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Reduction of Pollutant Load by Small Pond in a Rice Paddy Applied with Pig Manure Compost (돈분퇴비가 시용된 논의 양분유출 저감을 위한 저류지 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Kyeong;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Hong, Seong-Chang;Jung, Goo-Bok;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2014
  • Pig slurry has been considered as environmental waste to be treated in an appropriate manner. Moreover, water-born pollution loads by agricultural non-point source(NPS) pollution are expected to become intensified due to ongoing precipitation change. This study was conducted to develop a best management practice to reduce NPS pollution load by agricultural activity with pig manure compost. An eco-friendly way, small drainage pond, was suggested in this study to avoid direct drainage of agricultural runoffs and eventually reduce the amount of pollutants discharged into the surrounding aqua-environment. A small pond($12m^2$) was constructed at the corner of a rice paddy field($17,15m^2$) located in Suwon, Korea. Water was allowed to drain only via a small drainage pond. Sampling was repeatedly made at two locations, one from an entrance and the other from an exit of a pond, during the rice cultivation period(May to October, 2013). Generally, sampling was made only when runoff water drained through a pond, such as during and/or after rain(irrigation). The water quality analysis showed that all quality parameters(SS, $COD_{Mn}$, T-N, and T-P) were improved as water passed through the pond. The amount of runoff water was reduced by 67.8%. Suspended solids and $COD_{Mn}$ concentrations were reduced by 79.8% and 71.9%, respectively. In case of T-N and T-P amounts, the reduction rates were 73.6% and 74.9%, respectively. Our data implies that agricultural NPS pollution from rice paddy fields with pig manure-based fertilizer can be effectively managed when an appropriate drainage water management practice is imposed.

Video-assisted Talc Poudrage for the Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion: Analysis of Effects and Benefits (악성 늑막 삼출증에서의 비디오 흉강경하 탈크 분무의 효과 및 장점 분석)

  • Song, In-Hag;Chang, Won-Ho;Choi, Chang-Woo;Son, Jin-Sung;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Baek, Kang-Seok;Youm, Wook;Kim, Hyun-Jo
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.492-498
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    • 2007
  • Background: Malignant pleural effusion is a common condition in neoplastic patients and palliative therapy is the usual treatment. Talc has been generally accepted to be the most effective sclerosant for chemical pleurodesis, but the optimal route of administration remains controversy. We compared the results of video-assisted thoracoscopic talc poudrage (VTP) with administering a bedside talc slurry through a chest tube (BTS) for the treatment of malignant pleural effusion. Material and Method: From December 2004 to May 2006, 20 patients with malignant pleural effusion underwent chemical pleurodesis via VTP (group A, n=10), and BTS (group B, n=10). Result: The durations of chest tube placement after the procedure were $7.0{\pm}4.0$ days (group A) and $6.7{\pm}3.6$ days (group B). The hospital stays were $24.3{\pm}9.4$ days (group A) and $30.7{\pm}21.5$ days (group B), respectively. The symptoms of dyspnea were much more improved in group A (p-value=0.014) after discharge (mean f/u group $A=8.5{\pm}2.2$ months, group B $8.0{\pm}7.4$ months). The collapsed portions of lung were better expanded in group A than in group B (p-value=0.011). Conclusion: We recommend VTP for the selected patients with malignant pleural effusion because of the advantages of dissecting the fibrous peel to relieve the atelectasis and dyspnea, and excising the pleura for diagnosis with direct viewing of the lesion.

Material and Behavior Characteristics of Lightweight Embankment for Road Constructed on Soft Ground (연약지반에 시공된 도로용 경량성토체의 재료 및 거동특성)

  • Yea, Geu-Guwen;Lee, Yong-Jae;Kim, Hong-Yeon;Yoon, Gil-Lim;Han, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to fabricate a full scale road embankment using lightweight air foamed soil as a soil material on soft ground and to investigate its material characteristics and behavior in order to promote dredged soil utilization and minimize ground improvement. As a result of the laboratory test of the onsite mixed samples, the total unit weight of the specimens decreased almost linearly until curing 28 days. In particular, the total unit weight after 28 days of curing was reduced to about 81% of the slurry state before curing, which will be useful in the formulation of similar native soil materials in the future. The unconfined compressive strength began to decrease with the 14th day of curing as shown in the previous study. When the cement content is increased, the strength decreases sharply at a small strain change after the occurrence of the maximum compressive strength, and the maximum strength is exhibited in a range of a smaller axial strain than normal range. The settlement at the surface layer of the ground due to the lightweight embankment was about 1 / 2.75 of the soil embankment and was in agreement with the unit weight ratio (1 / 2.7) of the embankment materials. This indicates the cause and effect of the settlement due to the difference in self weight of the embankments. Also, the difference in settlement between soil and lightweight embankment increased with increasing depth. This shows that the difference in the point at which the settlement is terminated is clear. The ground horizontal displacement under the lightweight embankment was about 15~20% smaller than that of the soil embankment and the depth of occurrence was also 4.5~5.0m shallower in the lightweight embankment.

