 11 weeks. The survival, weight gain, and final mean weight of the fish did not differ significantly among the groups. The highest feed efficiency was in fish fed MP (P<0.05), and the protein efficiency ratio of fish fed MP was significantly higher than that of fish fed EP1, EP2, or SEP1, but not significantly different from that of fish fed EP2. The daily feed intake of the fish fed the EPs and SEPs was significantly higher than that of the fish fed MP (P<0.05). The condition factor, Hepatosomatic Index, and Viscerasomatic Index of the fish did not differ significantly among the groups. No notable differences in the textural properties of the dorsal muscle, plasma biochemical parameters, or histological features of the fish were observed in fish fed any diet. This suggests that extruded pellets can be used to feed growing Korean rockfish without compromising growth, flesh quality, or histopathological change in comparison to raw fish-based moist pellets.

Preparation and Characterization of Spherical Carbon Composite for Use as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

  • Ahn, Byoung-Hoon;Lee, Sung-Man
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1331-1335
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    • 2010
  • A novel spherical carbon composite material, in which nanosized disordered carbons are dispersed in a soft carbon matrix, has been prepared and investigated for use as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries. Disordered carbons were synthesized by ball milling natural graphite in air. The composite was prepared by mixing the ball-milled graphite with petroleum pitch powder, pelletizing the mixture, and pyrolyzing the pellets at $1200^{\circ}C$ in an argon flow. The ballmilled graphite consists of distorted nanocrystallites and amorphous phases. In the composite particle, nanosized flakes are uniformly distributed in a soft carbon matrix, as revealed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The composite is compatible with a pure propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte and shows high rate capability and excellent cycling performance. The electrochemical properties are comparable to those of hard carbon.

Effects of Substituting Fish Meal and Macroalgae for Tuna Byproduct Meal and Rice Bran in Extruded Pellets Fed to Juvenile Abalone Haliotis discus (Reeve 1846) (까막전복(Haliotis discus) 치패용 EP사료내 어분과 해조류 대체원으로서 참치부산물분과 생미강의 효과)

  • Yun, Ahyeong;Kim, June;Jeong, Hae Seung;Lee, Ki Wook;Cho, Sung Hwoan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.376-382
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    • 2018
  • We investigated the effect of replacing tuna byproduct meal (TBM) and rice bran (RB) with fish meal (FM) and macroalgae (MA) in extruded pellets (EP) supplied as a diet to juvenile Abalone Haliotis duscus in aquaculture. In total, 80,000 juvenile abalone were distributed among eight indoor raceways and supplied with one of four experimental diets. The control diet consisted of FM, fermented soybean meal, corn gluten meal and shrimp meal as protein sources, with wheat flour and dextrin as carbohydrate sources; the control diet also contained MA. In the FM50 diet, TBM was replaced with 50% FM. In the MA 50 diet, RB was replaced with 50% MA. The final diet, FM50+MA50, included TMB and RB in place of 50% FM and 50% MA. Abalone were fed to satiation with little food leftover for 16 weeks. Weight gain and specific growth rate of abalone fed the control diet were greater than those of abalone fed the FM50 and MA50 diets, but not different from those of abalone fed FM50+MA50 diet. The proximate composition of abalone soft body did not vary according to experimental diets. Based on these results, it appears that the traditional commercial diet for juvenile abalone, comprising FM and MA, could be replaced with one containing 50% TBM and 50% RB without any retardation of growth.

Development of $^{169}Yb$ Low-Energy Sealed Source for Nondestructive Testing Applications Utilizing HANARO (하나로를 이용한 비파괴검사용 $^{169}Yb$ 저에너지 밀봉선원 개발)

  • Son, K.J.;Hong, S.B.;Jang, K.D.;Han, H.S.;Park, U.J.;Lee, J.S.;Seo, K.S.;Han, I.S.;Cho, W.K.;Lee, S.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2008
  • [ $^{169}Yb$ ] industrial NDT sealed sources were developed by using $Yb_2O_3$ pellets as the target and demonstrated for their performance. To produce the pellets, optimal compacting and sintering conditions were determined experimentally. Source holders for $^{169}Yb$ were designed and fabricated. After assembling an active source produced from HANARO with the developed source holder, a demonstration experiment was performed to compare the quality of the radiographs from $^{192}Ir$ and soft X-rays. This demonstration study showed that the developed $^{169}Yb$ produced better radiographs than $^{192}Ir$ for a carbon steel with less than a 4 mm thickness.

The Origin of Organic Matters Utilized by Soft Bottom Macrozoobenthos in Tongyeong (안정동위원소 분석을 이용한 통영 연질조하대 대형저서동물의 유기물 기원 추적)

