• Title, Summary, Keyword: small cell

Search Result 3,829, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Metastatic Small Cell Carcinoma of Lymph Nodes - Comparison to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma on 5 Cases - (림프절의 전이성 소세포암종의 세침흡인 세포학적 소견 - 악성 림프종과의 감별을 중심으로 5예 분석 -)

  • Kim, Yeon-Mee;Cho, Hye-Je;Ko, Ill-Hyang
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.44-50
    • /
    • 1996
  • Small cell carcinoma of the lung is characterized by cells with finely stippled chromatin and scanty cytoplasm as well as a particularly aggressive clinical course and favorable response to the chemotherapy. Recently percutaneous fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has become both widely established and highly respected for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However metastatic small cell carcinoma of lymph node should be cytologically differentiated from the small round cell tumor of particular sites, especially malignant lymphoma, because small ceil carcinoma of classic oat cell type nay simulate small cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report five cases of metastatic small cell carcinoma of in-termediate cell type diagnosed by FNA of the enlarged lymph nodes of the neck and axilla. The cytologic smears contained diffuse small neoplastic cells larger than lymphocytes with dense, pyknotic nuclei and extremely scanty cytoplasm. Apparently viable large tumor cells have vesicular nuclei with granular, sometimes very coarse chromatin. The characteristic cytologic features of small cell carcinoma as compared to malignant lymphoma were as follows.: 1) small cells with dense pyknotic nuclei are evenly distributed in the background of apparently viable larger tumor cells, admixed with mature lymphocytes and phagocytic macrophages. 2) small loose aggregates of cells with nuclear melding are indicative of small cell carcinoma rather than non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 3) the cytoplasmic and nuclear fragments of tumor necrosis are more dominant in the smears of small cell carcinoma. 4) nuclear membrane and nucleoli are generally indistinct in small cell carcinoma due to condensation of chromatin.

  • PDF

Combined Small Cell Carcinoma Associated with Microinvasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Bronchial Surface Epithelium - A case report - (기관지표면상피의 미세침윤성 편평세포암과 동반된 혼합성 소세포암종 -1례 보고-)

  • 김윤정;심정원
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.29 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1031-1035
    • /
    • 1996
  • International Ass ciation for the Study of Lung Cancer(IASLC) recommended the following classification of small cell lung carcinoma(SCLC) : (1) Small cell carcinoma (2) Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma (3) Combined small cell carcinoma. Combined small cell carcinomas contain a squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma component. The prognostic significance of these elements is not known, but since the frequency and extent of non-small cell elements are considerably greater in posttherapy and autopsy tissues, it is possible that the non-SCLC elements are more resistant to therapy than the SCLC cells. Metaplasia & dysplasia of the bronchial surface epithelium are frequently observed in the bronchial biopsy specimens that contain small cell carcinoma of the lung. We report a case of combined small cell carcinoma with squamous element associated with microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchial surface epithelium in 68 year old male patient, stage was IIIa. The two lesion are not connected n serial sections.

  • PDF

Analytical Study on Inter-Cell Handover via Non-Concentric Circles in Wireless Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks

  • Gu, Hangyu;Li, Shuangchun;Havyarimana, Vincent;Wang, Dong;Xiao, Zhu
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
    • /
    • v.12 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2029-2043
    • /
    • 2018
  • In this paper, we propose a novel inter-cell handover approach from a new perspective in dense Heterogeneous and Small Cell Networks (HetSNets). We first devise a cell selection mechanism to choose a proper candidate small cell for the UEs that tend to implement inter-small cell handover (ICH). By exploiting the property of a typical non-concentric circle, i.e., circle of Apollonius, we then propose a novel analytical method for modeling inter-cell handover regions and present mathematical derivation to prove that the inter-small cell handover issues fit the property of the circle of Apollonius. We design an inter-cell handover algorithm (ICHA) by means of our proposed handover model to dynamically configure hysteresis margin and properly implement handover decision in terms of UE's mobility. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ICHA yields lower call drop rate and radio link failure rate than the conventional methods and hence achieve high Handover Performance Indicator (HPI).

A Case of Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland (이하선에 발생한 원발성 소세포암 1예)

  • Ko, Young-Bum;Park, Gi Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.36-38
    • /
    • 2015
  • Small cell carcinoma is mainly found in the lungs and extrapulmonary origins of small cell carcinoma in GI tract, head and neck, genitourinary system consists only 4% of the tumor. Thus, small cell carcinoma of the parotid gland is an extremely rare disease. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is characterized by an aggressive clinical course with early metastasis. We report a case of small cell carcinoma of parotid gland in a 82-year-old woman with painless neck mass, who was managed with radiation therapy after surgery and review of relevant literatures.

