• Title, Summary, Keyword: smoking stage

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Features Related to Smoking and Psychological Characteristics of Coronary Artery Patients Associated with the Stage of Change in Smoking Cessation (금연변화단계에 따른 관상동맥질환자들의 흡연관련 특성과 심리적 특성)

  • Kim, Hwa Soon
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.592-601
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in smoking related characteristics and psychological features of coronary artery patients by the stages of change in smoking cessation behaviors. Method: Subjects for this survey were 97 patients who were smoking when doctors diagnosed them to have coronary artery diseases. Result: Subjects were distributed 21.6% in precontemplation stage, 24.7% in contemplation stage, 17.5% in preparation stage, 19.6% in action stage, and 16.5% in maintenance stage respectively. The numbers of previous attempts to quit smoking of subjects in precontemplation stage(mean=3.00, SD=3.71) and contemplation stage(mean=2.63, SD=2.32) were significantly lower than that of subjects in preparation stage(mean=5.82, SD=6.20). Benefit scores of subjects in maintenance stage were significantly greater than those of subjects in precontemplation stage. Self-efficacy, barriers, seriousness, and nicotine dependency were not significantly different by the stages of change. Number of signs and symptoms related to smoking which subjects were experiencing were not significant by the stages of change too. Conclusion: Future intervention programs for smoking cessation should be focused on the strategies to enhance the realization of health benefits that patients might acquire from smoking cessation.

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The Characteristics of Smoking Cessation Behavior by the Stage of Change in Industrial Workers (산업장 남성 근로자의 금연행위 변화단계별 특성)

  • Kim, Hye-Rim;Park, In-Hyae;Kang, Seo-Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was to identify the stages of change in smoking cessation behavior and factors associated with the stages of smoking cessation behavior according to the trans-theoretical model. Methods: The subjects were 154 industrial workers working at H Industry in N City, Chonnam Province who were currently smoking and had smoked in the past. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple comparison test using SAS Version 10.0. Results: The subjects were distributed among the stages of change in smoking cessation behavior: there were 28 subjects (18.2%) in the precontemplation stage, 71 (46.1%) in the contemplation stage, 21 (13.6%) in the preparation stage, 8 (5.2%) in the action stage, and 26 (16.9%) in the maintenance stage. The amount of smoking per day, self-efficacy, and advantages (pros) of smoking were significantly associated with the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior. Conclusion: This study suggested that the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior of the subject should be identified prior to the application of intervention programs, nursing intervention strategies should be considered to reduce the amount of smoking per day, and the disadvantages of smoking should be perceived.

Factors Associated with the Preparation Stage to Quit Smoking among College Smokers (대학생 흡연자의 금연 준비단계 관련 요인)

  • Paek, Kyung-Shin;Kwon, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.173-183
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was to compare the Transtheoretical Model components according to the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior and identify factors associated with preparation to quit smoking among college smokers. Methods: Data were collected from 224 undergraduate students using the self-report questionnaire. The survey variables comprised the stage of change in smoking cessation, self-efficacy, and decisional balance and process of change in smoking cessation. Results: There were significant differences in self-efficacy, cons of smoking, and the process of change according to the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior. Cons of smoking and self liberation were significant factors related to the preparation stage of smoking cessation. Conclusion: Strategies to enhance cons of smoking and self liberation in college smokers will be an important intervention component to prepare and plan smoking cessation in future studies.

A Study on the Variables that Influence Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation (금연실천단계의 영향변인에 대한 연구)

  • Chang Sung-Ok;Park Chang-Seung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.391-401
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence smoking cessation based on the transtheoretical model. Methods: Variables that influence the stages of change in smoking cessation were selected based on transtheoretical model. Data were collected from 176 men aged 30-64 who smoked, Data collection was done in community settings in Seoul and vicinity, Korea between December, 1999 and June, 2000. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic analysis using the pc-SAS program. Results: According to the logit model, the influence of significant variables on stage of change for smoking cessation suggest that ; When the scores for Pros in decision making for smoking cessation are high, the possibility that the subjects are in the action, precontemplation and contemplation stage of change will be lower than the possibility that the subjects are in the maintenance stage of change. When the scores of habitual craving in smoking temptation is high, the possibility that the subjects are in the precontemplation and contemplation stage of change will be higher than the possibility that the subjects are in the maintenance stage of change. When the scores of smoking temptation in negative affect situations are high, the possibility that the subjects are in the contemplation stage of change will be higher than the possibility that the subjects are in the maintenance stage of change. When the scores of cognitive process in the process of change are high, the possibility that the subjects are in the contemplation stage of change will be higher than the possibility that the subjects are in the maintenance stage of change. Conclusions : The results provide evidence that physical and psychological dependence on smoking are main barriers to smoking cessation. Therefore nursing interventions based on stage that focus on increasing motivation and intention for smoking cessation need to be developed.