  • Yun Sung-Gyu;Yoon Byoung-Sun;Paik Sang-Gyu;Kang Chang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.39 no.spc1
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2006
  • To elucidate the organic matter sources in soft-bottom macrozoobenthos at Tongyeong, Korea, macrozoobenthos and their potential food sources were sampled in May 2004, and their C and N stable isotope compositions were analyzed. In total we collected 128 macrozoobenthic species, which ranged from 465 to 3,775 individuals/$m^2$(average 2,108 ind.$m^2$) in density and from 47.8 to 539.9 gwwt/$m^2$(average 366.0 gwwt/$m^2$) in biomass. Cluster and multi-dimensional scaling analyses indicated that the macrozoobenthic community was divided into two distinct groups. Coastal inner stations, where commercial fish cages were established, were dominated by Amphioplus ancistrotus, Scoletoma longifoila and Tharyx sp., whereas open sea stations were dominated by Chaetozone spinosa, Scoletoma longifolia and Capitella capitata. ${\delta}^{13}C$ values of sedimentary organic matter showed a distinct gradient in the range of -18.4 to $-15.2\%_{\circ}$, with a declining trend from the coastal inner stations to open sea stations. This probably reflects the settling rate of organic wastes such as feces and pellets from fish cages near the coastal inner stations. The macrozoobenthos showed a broad ${\delta}^{13}C$ range from -19.5 to $-8.9\%_{\circ}$ at the coastal inner stations, and a relatively narrow range from -21.3 to $-12.9\%_{\circ}$ at the open sea stations. ${\delta}^{13}C$ values of macrozoobenthos paralleled those of sedimentary organic matter, Our isotope results suggested that macrozoobenthos near the coastal inner stations used organic wastes derived from fish cages along with phytoplankton, whereas the macrozoobenthos near the open sea stations used organic wasters derived mainly from phytoplankton.

THE EFFECT OF ALTERED FUNCTIONAL FORCE ON THE EXPRESSION OF SPECIFIC MRNAS IN THE DEVELOPING MOUSE MANDIBLE (하악골의 발육중인 생쥐에서 기능력의 변화가 특이-유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyung-Tae;Park, Joo-Cheol;Lee, Chang-Seop;Park, Heon-Dong
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.308-319
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    • 2003
  • Mechanical forces are known to have an effect on bone formation, maintenance and remodeling, and there is evidence that the development of the mandibular condyle in the rat or mouse is influenced by altered functional force. However, studies are lacking in molecular-biologic mechanism such as the identification of differentiation factor induced from functional force. Here a mouse model was used to investigate the functional stress-responsive gene or factors which is related to the altered force by comparing the expression genes of functional state and hypo-functional state of the mouse mandible. ICR mice were provisioned with either a soft, mushy diet (soft-diet group) or hard rat pellets (hard-diet group) beginning at weaning for the alteration of functional force and subsequently sacrificed at 89 days of age. Incisor of mice in group 1 were trimmed twice a week to reduce occlusal forces. After killing the animals, mandibular bone including condyle were collected for RNA extraction, subtractive hybridization, northern blot analysis and mRNA in-situ hybridization. The results as follows; 1. A total of 39 clones were sequenced, and 11 individual sequence types were subsequently identified by subtractive hybridization, as 28 clones were represented twice in the analyzed sets. 2. Consequently four candidate clones, FS-s (functional stress-specific)2, -5, -18, and -22 were identified and characterized by homolgy search and northern analysis. Four of these clones, FS-s2, -5, -18, and -22, were shown to be expressed differentially in the hard-diet group. 3. Histologic sections showed that osteoblastic activity along the bone trabeculae and active bone remodeling were significantly lower in soft than in hard diet animals. A soft diet seems to enable a longer period of endochondral ossification in the mandibular condyle. 4. Although the mRNAs of FS-s2, -5, -18, and -22 were expressed rarely by cells of the soft-diet group, highest expression was detected in the cells of the hard-diet group. Together with the above results, it is suggested that FS-s2, -5, -18, and -22 could act as an important factors controlling the tissue changes in response to functional stress. The exact functional significance of these findings remains to be established.

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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY CONSISTENCY ON THE TRABECULAR BONE ARCHITECTURE IN GROWING MOUSE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE : A STUDY USING MICRO-CONFUTED TOMOGRAPHY (성장 중인 쥐에서 음식물의 경도가 하악 과두의 해면골에 미치는 영향 : 미세전산화 단층촬영을 이용한 연구)

  • Youn, Seok-Hee;Lee, Sang-Dae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2004
  • The development and proliferation of the mandibular condyle can be altered by changes in the biomechanical environment of the temporomandibular joint. The biomechanical loads were varied by feeding diets of different consistencies. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether changes of masticatory forces by feeding a soft diet can alter the trabecular bone morphology of the growing mouse mandibular condyle, by means of micro-computed tomography. Thirty-six female, 21 days old, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups. Mice in the hard-diet control group were fed standard hard rodent pellets for 8 weeks. The soft-diet group mice were given soft ground diets for 8 weeks and their lower incisors were shortened by cutting with a wire cutter twice a week to reduce incision. After 8 weeks all animals were killed after they were weighed. Following sacrifice, the right mandibular condyle was removed. High spatial resolution tomography was done with a Skyscan Micro-CT 1072. Cross-sections were scanned and three-dimensional images were reconstructed from 2D sections. Morphometric and nonmetric parameters such as bone volume(BV), bone surface(BS), total volume(TV), bone volume fraction(BV/TV), surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) were directly determined by means of the software package at the micro-CT system. From directly determined indices the trabecular number(Tb. N.) and trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) were calculated according to parallel plate model of Parfitt et al.. After micro-tomographic imaging, the samples were decalcified, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned for histological observation. The results were as follow: 1. The bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.) and trabecular number(Tb. N.) were significantly decreased in the soft-diet group compared with that of the control group (p<0.05). 2. The trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) was significantly increased in the soft-diet group(p<0.05). 3. There was no significant differences in the surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) between the soft-diet group and hard-diet control group (p>0.05). 4. Histological sections showed that the thickness of the proliferative layer and total cartilage thickness were significantly reduced in the soft-diet group.

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