  • PDF

Performance Analysis and Evaluation of Deployment in Small Cell Networks

  • Zheng, Kan;Li, Yue;Zhang, Yingkai;Jiang, Zheng;Long, Hang
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.886-900
    • /
    • 2015
  • Small cells are deployed in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) to improve overall performance. These access points can provide high-rate mobile services at hotspots to users. In a Small Cell Network (SCN), the good deployment of small cells can guarantee the performance of users on the basis of average and cell edge spectrum efficiency. In this paper, the performance of small cell deployment is analyzed by using system-level simulations. The positions of small cells can be adjusted according to the deployment radius and angle. Moreover, different Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) techniques are also studied, which can be implemented either in time domain or in frequency domain. The network performances are evaluated under different ICIC techniques when the locations of Small evolved Nodes (SeNBs) vary. Simulation results show that the average throughput and cell edge throughput can be greatly improved when small cells are properly deployed with the certain deployment radius and angle. Meanwhile, how to optimally configure the parameters to achieve the potential of the deployment is discussed when applying different ICIC techniques.

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Esophayus (식도의 소세포함 치험 1례)

  • 백효채
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.27 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1056-1059
    • /
    • 1994
  • Small cell carcinoma is a highly malignant esophageal tumor composed of anaplastic small cells with features very similar to those of its pulmonary counterpart. The prognosis is poorer than that of squamous carcinoma of the esophagus because of its propensity of generalized spread and metastasis. Once the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma was established, surgery should be undertaken as early as possible. We have described an experience of small cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus in a 72 year old male patient with a review of the literatures regarding treatment methods and prognosis.

  • PDF

Clinical Application of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in Small Cell Lung Cancer (소세포폐암에저의 $^{18}F-FDG$ PET의 임상 이용)

  • Choi, Joon-Young
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
    • /
    • v.42 no.sup1
    • /
    • pp.29-31
    • /
    • 2008
  • This review focuses on the clinical use of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in small cell lung cancer. For initial staging of small cell lung cancer, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET appears to be better than conventional staging methods. $^{18}F-FDG$ PET seems to be potentially useful for detecting recurrence, restaging and therapy response assessment in small cell lung cancer. However, due to small number of literatures, the role of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in small cell lung cancer requires further investigations.

Voided Urine Cytology of Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder -A Case Report- (방광의 소세포암종의 요 세포 소견 -1예 보고-)

  • Lee, Won-Ae;Lee, Seung-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.153-156
    • /
    • 2007
  • Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare but important entity. We experienced a case of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diagnosed by urine cytology. A 59-year-old man presented with gross hematuria and dysuria, and a calcified mass was detected at the left ureterovesical junction by cystoscopy. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed focal wall thickening at the left lateral side of the urinary bladder, and urine cytology findings were of an inflammatory background and atypical small round cells with minute hyperchromatic or pyknotic nuclei, scant cytoplasm, and rare nucleoli. In addition, atypical cells were scattered in an isolated single cell pattern or in small loose clusters with prominent nuclear molding. Subsequent histological and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma.

Self-organized Spectrum Access in Small-cell Networks with Dynamic Loads

  • Wu, Ducheng;Wu, Qihui;Xu, Yuhua
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
    • /
    • v.10 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1976-1997
    • /
    • 2016
  • This paper investigates the problem of co-tier interference mitigation for dynamic small- cell networks, in which the load of each small-cell varies with the number of active associated small-cell users (SUs). Due to the fact that most small-cell base stations (SBSs) are deployed in an ad-hoc manner, the problem of reducing co-tier interference caused by dynamic loads in a distributed fashion is quite challenging. First, we propose a new distributed channel allocation method for small-cells with dynamic loads and define a dynamic interference graph. Based on this approach, we formulate the problem as a dynamic interference graph game and prove that the game is a potential game and has at least one pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE) point. Moreover, we show that the best pure strategy NE point minimizes the expectation of the aggregate dynamic co-tier interference in the small-cell network. A distributed dynamic learning algorithm is then designed to achieve NE of the game, in which each SBS is unaware of the probability distributions of its own and other SBSs' dynamic loads. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can mitigate dynamic co-tier interference effectively and significantly outperform random channel selection.

3GPP Standardization Activity for Small Cell Enhancement (3GPP 소형셀 향상 표준화 기술 동향)

  • Baek, SeungKwon;Chang, SungCheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.628-631
    • /
    • 2014
  • Recently, the proliferation of new applications, e.g., mobile TV, Internet gaming, large file transfer, and the various of user terminals, e.g., smart phones and notebooks, has dramatically increased user traffic and network load. In order to meet this traffic growth, vendors and cellular operators are working on the development of new technologies and cellular standards. Within them, small cell deployment has been heralded as one of most promising way to increase both coverage and capacity of future cellular network. Small cell technology enables to improve capacity of cellular radio network by tight cooperation between small cell and macro cell in multi-tier network where small cells are densely deployed within macro cell coverage. In this paper, we describe the deployment scenarios for cooperation between macro cell and small cells and state-of-the-art technologies related to dense small cell deployment. Then, we also provide design principles and standardization trends for small cell enhancement in 3GPP.

  • PDF