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Analysis of Smoking Temptation, Nicotine Dependency, Perceived Health Status corresponding to Stage of Change in Smoking Cessation in Middle Aged Men (중년흡연남성의 금연단계에 따른 흡연유혹, 니코틴의존도)

  • Chang Sung-Ok;Park Chang-Seung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2001
  • This study was done to investigate the relation of smoking temptation, stage of change in smoking cessation, nicotine dependency and perceived health status in middle aged men. Convenience samples of 176 subjects who were either smoked or used to smoke, aged between 30 to 64, living in Seoul and Kyungi province area in Korea were selected for the study. The data was collected from December 1, 1999 to June 30, 2000. The research instrument were Stage of Change of Smoking Cessation Measure (DiClemente et al. 1991). Smoking Temptation Measure (Velicer, DiClemente, Rossi, Prochaska. 1990), Perceived Health Status Measure (McDowell & Newell, 1996), and Nicotine Dependency Scale (FTQ: Fagerstrom, 1978). The data were analyzed using the SAS Program. The result of the study are as follows : 1. The analysis of variance and multiple comparison showed that according to the stage of change, there were significant mean differences in the three sub-factors of smoking temptation; 'positive affect situation (F=12.64, p=.0001)', 'negative affect situation (F=16.01, p=.0001)', 'habitual craving situation (F=14.43, p=.0001)' and nicotine dependency (F=4.12, p=.0033) The mean score for smoking temptation for the subjects who were in the precontemplation stage outweighed the mean score for smoking temptation for subjects who were in the maintenance stage. 2. Through discriminant analysis, it was found that negative affect situation was the most influential variable of the smoking temptation sub-factors which can be used to discriminate stage of change. 3. The analysis of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant positive relation between nicotine dependency and negative affect situation of smoking cessation((r=0.2182, p=0.0045) and a significant negative relation between nicotine dependency and perceived health status(r=-0.2115, p=0.0059).

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A Study on the Effects of Vocational High School Students' Smoking Cessation Program Operation - Focused on the Transtheoretical Model - (실업계 고등학생의 금연프로그램 운영 효과에 관한 연구 - 범이론적 모형(Transtheoretical Model)을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee Hye Sook
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.205-217
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    • 2004
  • This study conducted a survey with the 67 students who are in their 2nd year at 3 vocational high schools. The researcher of this study developed and operated the smoking cessation program based on the Transtheoretical model. To evaluate the effects, experiments were repeatedly done. The data were collected from June 21, 2004 till July 9, 2004. The survey was done based on the questionnaire-interview before and after education. The collected date was computerized by using SPSS-WIN 10.0 program. The results are as follows: Firstly. before education, the smoking cessation stage of change shows precontemplation stage $37.3\%$, preparation stage $37.3\%$, and contemplation stage $25.4\%$ respectively. However, after education it shows preparation stage $44.8\%$, action stage $25.4\%$, contemplation stage $19.4\%$, precontemplation stage $10.4\%$. The positive result was $62.7\%$ and smoking cessation stage of change made a 0.9 step increase. Secondly, process of change rose in all the areas except helping relationship. It also shows statistical improvement in all the fields except the dramatic relief of the experiential process, the helping relationship of behavioral process and stimulus control Thirdly, negative affective situation temptation, positive social situation temptation, and habitual strength temptation's average points decreased but showed statistical differences. Weight control temptation's average points decreased after education but didn't show statistical differences. Self efficiency increased measurably after education. Fourthly, concerning the social pros and coping pros caused by smoking, the average points were low after education and showed statistic decrease. As for the cons due to smoking, the average points increased but didn't show any statistical differences. In conclusion, thanks to the smoking cessation program applied by the Transtheoretical model, the smoking rate of vocational high school students became low and their smoking temptation also dropped considerably. In conclusion, while the pros for smoking were lessened, its corns were heightened through the educational awareness offered by this program.