The Density and Strength Properties of Lightweight Foamed Concrete Using Stone-Powder Sludge in Hydrothermal Reaction Condition (수열반응 조건에서 석분 슬러지를 사용한 경량 기포 콘크리트의 밀도와 강도 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Man;Jeong, Ji-Yong;Choi, Se-Jin;Kim, Bong-Joo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.687-693
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    • 2006
  • The Stone Powder Sludge(below SPS) is the by-product from the process that translates stone power of 8mm under as crushed fine aggregate. It is the sludge as like cake that has average particle size of $7{\mu}m$, absorbing water content of 20 to 60%, and $SiO_2$ content of 60% over. Because of high water content of SPS, it is not only difficult to handle, transport, and recycle, but also makes worse the economical efficiency due to high energy consuming to drying. This study is aim to recycle SPS as it is without drying. Target product is the lightweight foamed concrete that is made from the slurry mixed with pulverized mineral compounds and foams through hydro-thermal reaction of CaO and $SiO_2$. Although in the commercial lightweight foamed concrete CaO source is the cement and $SiO_2$ source is high purity silica powder with $SiO_2$ of 90%, we tried to use the SPS as $SiO_2$ source. From the experiments with factors such as foam addition rate and replacement proportion of SPS, we find that the lightweight foamed concrete with SPS shows the same trends as the density and strength of lightweight foamed concrete increases according to decrease of foam addition rate. But in the same condition, the lightweight foamed concrete with SPS is superior strength and density to that with high purity silica. This trends is distinguished according to increase of replacement proportion of SPS, also the analysis of XRF shows that the hydro thermal reaction translates SPS to tobermorite. Although SPS has low $SiO_2$ contents, the lightweight foamed concrete with SPS has superior strength and density, because it reacts well with CaO due to extremely fine particles. We conclude that it is possible to replace the high purity silica as SPS in the lightweight foamed concrete experimentally.

Estimation of fire Experiment Prediction by Utility Tunnels Fire Experiment and Simulation (지하공동구 화재 실험 및 시뮬레이션에 의한 화재 설칠 예측 평가)

  • 윤명오;고재선;박형주;박성은
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2001
  • The utility tunnels are the important facility as a mainstay of country because of the latest communication developments. However, the utilities tunnel is difficult to deal with in case of a fire accident. When a cable burns, the black smoke containing poisonous gas will be reduced. This black smoke goes into the tunnel, and makes it difficult to extinguish the fire. Therefore, when there was a fire in the utility tunnel, the central nerves of the country had been paralyzed, such as property damage, communication interruption, in addition to inconvenience for people. This paper is based on the fire occurred in the past, and reenacting the fire by making the real utilities tunnel model. The aim of this paper is the scientific analysis of the character image of the fire, and the verification of each fire protection system whether it works well after process of setting up a fire protection system in the utilities tunnel at a constant temperature. The fire experiment was equipped with the linear heat detector, the fire door, the connection water spray system and the ventilation system in the utilities tunnel. Fixed portion of an electric power supply cable was coated with a fire retardant coating, and a heating tube was covered with a fireproof. The result showed that the highest temperature was $932^{\circ}c$ and the linear heat detector was working at the constant temperature, and it pointed at the place of the fire on the receiving board, and Fixed portion of the electric power supply cable coated with the fire retardant coating did not work as the fireproof. The heating tube was covered with the fireproof about 30 minutes.