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Factors Associated with the Stage of Change of Smoking Cessation Behavior in Adolescents

  • Park, Nam-Hee;Kim, Jung-Soon;Lee, Yun-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1101-1110
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    • 2003
  • Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify the stage of change of smoking cessation behavior and investigate factors associated with the stage of smoking cessation behavior according to the transtheoretical model. Methods. The participants, 297 smokers & quitters were selected by a stratified random sampling from 127 high school sophomore students in B city. Data were collected from April 6th to 16th, in 2002 using the structured self-report questionnaire. Results. The subjects were distributed in each stage of change of smoking cessation behavior: there were 46 subjects (15.5%) in precontemplation, 73 subjects (24.6%) in contemplation, 67 subjects(22.3%) in preparation, 56 subjects (18.5%) in action, 55 subjects (18.5%) in maintenance. Compared to the precontemplation and contemplation, people in preparation tended to smoke daily more and smoked for a shorter time, and as precontemplation progressed to the maintenance, past 1 year smoking cessation frequency increased and friends smoking decreased. Smoking onset age was the earliest in preparation, and the latest in maintenance. Helping relationships and self relationships are used a lot in precontemplation and also in contemplation. In preparation, self liberation and helping relationships are used a lot, in action, self liberation and helping relationships, and in maintenance, self liberation and environmental reevaluation. At each stage, the score of negative affect situation was the highest, but the one of negative affect situation, positive social situation, habitual strength, weight control decreased as precontemplation progressed to the maintenance. While the score of social pros and coping pros decreased with increasing stage, the one of cons tended to increase. Through stepwise discriminant analysis, it was found that social pros, smoking onset age, delf-libration were the most influencing powers among factors associated with the stages of smoking cessation behavior. Conclusions. This study suggested that, in developing an effective smoking cessation intervention for adolescents, all the stage of a client's cessation had to be assessed prior to applying intervention programs. In addition, the results of this study will become a pillar of smoking cessation program planning and application.

Prospective Study on the Relating Factors to the Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation and Barriers in Coronary Artery Disease Patients* (관상동맥질환자의 금연변화단계와 관련된 요인 및 장애요인에 대한 전향적 연구)

  • Kim, Hwa-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate that the stages of change in smoking cessation behavior among coronary artery disease patients for six months progressed following the stages of change suggested by the transtheoretical model. Method: Subjects for this descriptive survey were 59 coronary disease patients who were smoking or who had stopped smoking for less than six months. Result: In the baseline, the distribution of the subjects’ stages of change was as follows: pre-contemplation stage 25.4%, contemplation stage 25.4%, preparation stage 22%, and action stage 27.1%. After six months, more subjects in the contemplation(33.3%) and preparation stages(30.8%) progressed to the action stage than those of the pre-contemplation stage(0%). Eighty-one percent of the subjects in the action stage at baseline progressed to the maintenance stage. The relationship between the numbers of smoking cessation attempts for six months and stages of change at baseline was significant(p=.001). However, the relationships between self-efficacy and nicotine dependence at baseline and progression in stages of change after six months were not significant. Conclusion: Progression in the stages of change for six months among subjects corresponded to the stages of change suggested by the transtheoretical model. Hence, future development and evaluation of intervention programs should be tailored individually considering each patient's stage of change.

A Study on Taxi Drivers' Smoking Behavior, Self-efficacy and Expectation Level of Success in Smoking Cessation (택시기사들의 흡연실태 및 금연에 대한 자기효능감과 성공기대)

  • Son, Haeng-Mi;Kim, Chun-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.517-526
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find taxi drivers' smoking behavior, self-efficacy and expectation level of success in smoking cessation. It will provide useful information for developing nursing interventions in health promotion programs. Method: The subjects of this study were 271 taxi drivers in Seoul and its metropolitan area. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire asking smoking history, smoking behaviors, health problem, stages of change for smoking cessation, self-efficacy and the expectation level of success in smoking cessation. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Pearson's correlation, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cronbach's a. Results: Of the taxi drivers, 83.8% were current smokers. Stages of change were as follows: 45.8% were in the precontemplation stage, 26.2% in the contemplation stage, 13.7% in the maintenance stage, 12.2% in the preparation stage and 1.5% in the action stage. In addition. 20.3% of the subjects reported health problems such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and respiratory disease. The expectation level of success in smoking cessation was positively related with self-efficacy. There were statistically significant differences in the expectation level of success in smoking cessation according to the number of cigarettes per day and nicotine dependency. In addition. there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy according to the number of cigarettes per day, duration of smoking (years) and nicotine dependency. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that taxi drivers' health problems and smoking rate were serious. Therefore more systematic health promotion programs for smoking cessation should be developed and executed by health care specialists at individual taxi companies.

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Stages of Smoking Cessation among Malaysian Adults - Findings from National Health Morbidity Survey 2006

  • Lim, Kuang Hock;Ibrahim, Normala;Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd;Kee, Chee Cheong;Lim, Kuang Kuay;Chan, Ying Ying;Teh, Chien Huey;Tee, Eng Ong;Lai, Wai Yee;Nik Mohamad, Mohd. Haniki;Sidek, Sherina Mohd
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.805-810
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    • 2013
  • Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.