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Numerical Analyses for Evaluating Factors which Influence the Behavioral Characteristics of Side of Rock Socketed Drilled Shafts (암반에 근입된 현장타설말뚝의 주면부 거동에 영향을 미치는 변수분석을 위한 수치해석)

  • Lee, Hyuk-Jin;Kim, Hong-Taek
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.6C
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    • pp.395-406
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    • 2006
  • Drilled shafts are a common foundation solution for large concentrated loads. Such piles are generally constructed by drilling through softer soils into rock and the section of the shaft which is drilled through rock contributes most of the load bearing capacity. Drilled shafts derive their bearing capacity from both shaft and base resistance components. The length and diameter of the rock socket must be sufficient to carry the loads imposed on the pile safely without excessive settlements. The base resistance component can contribute significantly to the ultimate capacity of the pile. However, the shaft resistance is typically mobilized at considerably smaller pile movements than that of the base. In addition, the base response can be adversely affected by any debris that is left in the bottom of the socket. The reliability of base response therefore depends on the use of a construction and inspection technique which leaves the socket free of debris. This may be difficult and costly to achieve, particularly in deep sockets, which are often drilled under water or drilling slurry. As a consequence of these factors, shaft resistance generally dominates pile performance at working loads. The efforts to improve the prediction of drilled shaft performance are therefore primarily concerned with the complex mechanisms of shaft resistance development. The shaft resistance only is concerned in this study. The nature of the interface between the concrete pile shaft and the surrounding rock is critically important to the performance of the pile, and is heavily influenced by the construction practices. In this study, the influences of asperity characteristics such as the heights and angles, the strength characteristics and elastic constants of surrounding rock masses and the depth and length of rock socket, et. al. on the shaft resistance of drilled shafts are investigated from elasto-plastic analyses( FLAC). Through the parametric studies, among the parameters, the vertical stress on the top layer of socket, the height of asperity and cohesion and poison's ratio of rock masses are major influence factors on the unit peak shaft resistance.

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Development of a 2-fluid Jet Mixer for Preventing the Sedimentation in Livestock Liquid Manure Storage Tank (가축분뇨액비저장조 침전물 퇴적 방지를 위한 2류체 제트노즐식 교반장치 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Yu, B.K.;Hong, J.T.;Kim, H.J.;Kweon, J.K.;Oh, K.Y.;Park, B.K.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.207-220
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    • 2012
  • There are around 7,500 manure tanks to treat the manures from pigs in Korea. In the tank, there are too much sediments deposited on the base and wall, which causes low efficiency of stock capacity and manure fermentation. In order to minimize sediments and to ferment manure effectively, we developed a 2-fluid jet mixer for mixing sediments in liquid livestock manure tank. For developing the prototype, we tested a factorial experimental system with various nozzles, and simulated CFD models with two kinds of nozzle arrangement. From the results of factorial experiment and CFD simulation, we concluded the dia. ratio of primary : secondary nozzle should be 1:2 and the nozzles should be arranged at the same distances toward to the circumferential direction. With this results, we manufactured a 2-fluid jet mixer which is consists of four 2-phase nozzles, centrifugal slurry pump and root's type air blower. And, we carried out the performance test of the prototype in the round shaped liquid manure tank in the farm. The performance test results showed that the uniformity of TS (Total Solid) and VS (Volatile Solid) was raised from 21.3 g/L, 13.3 g/L In steady state to TS and VS to 23.0 g/L, 14.1 g/L in the mixing operation. Therefore, we could conclude that the prototype of 2-fluid mixer could make the solid material which could be sediments in the tank not to be deposited in the tank and to be contacted to air bubbles which could enhance the efficiency of the fermentation of livestock manure.

Influence of Soil Temperature on Growth and Nodulation Competition of Bradyrhizobium sp. Strains in the Rhizosphere of Peanut (온도(溫度)가 땅콩근류균(根瘤菌)의 근류형성(根瘤形成) 경합(競合)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Sand-Bok;Choi, Youn-Hee;So, Jae-Don;Kim, Moo-Key
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.197-203
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    • 1993
  • Greenhouse experiments were conducted to avaluate strain competition, nodulation, patterns of nodule occupancy and population changes of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ and CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$ in the rhizosphere of peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) under different root temperatures. Inoculated with two strains using seed coating with peat slurry under different root temperatures, population of each strain in the rhizosphere increased with plant growth and multiplication rate of inoculum in the unit weight of root were showed the highest from 10 to 15days after sowing. The multiplication rate of inoculum in the rhizosphere was $28^{\circ}C$>$34^{\circ}C$>$22^{\circ}C$. The density of HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ was more increased than that of CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$ under $22^{\circ}C$ and $28^{\circ}C$. While the density of two strains showed no difference under $34^{\circ}C$. Inoculated with HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ and CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$, respectively at 22, 28 and $34^{\circ}C$, nodulation of each strain was dominated in its inoculation portion. Inoculated with the mixture of HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ and CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$, occupancy rate of HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ was dominated over that of CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$ at $22^{\circ}C$ and $28^{\circ}C$, but that was similar between them at $34^{\circ}C$. Dry mass, nodulation, nitrogen content per plant and nitrogenase activity showed higher at $28^{\circ}C$ than at $32^{\circ}C$ and $22^{\circ}C$, while those were higher in HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ and mixing HCR-46 $str^{r}cep^{r}$ with CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$ than in CB756 $str^{r}rif^{r}$.

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Development of Anode-supported Planar SOFC with Large Area by tape Casting Method (테입캐스팅을 이용한 대면적 (100 cm2) 연료극 지지체식 평판형 고체산화물 연료전지의 개발)

  • Yu, Seung-Ho;Song, Keun-Suk;Song, Hee-Jung;Kim, Jong-Hee;Song, Rak-Hyun;Jung, Doo-Hwan;Peck, Dong-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2003
  • For the development of low temperature anode-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell, the planar anode supports with the thickness of 0.8 to 1 mm and the area of 25, 100 and $150\;cm^2$ were fabricated by the tape casting method. The strength, porosity, gas permeability and electrical conductivity of the planar anode support were measured. The porosity of anode supports sintered at $1400^{\circ}C$ and then reduced in$H_2$ atmosphere was increased from $45.8\%\;to\;53.9\%$. The electrical conductivity of the anode support was $900 S/cm\;at\; 850^{\circ}C$ and its gas permeability was 6l/min at 1 atm in air atmosphere. The electrolyte layer and cathode layer were fabricated by slurry dip coating method and then had examined the thickness of $10{\mu}m$ and the gas permeability of 2.5 ml/min at 3 atm in air atmosphere. As preliminary experiment, cathode multi-layered structure consists of LSM-YSZ/LSM/LSCF. At single cell test using the electrolyte layer with thickness of 20 to $30{\mu}m$, we achieved $300\;mA/cm^2$ and 0.6V at $750^{\circ}C$

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2006 (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2006년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Shin, Dong-Sin;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.427-446
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    • 2008
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2006 has been accomplished. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environments. The conclusions are as follows. (1) The research trends of fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, etc. New research topics include micro heat exchanger and siphon cooling device using nano-fluid. Traditional CFD and flow visualization methods were still popular and widely used in research and development. Studies about diffusers and compressors were performed in fluid machinery. Characteristics of flow and heat transfer and piping optimization were studied in piping systems. (2) The papers on heat transfer have been categorized into heat transfer characteristics, heat exchangers, heat pipes, and two-phase heat transfer. The topics on heat transfer characteristics in general include thermal transport in a cryo-chamber, a LCD panel, a dryer, and heat generating electronics. Heat exchangers investigated include pin-tube type, plate type, ventilation air-to-air type, and heat transfer enhancing tubes. The research on a reversible loop heat pipe, the influence of NCG charging mass on heat transport capacity, and the chilling start-up characteristics in a heat pipe were reported. In two-phase heat transfer area, the studies on frost growth, ice slurry formation and liquid spray cooling were presented. The studies on the boiling of R-290 and the application of carbon nanotubes to enhance boiling were noticeable in this research area. (3) Many studies on refrigeration and air conditioning systems were presented on the practical issues of the performance and reliability enhancement. The air conditioning system with multi indoor units caught attention in several research works. The issues on the refrigerant charge and the control algorithm were treated. The systems with alternative refrigerants were also studied. Carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and their mixtures were considered and the heat transfer correlations were proposed. (4) Due to high oil prices, energy consumption have been attentioned in mechanical building systems. Research works have been reviewed in this field by grouping into the research on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and cleaning research, ventilation and fire research including tunnel ventilation, and piping system research. The papers involve the promotion of efficient or effective use of energy, which helps to save energy and results in reduced environmental pollution and operating cost. (5) Studies on indoor air quality took a great portion in the field of building environments. Various other subjects such as indoor thermal comfort were also investigated through computer simulation, case study, and field experiment. Studies on energy include not only optimization study and economic analysis of building equipments but also usability of renewable energy in geothermal and solar systems.